Abstract

We present the design and characterization of a cladding-pumped amplifier with erbium doping located in an annular region near the core. This erbium-doped fiber is proposed to reduce gain saturation, leading to smaller gain compression when compared to uniform core doping. Through numerical simulations, we first compare the performance of three fibers with different erbium doping profiles in the core or the cladding. When the doped fibers are operated at the optimum length, results show that the smaller overlap of the signal mode field with the annular erbium doping region leads to higher gain and lower saturation of the amplifier. A single-core erbium-doped fiber with an annular doping and a D-shaped cladding was fabricated. Measurements demonstrate less than 4 dB of gain compression over the C-band for input power ranging from −40 dBm to 3 dBm. Small gain compression EDFAs are of interest for applications that require input channel reconfiguration. Higher gain and saturation output power are also key issues in cladding-pumped multi-core amplifiers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

2017 (3)

T. Mizuno and Y. Miyamoto, “High-capacity dense space division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 108–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. S. Abedin, M. F. Yan, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “State-of-the-art multicore fiber amplifiers for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 64–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Tailored modal gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on engineered ring doping profiles,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150A (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

1998 (1)

1991 (2)

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. J. Ainslie, “A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 220–227 (1991).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A), A954–A957 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abedin, K. S.

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, “A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 220–227 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Aozasa, S.

Bai, G.

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Banzal, L.

Baskiotis, C.

Bayart, D.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Beppu, S.

Bjarklev, A.

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bohn, M.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bousselet, P.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Calabrò, S.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Castro, C.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dybdal, K.

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.-J.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Fontaine, N.

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

Fontaine, N. K.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

Foschini, G. J.

Fukutoku, M.

Gasca, L.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Goebel, B.

Grégoire, N.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

Hayashi, T.

Hayes, J.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Huang, B.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ichii, K.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

Igarashi, K.

Imamura, K.

Jain, S.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Jasapara, J. C.

Jin, C.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Annular-cladding erbium doped multicore fiber for SDM amplification,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29647–29659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Tailored modal gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on engineered ring doping profiles,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150A (2013).
[Crossref]

John Richardson, D.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jung, F. P. Y.

Jung, Y.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Kang, Q.

Kataoka, T.

Kawai, T.

Kramer, G.

Lambelet, P.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

LaRochelle, S.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Annular-cladding erbium doped multicore fiber for SDM amplification,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29647–29659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Tailored modal gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on engineered ring doping profiles,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150A (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

Larsen, C. C.

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

Leplingard, F.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Li, G.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lim, E. L.

Lim, E.-L.

Maeda, K.

Man, E. D.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Masuda, H.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

Matsuo, S.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

Matte-Breton, C.

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A), A954–A957 (1964).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, Y.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Annular-cladding erbium doped multicore fiber for SDM amplification,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29647–29659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Tailored modal gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on engineered ring doping profiles,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150A (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

Minelly, J. D.

Miyamoto, Y.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Mizuno and Y. Miyamoto, “High-capacity dense space division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 108–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mizuno, T.

T. Mizuno and Y. Miyamoto, “High-capacity dense space division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 108–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Monberg, E. M.

Moreau, C.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Morency, S.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mori, T.

Morioka, T.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morita, I.

Nagashima, T.

Nakajima, K.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

Ono, H.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Paschotta, R.

Pedersen, B.

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

Petrovich, M.

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

Poletti, F.

Povlsen, J. H.

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

Provost, L.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Pulverer, K.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rejeaunier, X.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Richardson, D. J.

Rosenkranz, W.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

Sahu, J. K.

Saito, T.

Sakamaki, Y.

Sakamoto, T.

Sasa, T.

Sasaki, T.

Shang, K.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

Simonneau, C.

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

Soma, D.

Sugizaki, R.

Sumita, S.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Suzuki, K.

Suzuki, M.

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, T.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

Takenaga, K.

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

Takeshima, K.

Taunay, T. F.

K. S. Abedin, M. F. Yan, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “State-of-the-art multicore fiber amplifiers for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 64–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thierry, T. F.

