Abstract

Integrated optical computing attracts increasing interest recently as Moore’s law approaches the physical limitation. Among all the approaches of integrated optical computing, directed logic that takes the full advantage of integrated photonics and electronics has received lots of investigation since its first introduction in 2007. Meanwhile, as integrated photonics matures, it has become critical to develop automated methods for synthesizing optical devices for large-scale optical designs. In this paper, we propose a general electro-optic (EO) logic in a higher level to explore its potential in integrated computing. Compared to the directed logic, the EO logic leads to a briefer design with shorter optical paths and fewer components. Then a comprehensive gate library based on EO logic is summarized. At last, an And-Inverter Graphs (AIGs) based automated logic synthesis algorithm is described as an example to implement the EO logic, which offers an instruction for the design automation of high-speed integrated optical computing circuits.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

D. Gostimirovic and W. N. Ye, “Ultracompact CMOS-compatible optical logic using carrier depletion in microdisk resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2013 (2)

M. Xiong, L. Lei, Y. Ding, B. Huang, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, and X. Zhang, “All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25772–25779 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, and L. Yang, “XOR/XNOR directed logic circuit based on coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 109–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, R. Ji, L. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Lu, Z. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

1990 (1)

R. Duncan, “A survey of parallel computer architectures,” Computer 23(2), 5–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, P.

Chen, R. T.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, and R. T. Chen, “Recent advances in silicon-based passive and active optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2487–2510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

Chung, C.-J.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Densmore, A.

Dhar, S.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

Ding, J.

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. Tian, R. Ji, L. Yang, H. Chen, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, W. Zhu, and R. Min, “Electro-optic directed logic circuit based on microring resonators for XOR/XNOR operations,” Opt. Express 20(11), 11605–11614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Duncan, R.

R. Duncan, “A survey of parallel computer architectures,” Computer 23(2), 5–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fang, Q.

Feng, C.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gostimirovic, D.

D. Gostimirovic and W. N. Ye, “Ultracompact CMOS-compatible optical logic using carrier depletion in microdisk resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardy, J.

Hendrickson, J.

Hosseini, A.

Huang, B.

Husko, C.

Janz, S.

Ji, R.

Jia, L.

Jiang, Z.

Keutzer, K.

K. Keutzer, “DAGON: technology binding and local optimization by DAG matching,” in 24th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (1987), pp. 341–347.
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

Lei, L.

Li, F.

Liu, G.

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Ma, R.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Min, R.

Mital, R.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

Ou, H.

Pan, D. Z.

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

Pelusi, M.

Peucheret, C.

Qiu, C.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shamir, J.

Soref, R.

Soref, R. A.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Vo, T. D.

Wang, Z.

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

Xiao, H.

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, M.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, Q.

Xu, X.

Yang, J.

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Ye, W. N.

D. Gostimirovic and W. N. Ye, “Ultracompact CMOS-compatible optical logic using carrier depletion in microdisk resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, X.

Ying, Z.

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

Yu, M.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, G.

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ying, Z. Wang, Z. Zhao, S. Dhar, D. Z. Pan, R. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon microdisk-based full adders for optical computing,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 983–986 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

Zhou, P.

Zhu, W.

Computer (1)

R. Duncan, “A survey of parallel computer architectures,” Computer 23(2), 5–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Ying, S. Dhar, Z. Zhao, C. Feng, R. Mital, C.-J. Chung, D. Z. Pan, R. A. Soref, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic ripple-carry adder in integrated silicon photonics for optical computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, and L. Yang, “XOR/XNOR directed logic circuit based on coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 109–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Gostimirovic and W. N. Ye, “Ultracompact CMOS-compatible optical logic using carrier depletion in microdisk resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, Z. Liu, H. Xiao, G. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

A. Mishchenko, S. Chatterjee, and R. Brayton, “DAG-aware AIG rewriting: a fresh look at combinational logic synthesis,” in 2006 43rd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (2006), pp. 532–535.

A. Mishchenko, “ABC: a system for sequential synthesis and cerification,” https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~alanmi/abc/abc.htm .

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Logic synthesis for energy-efficient photonic integrated circuits,” in 2018 23rd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC) (2018), pp. 355–360.

K. Keutzer, “DAGON: technology binding and local optimization by DAG matching,” in 24th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (1987), pp. 341–347.
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Ying, S. Dhar, R. T. Chen, and D. Z. Pan, “Optical computing on silicon-on-insulator-based photonic Integrated circuits,” in IEEE International Conference on ASIC (ASICON) (2017), pp. 472–475.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Architecture of (a) a SIMD parallel computer and (b) proposed integrated EO computing system. OLU: optical logic unit.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The input and output interfaces of an OLU.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The schematics of (a) AND gates, (b) OR gates, (c) active OR gates, and (d) XOR gates.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A two-operand modulator (a) and the output functions at three different wavelengths (b). (c)A generalized case for multi-operand modulators.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A two-operand library of EO logic components.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) AIG and mapping of a random function. (b) Optical implementation based on EO logic. (c) An example of different mappings.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) AIG and mapping of a carry path for a four-bit full adder. (b) Optical implementation based on EO logic.

Tables (2)

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Table 2 AIG-based synthesis algorithm

Equations (2)

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[ S 1 S 2 S n ]= [ T ] n×m [ I 1 I 2 I m ],
Y=P+λa=P a ¯ +λa,

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