Abstract

We proposed an ultrasensitive specific terahertz sensor consisting of two sets of graphene micro-ribbon with different widths. The interference between the plasmon resonances of the wide and narrow graphene micro-ribbons gives rise to the plasmon induced transparency (PIT) effect and enables ultrasensitive sensing in terahertz region. The performances of the PIT sensor have been analyzed in detail considering the thickness and refractive index sensing applications using full wave electromagnetic simulations. Taking advantage of the electrical tunability of graphene’s Fermi level, we demonstrated the specific sensing of benzoic acid with detection limit smaller than 6.35 µg/cm2. The combination of specific identification and enhanced sensitivity of the PIT sensor opens exciting prospects for bio/chemical molecules sensing in the terahertz region.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Z. Vafapour, Y. Hajati, M. Hajati, and H. Ghahraloud, “Graphene-based mid-infrared biosensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(12), 2586–2592 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧcı, “A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2105 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. G. L. Fu, X. Zhai, H. J. Li, S. X. Xia, and L. L. Wang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on bright-bright mode coupling between two parallel graphene nanostrips,” Plasmonics 11(6), 1597–1602 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. X. J. Shang, X. Zhai, X. F. Li, L. L. Wang, B. X. Wang, and G. D. Liu, “Realization of Graphene-Based Tunable Plasmon-Induced Transparency by the Dipole-Dipole Coupling,” Plasmonics 11(2), 419–423 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. Q. Mao, Q. Y. Wen, W. Tian, T. L. Wen, Z. Chen, Q. H. Yang, and H. W. Zhang, “High-speed and broadband terahertz wave modulators based on large-area graphene field-effect transistors,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5649–5652 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  40. L. Cong, N. Xu, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Polarization Control in Terahertz Metasurfaces with the Lowest Order Rotational Symmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1176–1183 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  41. L. Li, Y. Liang, M. Lu, and W. Peng, “Fano Resonances in Thin Metallic Grating for Refractive Index Sensing with High Figure of Merit,” Plasmonics 11(1), 139–149 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. Wang, C. Fan, J. He, P. Ding, E. Liang, and Q. Xue, “Double Fano resonances due to interplay of electric and magnetic plasmon modes in planar plasmonic structure with high sensing sensitivity,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2236–2244 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. R. Zafar and M. Salim, “Enhanced Figure of Merit in Fano Resonance-Based Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(11), 6313–6317 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  44. W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. J. Wei, Z. T. Jiang, R. Li, and J. Tan, “Preparation of Titania Monolith Column and Application in Determination of Benzoic Acid by HILIC,” Chromatographia 75(11-12), 563–569 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  46. M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

2017 (5)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Vafapour, Y. Hajati, M. Hajati, and H. Ghahraloud, “Graphene-based mid-infrared biosensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(12), 2586–2592 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Vafapour and H. Alaei, “Achieving a High Q-Factor and Tunable Slow-Light via Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (Cl-EIT) in Metamaterials,” Plasmonics 12(2), 479–488 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

G. L. Fu, X. Zhai, H. J. Li, S. X. Xia, and L. L. Wang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on bright-bright mode coupling between two parallel graphene nanostrips,” Plasmonics 11(6), 1597–1602 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Shang, X. Zhai, X. F. Li, L. L. Wang, B. X. Wang, and G. D. Liu, “Realization of Graphene-Based Tunable Plasmon-Induced Transparency by the Dipole-Dipole Coupling,” Plasmonics 11(2), 419–423 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Liang, M. Lu, and W. Peng, “Fano Resonances in Thin Metallic Grating for Refractive Index Sensing with High Figure of Merit,” Plasmonics 11(1), 139–149 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

Z. Vafapour and A. Zakery, “New Regime of Plasmonically Induced Transparency,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1809–1815 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, N. Xu, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Polarization Control in Terahertz Metasurfaces with the Lowest Order Rotational Symmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1176–1183 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. Chen, A. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Ding, and W. Lu, “Highly Sensitive and Wide-Band Tunable Terahertz Response of Plasma Waves Based on Graphene Field Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zafar and M. Salim, “Enhanced Figure of Merit in Fano Resonance-Based Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(11), 6313–6317 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Jiang, Q. Zhang, Q. Ma, S. Yan, F. Wu, and X. He, “Dynamically tunable electromagnetically induced reflection in terahertz complementary graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(9), 1962–1971 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Q. Mao, Q. Y. Wen, W. Tian, T. L. Wen, Z. Chen, Q. H. Yang, and H. W. Zhang, “High-speed and broadband terahertz wave modulators based on large-area graphene field-effect transistors,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5649–5652 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧcı, “A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Adato, A. Artar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Engineered Absorption Enhancement and Induced Transparency in Coupled Molecular and Plasmonic Resonator Systems,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2584–2591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Fan, J. He, P. Ding, E. Liang, and Q. Xue, “Double Fano resonances due to interplay of electric and magnetic plasmon modes in planar plasmonic structure with high sensing sensitivity,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2236–2244 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 483–485 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Faľko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wei, Z. T. Jiang, R. Li, and J. Tan, “Preparation of Titania Monolith Column and Application in Determination of Benzoic Acid by HILIC,” Chromatographia 75(11-12), 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: status and prospects,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adato, R.