Tkach, R. W.

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

Tsuchida, Y.

Tsuritani, T.

Ung, B.

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Annular-cladding erbium doped multicore fiber for SDM amplification,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29647–29659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Tailored modal gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on engineered ring doping profiles,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150A (2013).
[Crossref]

Várallyay, Z.

Wada, M.

Wakayama, Y.

Wang, L.

Watanabe, K.

Winzer, P. J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical networking technologies for next generation SDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th1F.4.

Yamada, M.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

Yamamoto, T.

Yan, M. F.

Zhu, B.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Castro, S. Jain, E. D. Man, Y. Jung, J. Hayes, S. Calabrò, K. Pulverer, M. Bohn, S. Alam, D. John Richardson, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and W. Rosenkranz, “100-Gb/s transmission over a 2520-km integrated MCF system using cladding-pumped amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1187–1190 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

B. J. Ainslie, “A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 220–227 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, J. H. Povlsen, K. Dybdal, and C. C. Larsen, “The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1105–1112 (1991).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Takeshima, T. Tsuritani, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, T. Sasa, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, K. Igarashi, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “51.1-Tbit/s MCF transmission over 2520 km using cladding-pumped seven-core EDFAs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 761–767 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, C. Jin, B. Huang, K. Shang, R.-J. Essiambre, L. Wang, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, T. Sasaki, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Demonstration of cladding-pumped six-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1654–1660 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wada, T. Sakamoto, S. Aozasa, T. Mori, T. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Two-LP-mode six-core cladding pumped EDFA with high pump power density,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 331–335 (2018).
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D. Soma, Y. Wakayama, S. Beppu, S. Sumita, T. Tsuritani, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, H. Takahashi, K. Igarashi, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “10.16-Peta-bit/s dense SDM/WDM transmission over 6-mode 19-core fiber across the C+L Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1362–1368 (2018).
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K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, V. R. Supradeepa, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, L. Banzal, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Multicore erbium doped fiber amplifiers for space division multiplexing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2800–2808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. Chen, C. Jin, B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. Shang, N. Grégoire, S. Morency, R.-J. Essiambre, G. Li, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division multiplexed communications,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 529–533 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, F. P. Y. Jung, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Minimizing differential modal gain in cladding-pumped EDFAs supporting four and six mode groups,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21499–21507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Annular-cladding erbium doped multicore fiber for SDM amplification,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29647–29659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Várallyay and J. C. Jasapara, “Comparison of amplification in large area fibers using cladding-pump and fundamental-mode core-pump schemes,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17242–17252 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sakamaki, T. Kawai, M. Fukutoku, T. Kataoka, and K. Suzuki, “Experimental demonstration of arrayed optical amplifiers with a shared pump laser for realizing colorless, directionless, contentionless ROADM,” Opt. Express 20(26), B131–B140 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

T. Mizuno and Y. Miyamoto, “High-capacity dense space division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 108–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. S. Abedin, M. F. Yan, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “State-of-the-art multicore fiber amplifiers for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 64–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A), A954–A957 (1964).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Jin, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Tailored modal gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on engineered ring doping profiles,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150A (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, C. Moreau, L. Provost, P. Lambelet, X. Rejeaunier, F. Leplingard, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, “+33dBm output power from a full C-band cladding diode-pumped EDFA,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), paper PD1.7.

C. Matte-Breton, H. Chen, N. Fontaine, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Cladding pumped EDFAs with annular erbium doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2018), paper JTH2A.133.

L. Gagné-Godbout, Modélisation, fabrication et caractérisation d'un amplificateur à fibre optique à sept cœurs dopés à l'erbium (Université Laval, 2014), Chap. 4.

H. Ono, K. Takenaga, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Masuda, and M. Yamada, “12-core double-clad Er/Yb-doped fiber amplifier employing free-space coupling pump/signal combiner module,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2013), paper We.4.A.4.

S. Jain, T. Mizuno, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, G. Bai, and H. Ono, “32-core inline multicore fiber amplifier for dense space division multiplexed transmission system,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), paper Th.3.A.1.

