Abstract

Significant improvements have been made in the fabrication of diffraction-limited X-ray optics used to pursue an aberration-free wavefront. Alignment of these optics plays a crucial role in the resultant beam quality. Here, we present a simple and fast alignment method based on imaging X-ray near-field speckle patterns, with experimental demonstration using a pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The proposed technique has the potential to be an alternative to conventional methods. It loosens the stringent demand for high-resolution scanning stages compared to conventional knife-edge scan and, hence, can be applied to nano-focusing optics. The flexibility and straightforward implementation of the method allow it to be applied to a wide range of experiments at synchrotron facilities and laboratory-based sources.

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (2)

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Seaberg, D. Zhu, J. Krzywinski, F. Seiboth, C. Hardin, D. Cocco, A. Aquila, B. Nagler, H. J. Lee, S. Boutet, Y. Feng, Y. Ding, G. Marcus, and A. Sakdinawat, “High-accuracy wavefront sensing for x-ray free electron lasers,” Optica 5(8), 967–975 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

H. Wang, Y. Kashyap, D. Laundy, and K. Sawhney, “Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(4), 925–929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, J. Sutter, and K. Sawhney, “Advanced in situ metrology for x-ray beam shaping with super precision,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1605–1614 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2012 (2)

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (7)

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23420–23427 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sutter, M. Amboage, S. Hayama, and S. Díaz-Moreno, “Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1-3), 627–636 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. N. Mahajan, “Orthonormal aberration polynomials for anamorphic optical imaging systems with rectangular pupils,” Appl. Opt. 49(36), 6924–6929 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

Alcock, S.

Alianelli, L.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amboage, M.

J. P. Sutter, M. Amboage, S. Hayama, and S. Díaz-Moreno, “Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1-3), 627–636 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

Assoufid, L.

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23420–23427 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asundi, A.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baez, A. V.

Batson, P.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baumbach, T.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Benson, C.

Berujon, S.

Bérujon, S.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouet, N.

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

Boutet, S.

Bucourt, S.

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

Burvall, A.

Cai, Z.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cauchon, G.

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cerbino, R.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerrina, F.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chinchio, E.

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chubar, O.

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

Chung, J.-S.

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cocco, D.

Conley, R.

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

Couvet, L.

Dai, F.-L.

B. Pan, H.-M. Xie, B.-Q. Xu, and F.-L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(6), 1615–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, G. M.

David, C.

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Denham, P.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Díaz-Moreno, S.

J. P. Sutter, M. Amboage, S. Hayama, and S. Díaz-Moreno, “Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1-3), 627–636 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Dolbnya, I. P.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Douillet, D.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dovillaire, G.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Escolano, L.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fabrizio, E. D.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Fienup, J. R.

Fohtung, E.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Freund, A. K.

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gao, B.

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

Garrett, R.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gasilov, S.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gentili, M.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gentle, I.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gluskin, E.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, K. A.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Handa, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hardin, C.

Hayama, S.

J. P. Sutter, M. Amboage, S. Hayama, and S. Díaz-Moreno, “Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1-3), 627–636 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H. M.

Hignette, O.

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

Ice, G. E.

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Idir, M.

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Karpov, D.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Kashyap, D. Laundy, and K. Sawhney, “Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(4), 925–929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

Khounsary, A.

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

Khounsary, A. M.

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Krasnoperova, A. A.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krzywinski, J.

Kunka, D.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lai, B.

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Laundy, D.

H. Wang, Y. Kashyap, D. Laundy, and K. Sawhney, “Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(4), 925–929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

Legnini, D.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Levecq, X.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lunt, A.

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A.

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

Macrander, A. T.

Mahajan, V. N.

Marcus, G.

Maser, J.

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mercere, P.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mercère, P.

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mimura, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Modi, M. H.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moreno, T.

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morgan, K. S.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagler, B.

Naulleau, P. P.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nishino, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nöhammer, B.

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paganin, D. M.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, B.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Pan, H.-M. Xie, B.-Q. Xu, and F.-L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(6), 1615–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, U. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peverini, L.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plech, A.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Preece, G. M.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qian, J.

Qian, K.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rakitin, M.

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

Reich, S.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rekawa, S.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rolo, T. D.

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

Romell, J.

Rutishauser, S.

Sakdinawat, A.

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sauvageot, P.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sawhney, K.

Sawhney, K. J. S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scott, S. M.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seaberg, M.

Seiboth, F.

Shi, B.

Siu, K. K. W.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sutter, J.

Sutter, J. P.

J. P. Sutter, M. Amboage, S. Hayama, and S. Díaz-Moreno, “Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1-3), 627–636 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takacs, P. Z.