R. Adato, A. Artar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Engineered Absorption Enhancement and Induced Transparency in Coupled Molecular and Plasmonic Resonator Systems,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2584–2591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

Aizin, G. R.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alaei, H.

Z. Vafapour and H. Alaei, “Achieving a High Q-Factor and Tunable Slow-Light via Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (Cl-EIT) in Metamaterials,” Plasmonics 12(2), 479–488 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allen, S. J.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alonso-González, P.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. Artar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Engineered Absorption Enhancement and Induced Transparency in Coupled Molecular and Plasmonic Resonator Systems,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2584–2591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, M.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧcı, “A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

R. Adato, A. Artar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Engineered Absorption Enhancement and Induced Transparency in Coupled Molecular and Plasmonic Resonator Systems,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2584–2591 (2013).
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Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Bagci, H.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧcı, “A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2105 (2013).
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Bethke, D.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
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Bettiol, A. A.

M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
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Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5753 (2014).
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Cao, W.

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
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Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carrega, M.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, S. H.

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, T.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
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Chen, X.

L. Wang, X. Chen, A. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Ding, and W. Lu, “Highly Sensitive and Wide-Band Tunable Terahertz Response of Plasma Waves Based on Graphene Field Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, H.

Chiam, S. Y.

M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Faľko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, L.

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, N. Xu, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Polarization Control in Terahertz Metasurfaces with the Lowest Order Rotational Symmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1176–1183 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Q.

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

L. Wang, X. Chen, A. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Ding, and W. Lu, “Highly Sensitive and Wide-Band Tunable Terahertz Response of Plasma Waves Based on Graphene Field Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, P.

Du, L.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

Dyer, G. C.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Erramilli, S.

R. Adato, A. Artar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Engineered Absorption Enhancement and Induced Transparency in Coupled Molecular and Plasmonic Resonator Systems,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2584–2591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Etezadi, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Faľko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, C.

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farhat, M.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧcı, “A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2105 (2013).
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Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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Feng, H.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, G. L.

G. L. Fu, X. Zhai, H. J. Li, S. X. Xia, and L. L. Wang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on bright-bright mode coupling between two parallel graphene nanostrips,” Plasmonics 11(6), 1597–1602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: status and prospects,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gellert, P. R.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Faľko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghahraloud, H.

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grine, A. D.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajati, M.

Hajati, Y.

Han, J.

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
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He, J.

He, X.

Helm, H.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, D.

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, W. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, H.

Janner, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, C.

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiang, R.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z. T.

J. Wei, Z. T. Jiang, R. Li, and J. Tan, “Preparation of Titania Monolith Column and Application in Determination of Benzoic Acid by HILIC,” Chromatographia 75(11-12), 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawase, K.

Kelly, M. M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Faľko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koppens, F. H.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravchenko, I. I.

Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H. J.

G. L. Fu, X. Zhai, H. J. Li, S. X. Xia, and L. L. Wang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on bright-bright mode coupling between two parallel graphene nanostrips,” Plasmonics 11(6), 1597–1602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Liang, M. Lu, and W. Peng, “Fano Resonances in Thin Metallic Grating for Refractive Index Sensing with High Figure of Merit,” Plasmonics 11(1), 139–149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

J. Wei, Z. T. Jiang, R. Li, and J. Tan, “Preparation of Titania Monolith Column and Application in Determination of Benzoic Acid by HILIC,” Chromatographia 75(11-12), 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

X. J. Shang, X. Zhai, X. F. Li, L. L. Wang, B. X. Wang, and G. D. Liu, “Realization of Graphene-Based Tunable Plasmon-Induced Transparency by the Dipole-Dipole Coupling,” Plasmonics 11(2), 419–423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liang, E.

