Abstract

Few-cell point-defect photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities (such as LX and H1 type cavities), have several unique characteristics including an ultra-small mode volume (Vm), a small device footprint advantageous for dense integration, and a large mode spacing advantageous for high spontaneous-emission coupling coefficient (β), which are promising for energy-efficient densely-integratable on-chip laser light sources enhanced by the cavity QED effect. To achieve this goal, a high quality factor (Q) is essential, but conventional few-cell point-defect cavities do not have a sufficiently high Q. Here we adopt a series of modified designs of LX cavities with a buried heterostructure (BH) multi-quantum-well (MQW) active region that can achieve a high Q while maintaining their original advantages and fabricate current-injection laser devices. We have successfully observed continuous-wave (CW) lasing in InP-based L1, L2, L3 and L5 PhC nanocavities at 23°C with a DC current injection lower than 10 μA and a bias voltage lower than 0.9 V. The active volume is ultra-small while maintaining a sufficiently high confinement factor, which is as low as ~10−15 cm3 for a single-cell (L1) nanocavity. This is the first room-temperature current-injection CW lasing from any types of few-cell point-defect PhC nanocavities (LX or H1 types). Our report marks an important step towards realizing a nanolaser diode with a high cavity-QED effect, which is promising for use with on-chip densely integrated laser sources in photonic networks-on-chip combined with CMOS processors.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (4)

G. Crosnier, D. Sanchez, S. Bouchoule, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, and F. Raineri, “Hybrid indium phosphide-on-silicon nanolaser diode,” Nat. Photonics 11(5), 297–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Maeno, Y. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Analysis of high-Q photonic crystal L3 nanocavities designed by visualization of the leaky components,” Opt. Express 25(1), 367–376 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Asano, Y. Ochi, Y. Takahashi, K. Kishimoto, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q factor exceeding eleven million,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1769–1777 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Takiguchi, A. Yokoo, K. Nozaki, M. D. Birowosuto, K. Tateno, G. Zhang, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Continuous-wave operation and 10-Gb/s direct modulation of InAsP/InP sub-wavelength nanowire laser on silicon photonic crystal,” APL Photon. 2(4), 046106 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Kuruma, Y. Ota, M. Kakuda, D. Takamiya, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Position dependent optical coupling between single quantum dots and photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071110 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Takiguchi, H. Taniyama, H. Sumikura, M. D. Birowosuto, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, T. Sato, K. Takeda, S. Matsuo, and M. Notomi, “Systematic study of thresholdless oscillation in high-β buried multiple-quantum-well photonic crystal nanocavity lasers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3441–3450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, and S. Stobbe, “Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 347–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, H. Taniyama, K. Takeda, T. Sato, S. Matsuo, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow bias power all-optical photonic crystal memory realized with systematically tuned L3 nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Minkov and V. Savona, “Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5124 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

E. Kuramochi, E. Grossman, K. Nozaki, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Systematic hole-shifting of L-type nanocavity with an ultrahigh Q factor,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5780–5783 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, H. Abe, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Array integration of thousands of photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: Driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201012 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, K. Takeda, T. Sato, S. Matsuo, H. Taniyama, H. Sumikura, and M. Notomi, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 474–481 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Lai, S. Pirotta, G. Urbinati, D. Gerace, M. Minkov, V. Savona, A. Badolato, and M. Galli, “Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

K. Ding, M. T. Hill, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “Record performance of electrical injection sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor lasers at room temperature,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4728–4733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Yong, Y.-S. No, Y. Hwang, K. S. Kim, M.-Y. Seo, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven nanobeam laser,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2822 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Ni, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and D. H. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers with size reduction: Theory and experiment,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 19(5), 1701809 (2013).

Q. Gu, B. Slutsky, F. Vallini, J. S. Smalley, M. P. Nezhad, N. C. Frateschi, and Y. Fainman, “Purcell effect in sub-wavelength semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15603–15617 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

Y. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, Y. Sato, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Statistical studies of photonic heterostructure nanocavities with an average Q factor of three million,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11916–11921 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučkovič, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Photonic crystal nanocavity laser with a single quantum dot gain,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15975–15982 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. Reitzenstein, T. Heindel, C. Kistner, A. Rahimi-Iman, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Low threshold electrically pumped quantum dot-micropillar lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fujita, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Light emission from silicon in photonic crystal nanocavity,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14(4), 1090–1097 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Design of photonic crystal nanocavity with Q-factor of 109,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9–12), 1532–1539 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M.-K. Seo, K.-Y. Jeong, J.-K. Yang, Y.-H. Lee, H.-G. Park, and S.-B. Kim, “Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171122 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6308–6315 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. J. Glauber, “Nobel Lecture: One hundred years of light quanta,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1267–1278 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vucković, “General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5961–5975 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 193303 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and M. Qiu, “Small-volume waveguide-section high Q microcavities in 2D photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3988–3995 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