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tischler, J. Z.

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, M. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tonnessen, T. W.

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

Underwood, J.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

Vladimirsky, Y.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Walton, R. D.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Weitkamp, T.

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wilkins, S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wojcik, M.

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

Xie, H.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.-M.

B. Pan, H.-M. Xie, B.-Q. Xu, and F.-L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(6), 1615–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.-Q.

B. Pan, H.-M. Xie, B.-Q. Xu, and F.-L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(6), 1615–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yun, W.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zanette, I.

Zdora, M. C.

Zeitoun, P.

P. Mercère, M. Idir, T. Moreno, G. Cauchon, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, L. Couvet, S. Bucourt, and P. Zeitoun, “Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 199–201 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.

Zhu, D.

Ziegler, E.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (2)

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X ray Wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

T. D. Rolo, S. Reich, D. Karpov, S. Gasilov, D. Kunka, E. Fohtung, T. Baumbach, and A. Plech, “A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays,” Appl. Sci. 8(5), 737 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Kashyap, D. Laundy, and K. Sawhney, “Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(4), 925–929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

B. Pan, H.-M. Xie, B.-Q. Xu, and F.-L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(6), 1615–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sutter, M. Amboage, S. Hayama, and S. Díaz-Moreno, “Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1-3), 627–636 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, “An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick–Baez optics,” Opt. Commun. 212(4-6), 225–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (5)

A. Macrander, M. Wojcik, J. Maser, N. Bouet, R. Conley, and B. Lai, “Focus of a multilayer Laue lens with an aperture of 102 microns determined by ptychography at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Proc. SPIE 10389, 1038909 (2017).

P. Mercere, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “Hartmann wavefront sensor and adaptive X-ray optics developments for synchrotron applications,” Proc. SPIE 7803, 780302 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, M. Rakitin, B. Gao, J. Xue, L. Huang, and O. Chubar, “Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW,” Proc. SPIE 10388, 103880Z (2017).

O. Hignette, A. K. Freund, E. Chinchio, P. Z. Takacs, and T. W. Tonnessen, “Incoherent x-ray mirror surface metrology,” Proc. SPIE 3152, 188–199 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

G. E. Ice, J.-S. Chung, J. Z. Tischler, A. Lunt, and L. Assoufid, “Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2635–2639 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, F. Cerrina, E. D. Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, “Nanometer focusing of hard x rays by phase zone plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(5), 2238–2241 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, G. E. Ice, J. Z. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, and A. T. Macrander, “Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(11), 113701 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. Schäfers, “The BESSY Raytrace Program RAY,” in Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics, A. Erko, M. Idir, T. Krist, and A. G. Michette, eds. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008), p. 24.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, Basic Wavefront Aberration Theory for Optical Metrology (Academic Press, Inc., 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of the speckle-based technique for mirror metrology: (a) illustration of the experimental alignment with inset showing the geometrical design of an elliptical mirror; (b) example of two speckle patterns taken from two different rows, from which displacement can be clearly observed.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated Ri at different tilt angles along the detector. (b) The 1st order polynomial coefficient P1 varies linearly with tilt angle and is equal to 0 when incident angle is correctly aligned.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimentally determined 1st-polynomial coefficient P1 and R ¯ as a function of pitch angle for the KB mirror pair.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimentally determined ΔR in 2D at (a) θv = 2.85 mrad and (b) θv = 3 mrad. (c) Zernike polynomial coefficients of the first 7 terms for which the classical names and the images of the polynomials are listed on the righthand side.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured beam size determined by wire scanning for the VFM and HFM at the initial alignment angle θv/h,1 and at a second test angle θv/h,2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Linear fit of measurements at 6 diffuser positions according to Eq. (9). Inset: Retrieved speckle shift ξi from 1D speckle scan with i-j = 2 for the 6 diffuser positions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental results of linear fitting according to Eqs. (7) and (8) and comparison with simulated values.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated R ¯ for two different pitch angles derived from speckle-based methods.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k= sinθ( p+q ) 2pq θ 2q
Δθ/ θ 0 Δq/ q 0
Δq(x) Δθ 2k(x) =Δθ 1 2ab ( a 2 a 2 b 2 a 2 x 2 ) 3 2
R i R i L = d(ij) s i
δ t 2 = δ a 2 + δ m 2 + δ u 2 .
R i = P 0 + P 1 i++ P n i n .
P 1 (θ)= α 1 Δθ= α 1 θ+ α 0
R ¯ (θ)= R 0 + β 1 Δθ= β 1 θ+ β 0
L m = R ¯ [ 1 s ¯ d(ij) ]e.

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