Liang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Liang, M. Lu, and W. Peng, “Fano Resonances in Thin Metallic Grating for Refractive Index Sensing with High Figure of Merit,” Plasmonics 11(1), 139–149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Limaj, O.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

G.-D. Liu, X. Zhai, L.-L. Wang, Q. Lin, S.-X. Xia, X. Luo, and C.-J. Zhao, “A High-Performance Refractive Index Sensor Based on Fano Resonance in Si Split-Ring Metasurface,” Plasmonics 13(1), 15–19 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. D.

X. J. Shang, X. Zhai, X. F. Li, L. L. Wang, B. X. Wang, and G. D. Liu, “Realization of Graphene-Based Tunable Plasmon-Induced Transparency by the Dipole-Dipole Coupling,” Plasmonics 11(2), 419–423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.-D.

G.-D. Liu, X. Zhai, L.-L. Wang, Q. Lin, S.-X. Xia, X. Luo, and C.-J. Zhao, “A High-Performance Refractive Index Sensor Based on Fano Resonance in Si Split-Ring Metasurface,” Plasmonics 13(1), 15–19 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
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Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5753 (2014).
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R. Zafar and M. Salim, “Enhanced Figure of Merit in Fano Resonance-Based Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(11), 6313–6317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zakery, A.

Z. Vafapour and A. Zakery, “New Regime of Plasmonically Induced Transparency,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1809–1815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, B.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, F.

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, X.

G.-D. Liu, X. Zhai, L.-L. Wang, Q. Lin, S.-X. Xia, X. Luo, and C.-J. Zhao, “A High-Performance Refractive Index Sensor Based on Fano Resonance in Si Split-Ring Metasurface,” Plasmonics 13(1), 15–19 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-X. Xia, X. Zhai, L.-L. Wang, and S.-C. Wen, “Plasmonically induced transparency in double-layered graphene nanoribbons,” Photon. Res. 6(7), 692–702 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. L. Fu, X. Zhai, H. J. Li, S. X. Xia, and L. L. Wang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on bright-bright mode coupling between two parallel graphene nanostrips,” Plasmonics 11(6), 1597–1602 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Shang, X. Zhai, X. F. Li, L. L. Wang, B. X. Wang, and G. D. Liu, “Realization of Graphene-Based Tunable Plasmon-Induced Transparency by the Dipole-Dipole Coupling,” Plasmonics 11(2), 419–423 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. W.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, N. Xu, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Polarization Control in Terahertz Metasurfaces with the Lowest Order Rotational Symmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1176–1183 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Wang, X. Chen, A. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Ding, and W. Lu, “Highly Sensitive and Wide-Band Tunable Terahertz Response of Plasma Waves Based on Graphene Field Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.-J.

G.-D. Liu, X. Zhai, L.-L. Wang, Q. Lin, S.-X. Xia, X. Luo, and C.-J. Zhao, “A High-Performance Refractive Index Sensor Based on Fano Resonance in Si Split-Ring Metasurface,” Plasmonics 13(1), 15–19 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.-K.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L. G.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Ultrahigh-Q Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metasurfaces: Strong Influence of Metallic Conductivity at Extremely Low Asymmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 457–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, N. Xu, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Polarization Control in Terahertz Metasurfaces with the Lowest Order Rotational Symmetry,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1176–1183 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Manjappa, S. Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biopolymers (1)

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4-5), 310–313 (2002).
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J. Wei, Z. T. Jiang, R. Li, and J. Tan, “Preparation of Titania Monolith Column and Application in Determination of Benzoic Acid by HILIC,” Chromatographia 75(11-12), 563–569 (2012).
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IEEE Sens. J. (1)

R. Zafar and M. Salim, “Enhanced Figure of Merit in Fano Resonance-Based Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(11), 6313–6317 (2015).
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G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nano Lett. (1)

R. Adato, A. Artar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Engineered Absorption Enhancement and Induced Transparency in Coupled Molecular and Plasmonic Resonator Systems,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2584–2591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (3)

Q. Li, L. Cong, R. Singh, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, L. Du, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Monolayer graphene sensing enabled by the strong Fano-resonant metasurface,” Nanoscale 8(39), 17278–17284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
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W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (5)

Y. Yang, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, X. Yang, F. Zhai, D. Hu, R. Liu, K. Liu, Z. Sun, and Q. Dai, “Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12334 (2016).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z.-K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 925–930 (2013).
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M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2017).
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Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (6)

Z. Vafapour and A. Zakery, “New Regime of Plasmonically Induced Transparency,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1809–1815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Vafapour and H. Alaei, “Achieving a High Q-Factor and Tunable Slow-Light via Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (Cl-EIT) in Metamaterials,” Plasmonics 12(2), 479–488 (2017).
[Crossref]