M. Sumetsky and B. Eggleton, “Modeling and optimization of complex photonic resonant cavity circuits,” Opt. Express 11(4), 381–391 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. V. d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Modal analysis and engineering on InP-based two-dimensional photonic-crystal microlasers on a Si wafer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 419–425 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

W. D. Zhou, J. Sabarinathan, P. Bhattacharya, B. Kochman, E. W. Berg, P.-C. Yu, and S. W. Pang, “Characteristics of a photonic bandgap single defect microcavity electroluminescent device,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1153–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

O. Painter, J. Vučkovič, and A. Scherer, “Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 275–285 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

C. L. Chua, R. L. Thornton, D. W. Treat, and R. M. Donaldson, “Independently addressable VCSEL arrays on 3-μm pitch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(7), 917–919 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. E. Bond, P. D. Dapkus, and J. D. O’Brien, “Aperture placement effects in oxide-defined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(10), 1362–1364 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. R. Rice and H. J. Carmichael, “Photon statistics of a cavity-QED laser: A comment on the laser-phase-transition analogy,” Phys. Rev. A 50(5), 4318–4329 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics in quantum well lasers,” Surf. Sci. 267(1–3), 605–611 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abe, H.

T. Watanabe, H. Abe, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Array integration of thousands of photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albert, J. P.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. V. d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Modal analysis and engineering on InP-based two-dimensional photonic-crystal microlasers on a Si wafer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 419–425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Asano, T.

Aspar, B.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. V. d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Modal analysis and engineering on InP-based two-dimensional photonic-crystal microlasers on a Si wafer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 419–425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

T. Watanabe, H. Abe, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Array integration of thousands of photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121108 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

Y. Lai, S. Pirotta, G. Urbinati, D. Gerace, M. Minkov, V. Savona, A. Badolato, and M. Galli, “Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J.-H.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

G. Crosnier, D. Sanchez, S. Bouchoule, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, and F. Raineri, “Hybrid indium phosphide-on-silicon nanolaser diode,” Nat. Photonics 11(5), 297–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berg, E. W.

W. D. Zhou, J. Sabarinathan, P. Bhattacharya, B. Kochman, E. W. Berg, P.-C. Yu, and S. W. Pang, “Characteristics of a photonic bandgap single defect microcavity electroluminescent device,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1153–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

W. D. Zhou, J. Sabarinathan, P. Bhattacharya, B. Kochman, E. W. Berg, P.-C. Yu, and S. W. Pang, “Characteristics of a photonic bandgap single defect microcavity electroluminescent device,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1153–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D. H.

C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Ni, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and D. H. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers with size reduction: Theory and experiment,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 19(5), 1701809 (2013).

Birowosuto, M. D.

M. Takiguchi, A. Yokoo, K. Nozaki, M. D. Birowosuto, K. Tateno, G. Zhang, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Continuous-wave operation and 10-Gb/s direct modulation of InAsP/InP sub-wavelength nanowire laser on silicon photonic crystal,” APL Photon. 2(4), 046106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Takiguchi, H. Taniyama, H. Sumikura, M. D. Birowosuto, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, T. Sato, K. Takeda, S. Matsuo, and M. Notomi, “Systematic study of thresholdless oscillation in high-β buried multiple-quantum-well photonic crystal nanocavity lasers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3441–3450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Björk, G.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics in quantum well lasers,” Surf. Sci. 267(1–3), 605–611 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bond, A. E.

A. E. Bond, P. D. Dapkus, and J. D. O’Brien, “Aperture placement effects in oxide-defined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(10), 1362–1364 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bouchoule, S.

G. Crosnier, D. Sanchez, S. Bouchoule, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, and F. Raineri, “Hybrid indium phosphide-on-silicon nanolaser diode,” Nat. Photonics 11(5), 297–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: Driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carmichael, H. J.