P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical networking technologies for next generation SDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th1F.4.

H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and V. Reichel, “Double-clad fiber laser with 30 W output power,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper FAW18.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Normalized LP01 (orange) and LP11 (yellow) mode intensity profiles, and normalized pump intensity distribution (purple, dashed) of: a) a core-pumped single-mode fiber, b) a cladding-pumped multi-mode fiber with erbium doping in an annular region of the core, and c) a cladding-pumped single-mode fiber with erbium doping in the cladding close to the core. The blue lines indicate the refractive index profiles and the shaded green areas are the erbium-doped regions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Refractive index (blue line) and erbium concentration (green shaded area) profiles of fibers A, B and C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption (blue) and emission (orange) cross-sections used in simulations (from [25]).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Gain as a function of wavelength for total input power of −40 dBm (black) and 3 dBm (red) distributed over 31 channels at the optimum length for each fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 For the fabricated Fiber B: a) Designed (blue) and measured (orange) refractive index profile. b) Designed (blue), measured (orange), and fitted (black, dotted) erbium concentration profile.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Signal overlap of each ring in the designed (blue) and fabricated (orange) fiber.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Characterization setup used to do spectral measurement of the insertion loss when the light is injected in the cladding a) calibration path and b) measurement of the FUT.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectral measurement of insertion loss when the light is injected in the cladding of the fabricated Fiber B normalized to fiber length.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Characterization setup used to do spectral measurement of the insertion loss when the light is injected in the core a) calibration path and b) measurement of the FUT.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Absorption spectrum when light is injected in the core of the fabricated Fiber B.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Absorption (blue) and emission (orange) cross-sections as a function of wavelength when the signal is injected in the core of the fabricated Fiber B (solid) compared with the cross-sections used for the simulations of the designed fiber (dashed).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Setup used to measure the gain and noise figure of the EDF.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Gain (top) and NF (bottom), simulations (dashed) and measurements (solid), as a function of wavelength for different total input power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters used in initial simulations, common to all fibers.

Equations (5)

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{ d P p ( z ) dz = σ ap ( k=1 K n 1,k ( z )  Γ p,k ) P p ( z ) α p P p (z) d P s,λ ( z ) dz =( σ e,λ k=1 K n 2,k ( z )  Γ λ,k σ a,λ k=1 K n 1,k ( z )  Γ λ,k ) P s,λ ( z ) α s P s,λ (z) d P ± ASE,λ ( z ) dz =( σ e,λ k=1 K n 2,k ( z )  Γ λ,k σ a,λ k=1 K n 1,k ( z )  Γ λ,k ) P ± ASE,λ ( z ) + σ e,λ ( k=1 K n 2,k ( z )  Γ λ,k )2h ν λ Δ ν λ α s P ± ASE,λ (z)
{ n 1,k (z)= A k τ + W 3,k (z) W 1,k (z)+ W 2,k (z)+ W 3,k (z)+ A k τ ρ k (z) n 2,k (z)= W 1,k (z)+ W 2,k (z) W 1,k (z)+ W 2,k (z)+ W 3,k (z)+ A k τ ρ k (z) ρ k (z)= n 1,k (z)+ n 2,k (z)
{ W 1,k ( z ) = σ ap Γ p,k P p ( z ) h ν p   W 2,k ( z ) = λ,s σ a,λ Γ λ,k P s,λ ( z )  h ν λ + λ,ASE σ a,λ Γ λ,k P ASE,λ ( z )  h ν λ W 3,k ( z ) = λ,s σ e,λ Γ λ,k P s,λ ( z )  h ν λ + λ,ASE σ e,λ Γ λ,k P ASE,λ ( z )  h ν λ
σ a ( ν )[ m 2 ]= α[dB/m] (10 lo g 10 e) i ρ i [ions/ m 3 ] Γ i
σ e ( ν )= σ a ( ν ) e (εhν)/kT whereε= hc 1535 nm

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