G.-D. Liu, X. Zhai, L.-L. Wang, Q. Lin, S.-X. Xia, X. Luo, and C.-J. Zhao, “A High-Performance Refractive Index Sensor Based on Fano Resonance in Si Split-Ring Metasurface,” Plasmonics 13(1), 15–19 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. L. Fu, X. Zhai, H. J. Li, S. X. Xia, and L. L. Wang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on bright-bright mode coupling between two parallel graphene nanostrips,” Plasmonics 11(6), 1597–1602 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Shang, X. Zhai, X. F. Li, L. L. Wang, B. X. Wang, and G. D. Liu, “Realization of Graphene-Based Tunable Plasmon-Induced Transparency by the Dipole-Dipole Coupling,” Plasmonics 11(2), 419–423 (2016).
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L. Wang, X. Chen, A. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Ding, and W. Lu, “Highly Sensitive and Wide-Band Tunable Terahertz Response of Plasma Waves Based on Graphene Field Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Myelin Deficit Brain in Mice and Rhesus Monkey with Chemometric Techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176–5184 (2017).
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N. Alexander, B. Alderman, A. Fernando, P. Frijlink, R. Gonzalo, and M. Hagelen, “TeraSCREEN: multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz screening for border checks,” Proc. SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 9078(2), 907802–907803 (2017).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Conceptual view of the PIT-sensor based on graphene micro-ribbon (GMR). The electromagnetic field is mainly concentrated at the edges of GMR, when excited by a THz wave, leading to the enhanced interaction between THz wave and the analyte. The tunability of the PIT sensor is achieved by changing the bias voltages (V1 and V2) applied on the two sets of GMR arrays.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) THz transmission spectra of graphene array for the wide ribbon array only (blue circles), the narrow graphene ribbon array only (red diamonds) and both the wide and narrow graphene ribbon arrays (black triangles) along with the analytic fitting (solid lines). The Fermi levels of the wide and narrow graphene ribbon array are fixed at 1.96 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. (b) (c) Electric field distributions for graphene plasmon resonance dips with only the wide (W1 = 6 µm) and only the narrow (W2 = 2 µm) graphene ribbon array. Electric field distributions simulated at frequency points i, ii, and iii, corresponding to the frequencies, (d) 3.84 THz, (e) 4.04 THz, and (f) 4.21 THz, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Percentage of space-integrated near-field intensity confined within a volume extending a distance d from the surface of graphene. Inset shows a zoom-in for d between 0 and 1.5 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated amplitude transmission spectra with different thicknesses of analyte. (b) Frequency shift versus the thicknesses of the analyte located on the surface of device for a fixed refractive index of 1.6. (c) Simulated amplitude transmission spectra with different refractive index. (d) Frequency shift versus the refractive index of the analyte located on the surface of device for thickness changed from 0.1 µm to 1.3 µm. (e) Sensitivity of frequency versus the thickness of the analyte.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Graphene SPP resonance frequency versus different Fermi energy (EF) for the NGMR and WGMR. (b) Simulated amplitude transmission spectra of the structure with same parameters as used in Fig. 2 with Fermi level of the wider graphene array changes from 0.24 eV to 2.53 eV.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Real part (red dash line) and imaginary part (blue solid line) of benzoic acid refractive. (b) Simulated amplitude transmission spectra of the structure with (red dash dot line), without (blue solid line) benzoic acid applied on it, and with the PIT peak at the frequency of absorption peak I for the absorption is taken into consideration (orange solid line) and not (black dash line), here the thickness of analyte is 0.7 µm. (c) Extinction spectra of benzoic acid film with different thicknesses.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The amplitude of transmission and (b) the percentage of space-integrated near-field intensity confined within a volume extending a distance d from the surface of graphene with different µ for Fermi level at 0.8 eV.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated 90% field confinement distance, and Q-factor values for the simulated transmission curves shown in Fig. 2(a).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of refractive index sensitivity reported in various PIT/EIT sensor.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ ( ω ) = i e 2 E F π ( ω + i Γ )
χ = K A 2 B ( A ( B + 1 ) Ω 2 + A 2 ( ω 2 ω d 2 ) + B ( ω 2 ω b 2 ) Ω 4 ( ω 2 ω b 2 + i ω γ b ) ( ω 2 ω d 2 + i ω γ d ) + i ω A 2 γ d + B γ b Ω 4 ( ω 2 ω b 2 + i ω γ b ) ( ω 2 ω d 2 + i ω γ d ) )

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