P. R. Rice and H. J. Carmichael, “Photon statistics of a cavity-QED laser: A comment on the laser-phase-transition analogy,” Phys. Rev. A 50(5), 4318–4329 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassagne, D.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. V. d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Modal analysis and engineering on InP-based two-dimensional photonic-crystal microlasers on a Si wafer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 419–425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christenson, C.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 193303 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chua, C. L.

C. L. Chua, R. L. Thornton, D. W. Treat, and R. M. Donaldson, “Independently addressable VCSEL arrays on 3-μm pitch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(7), 917–919 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Ni, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and D. H. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers with size reduction: Theory and experiment,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 19(5), 1701809 (2013).

Combrié, S.

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).

Crosnier, G.

G. Crosnier, D. Sanchez, S. Bouchoule, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, and F. Raineri, “Hybrid indium phosphide-on-silicon nanolaser diode,” Nat. Photonics 11(5), 297–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

d’Yerville, M. L. V.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. V. d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Modal analysis and engineering on InP-based two-dimensional photonic-crystal microlasers on a Si wafer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 419–425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Bond, P. D. Dapkus, and J. D. O’Brien, “Aperture placement effects in oxide-defined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(10), 1362–1364 (1998).
[Crossref]

De Rossi, A.

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).

Deppe, D. G.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 193303 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, K.

Donaldson, R. M.

C. L. Chua, R. L. Thornton, D. W. Treat, and R. M. Donaldson, “Independently addressable VCSEL arrays on 3-μm pitch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(7), 917–919 (1998).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B.

Ellis, B.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučkovič, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

Fainman, Y.

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

S. Reitzenstein, T. Heindel, C. Kistner, A. Rahimi-Iman, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Low threshold electrically pumped quantum dot-micropillar lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frateschi, N. C.

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Light emission from silicon in photonic crystal nanocavity,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14(4), 1090–1097 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fushman, I.

Galli, M.

Y. Lai, S. Pirotta, G. Urbinati, D. Gerace, M. Minkov, V. Savona, A. Badolato, and M. Galli, “Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gather, M. C.

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

Y. Lai, S. Pirotta, G. Urbinati, D. Gerace, M. Minkov, V. Savona, A. Badolato, and M. Galli, “Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 193303 (2005).
[Crossref]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, “Nobel Lecture: One hundred years of light quanta,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1267–1278 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grossman, E.

Gu, Q.

Haller, E. E.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučkovič, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, J.

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučkovič, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hasebe, K.

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE Select. Top. Quant. Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: Driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heindel, T.

S. Reitzenstein, T. Heindel, C. Kistner, A. Rahimi-Iman, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Low threshold electrically pumped quantum dot-micropillar lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, J.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 193303 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hennessy, K.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

Höfling, S.

