Abstract

A new theoretical approach for random lasing of Nd3+doped powders is presented. The model’s singularity lies in the fact that it proposes a probability distribution of the stimulated photon paths lengths in the sample, as well as a population inversion shared by different photon paths. The model’s predictions satisfactorily compare with the results of laser threshold and absolute input/output energy slope of a real Random Laser. The main novel issue is that the best fit to the experimental results requires considering a high level of shared population inversion among different paths. The model simulation of local and spatially integrated Random Laser emissions, as well as their time evolution, is in accordance with the experimental behavior. These results also provide a new method of measuring the stimulated emission cross-section in this kind of random laser materials.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  28. Unpublished results of the authors.
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sobczyk and D. Szymanski, “Luminescence properties of Nd3+-doped Y2Te4O11 microcrystalline powder,” J. Lumin. 183, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, “Experimental study of instability in a random laser with immobile scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043801 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Kéna-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. van Soest and A. Lagendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1522–1525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

Akkus, O.

Al-Saleh, M.

Andreasen, J.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Asatryan, A. A.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

Azkargorta, J.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and M. Barredo-Zurriarrain, “Random laser properties of Nd3+ crystal powders,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11787–11803 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahoura, M.

Balda, R.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and M. Barredo-Zurriarrain, “Random laser properties of Nd3+ crystal powders,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11787–11803 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barredo-Zuriarrain, M.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barredo-Zurriarrain, M.

Berger, G. A.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

Bian, H.

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

Botten, L. C.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. C.

S. Kéna-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Byrne, M. A.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carreño, S. J. M.

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caulfield, H. J.

Cavalieri, S.

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chlique, C.

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consoli, A.

de Araújo, C. B.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drachev, V.

Egarievwe, S. U.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fabris, Z. V.

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, J.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fernández, J.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and M. Barredo-Zurriarrain, “Random laser properties of Nd3+ crystal powders,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11787–11803 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fewo, S. I.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, I. N.

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaio, M.

García-Revilla, S.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and M. Barredo-Zurriarrain, “Random laser properties of Nd3+ crystal powders,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11787–11803 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, L.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
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H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Genack, A. Z.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gomes, A. S. L.

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gouedard, C.

Grigsby, D.

Gu, L.

G. Zhu, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, “Experimental study of instability in a random laser with immobile scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043801 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hakmeh, N.

Hou, C.

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Husson, D.

Iparraguirre, I.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and M. Barredo-Zurriarrain, “Random laser properties of Nd3+ crystal powders,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11787–11803 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jerez, V.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
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Kamada, K.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kempe, M.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kéna-Cohen, S.

S. Kéna-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. L.

Labonté, L.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
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Lagendijk, A.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
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G. van Soest and A. Lagendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
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G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1522–1525 (2001).
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D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
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Lavín, V.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lepri, S.

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

López, C.

Mahdi, M.

Maia, L. J. Q.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

S. Kéna-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marciniak, L.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mariano da Silva, D.

Merdrignac-Conanec, O.

Migus, A.

Mosk, A. P.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moura, A. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M.

Noginov, M. A.

G. Zhu, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, “Experimental study of instability in a random laser with immobile scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043801 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
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M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, “Short pulsed stimulated emission in the powders of NdAl3(BO3)4, NdSc3(BO3)4, and Nd:Sr5(PO4)3F laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(9), 2024–2033 (1996).
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Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Noginova, N. E.

Novak, J.

M. Noginov, J. Novak, D. Grigsby, G. Zhu, and M. Bahoura, “Optimization of the transport mean free path and the absorption length in random lasers with non-resonant feedback,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8829–8836 (2005).
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M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
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M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oppo, G. L.

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ostroumov, V.

Pei, Y.

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peruzzo, M.

Pincheira, P. I. R.

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poelwijk, F. J.

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1522–1525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
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Raposo, E. P.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sapienza, R.

Sauteret, C.

Sebbah, P.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

Sobczyk, M.

M. Sobczyk and D. Szymanski, “Luminescence properties of Nd3+-doped Y2Te4O11 microcrystalline powder,” J. Lumin. 183, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

Soukoulis, C. M.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sprik, R.

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1522–1525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stavrinou, P. N.

S. Kéna-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stone, A. D.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strek, W.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szymanski, D.

M. Sobczyk and D. Szymanski, “Luminescence properties of Nd3+-doped Y2Te4O11 microcrystalline powder,” J. Lumin. 183, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thompson, T.

Türeci, H. E.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest and A. Lagendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1522–1525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanneste, C.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Venkateswarlu, P.

Wang, C.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. C.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wetter, N. U.

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yao, F.

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yi, T.

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, A.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, “Experimental study of instability in a random laser with immobile scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043801 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Noginov, J. Novak, D. Grigsby, G. Zhu, and M. Bahoura, “Optimization of the transport mean free path and the absorption length in random lasers with non-resonant feedback,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8829–8836 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zi, J.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. in Opt. and Phot. (1)

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. in Opt. and Phot. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Kéna-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

M. Sobczyk and D. Szymanski, “Luminescence properties of Nd3+-doped Y2Te4O11 microcrystalline powder,” J. Lumin. 183, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Xiao, T. Li, D. Huang, M. Xu, H. Hu, S. Liu, C. Wang, and T. Yi, “Random laser action from ceramic-doped polymer films,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1289–1297 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Speckle-free near-infrared imaging using a Nd3+ random laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 106201 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 garnet crystal powder,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Yao, H. Bian, Y. Pei, C. Hou, and X. Sun, “Behaviors of random laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 359, 15–19 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (3)

S. J. M. Carreño, A. L. Moura, P. I. R. Pincheira, Z. V. Fabris, L. J. Q. Maia, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Interplay between random laser performance and self-frequency conversions in Nd x Y 1.00−x Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 nanocrystals powders,” Opt. Mater. 54, 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernandez, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

G. Zhu, L. Gu, and M. A. Noginov, “Experimental study of instability in a random laser with immobile scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043801 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

G. van Soest and A. Lagendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (2)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Dynamics of a random laser above threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1522–1525 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, (Springer, 1996).

Unpublished results of the authors.

Unpublished results of the authors.

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random lasers, (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Output energy in photons per unit area as function of absorbed energy also in photons per unit area, for different values of p parameter and assuming x0 = labs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Output energy in photons per unit area for two different values of p parameter and three different inelastic lengths, assuming x0 = li.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output energy in photons per unit area as function of absorbed energy in photons per unit area for two different values of p parameter and two emission cross-sections, and assuming x0 = labs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between experimental (Nd3Ga5O12) and model of the output energy in photons per unit area as function of absorbed energy in photons per unit area, assuming x0 = labs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison between experimental (NdAl3(BO3)4) and model of output energy in photons per unit area as function of absorbed energy in photons per unit area, assuming x0=labs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output intensities in relative units as function of time. The absorbed pump is 7x1021 photons/m2. In all three Figs., black line shows the pump pulse time shape, and red lines as follows: a) Output from a below threshold path (x = 10 μm). b) from an above threshold path (x = 25 μm) c) from a far above threshold path (x = 120 μm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Output intensities in relative units as function of time. Black lines show the pump pulse time-shape, and red lines the output intensity. a) Output obtained from the model by simple addition of the intensities emitted from all paths. b) Experimental from a LiNdP4O12 crystal powder sample, where the emission has been collected from the entire emitting surface. c) Emission obtained from the model by summing all amplitudes but with a random phase and assuming a coherence-time of 5 ps and a broadening of 20 ps due to measure-system. d) Experimental from a NdAl3(BO3)4 crystal powder sample obtained projecting the image of the surface with a lens over a pin-hole, so the selected area was approximately a 10 micron diameter circle.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Stimulated emission cross-sections for 4F3/24I11/2 transition of Nd3+ ion in different materials obtained from (10).

Equations (10)

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dN( x,t ) dt =WANcσ[ pNϕ+ ( 1p ) S l abs 0 n( x' )V( x' )ϕNdx' ]
dϕ( x,t ) dt =βAN+cσNϕ c x ϕ
W( t )= P abs ( t ) h ν p S l abs = E abs h ν p S f( t ) l abs
E out = P out ( t )dt, with P out =h ν e 0 n( x ) V( x ) c x ϕ( x )dx
n= M x 0 exp( x/ x 0 )
0 n( x ) V( x )dx= V total =S l abs =Ms x 0
P out ( t ) h ν e S = c l abs x 0 2 0 exp( x x 0 ) ϕ( x,t )dx
dN( x,t ) dt =WANcσ[ pNϕ+ ( 1p ) x 0 2 0 x'exp( x'/ x 0 )ϕNdx' ]
η E th σ=constant
ησ E th /h ν p S0.2

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