S. Reitzenstein, T. Heindel, C. Kistner, A. Rahimi-Iman, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Low threshold electrically pumped quantum dot-micropillar lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 FDTD simulation results. (a) L-type nanocavities studied here. a. Multi-hole-tunings studied here. Annotated holes are shifted for tuning. 1-5 are axial holes and S, T, and U are side holes. Colored holes are shifted along the arrowheads and black holes are not shifted. (b) (Left panel) Ex mode profile of the 0th mode of multi-hole-tuned L0-L3 nanocavities obtained by FDTD simulation. PhC parameters are presented in (c). (Right panel) the color bar of the left panel and the relation between the color bar scale (arbitrary unit) and the |Ex|. (c) Table of the empirical multi-hole-tuning designs (L01-L3B) (L3B is according to Minkov and Savona.) Theoretical Q, λc, and V are those of the 0th mode. (d) Multi-hole-tuning results (left) and corresponding theoretical Q, of the 0th mode of L0-L3 nanocavities as a function of d at fixed PhC parameters (a = 370 nm, r = 0.25a). λc and V are shown in Fig. 5(b). s1-s5 were tuned to each d value as shown in Fig. 5(a). In side-hole-tuning, sx = ss in L0A and sX = sS = sT in L2 (A/B), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental results in Si L-type nanocavities. (a) Top view SEM images of L0-L3 nanocavities. (d, r = 200, 95 nm) The length of white arrow lines shows 1 μm. (b) Cavity mode spectra detected at the same time from an on-chip output waveguide (WG) and the top-side objective lens (top) in L0A, L1A, and L2B at d = 230 nm. (c) Dispersion of experimental Q among several nanocavity samples and evaluated from the light transmitted to an on-chip output waveguide (WG) and light dropped to the top-side objective lens (top). In L2B (sx = 2nm, top), two plots are missing due to the poor output power. (d) Highest Q obtained in the L-type nanocavities at different d values. (As for L3B we fabricated a very limited number of samples). Experimental total (loaded) Q factors reported here are evaluated from the cavity mode linewidth [44]. Detailed parameters of the nanocavities are given in Appendix 4.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental electrical CW lasing characteristics of BH-L1 and BH-L2 nanolaser diodes measured at 23°C. a-d: Schematics of nanocavity design and multi-hole-tuning (a), E field profiles of 0th and 1st cavity modes (b), laser microscope image (c) and (d) SEM images of 6QW L1 nanolaser diode (a = 445 nm, d = 250 nm, r = 97 nm.). e-g: nanocavity design (e), E field profiles of 0th and 1st cavity modes (f), and a SEM image (g) of a 6QW L2 nanolaser diode (a = 440 nm, d = 250 nm, r = 97 nm.). (h)-(i): I-L curves around the threshold of L1 (h) and L2 (i) nanolaser diodes with the application of a BPF. (j)-(m): Enlarged current dependent lasing mode spectra around the lasing threshold (j:L1, l:L2) and wide band spectrum above the threshold (k: L1, m: L2.) In the latter, the 0th, 1st, and 5th cavity modes are even modes and the 2nd-4th cavity modes are odd modes [52].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental electrical CW lasing characteristics of BH-L3 and BH-L5 nanolaser diodes measured at 23°C. (a). Schematics of BH nanocavities and multi-hole tunings. (b). I-L curves with BPF (left: L3, right: L5). (c). Enlarged cavity mode spectra around the threshold (left: L3, right: L5). d. Comparison of output power without (top) and with (bottom) a BPF. In the latter, the coupling efficiency η and insertion loss of the BPF (5 dB) were not corrected. (e) Relation between Γ and Vgain in various BH nanolaser diodes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Theoretical simulation results. (a). Hole shifting (s1-s4) of multi-hole-tuned L-type nanocavities (L0A-L3B) at a = 370 nm, r = 0.25a. s5 was 0 in L0A, L1A, L2A, and L3A. S5 was s1/2 in L2B and L3B. (b). λc and Vm at the settings in A as a function of d. (c). Change in Q caused by side hole shifting (sx = sS) in L0A (a = 375 nm, d = 300 nm, r = 0.25a, s1 = 0.390a, s2 = 0.351a, s3 = 0.312a, s4 = 0.230a). (d). Change in Q caused by deviation of s1-s4 and sx from the optimized value. Nanocavity is identical to that in c. (e). 2D mapping of Q by side-hole-shifting (sS and sT) in L2B (d = 300 nm in Fig. 1B). (f). FEM simulation results (COMSOL). The nanocavities were identical to B/C at L0A and D at L2B. a-e were obtained by FDTD simulations. Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Ex mode profiles of the 0th nanocavity mode of various nanocavities obtained by FDTD. (a)-(f) (left panel) schematic of the nanocavity and (right panel) its Ex profile. As regards the PhC parameters, a = 400 nm, d = 220 nm, r = 100 nm in (a) (L0), a = 408 nm, d = 210 nm, r = 100 nm in (b)-(e) (L1-L3), and a = 420 nm, d = 204 nm, and r = 108 nm in (f) (width modulated modegap nanocavity [5]). The color bar in the left panel is the same as that in Fig. 1(b).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Analyzed model and derivations of relations by coupled mode theory for evaluating coupling efficiency η.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measurement setups and samples. (a). Schematic of transmission measurement and drop measurement from the top side. The right image is from the NA = 0.40 objective lens actually used in the experiments. (b). Bird’s-eye views of the thick (d = 300 nm, d/a = 0.80) Si L0A nanocavity obtained by SEM. (c). Ultrahigh Q cavity mode spectra obtained at d = 200 nm (left: L0) and d = 300 nm (right: L2). (d). Coupling efficiency with NA = 0.4 objective lens evaluated by comparing the transmitted light and the dropped light. (See Appendix 3 for details.) *ηav was the average value. Data points where η was >0.4 were excluded. The abnormally high η was probably due to additional fabrication-related loss in the output waveguide. (e). Expanded far field patterns inside the light cone (white dashed circles) and the cone corresponding to an NA = 0.40 objective lens. Coupling efficiency η was obtained by integration over the two cones. All theoretical data were obtained by FDTD simulations. There was no substantial difference in η among the L0-L2 nanocavities. The large difference in the laser output powers (or efficiencies) of the Lx nanolaser diodes in Fig. 4(e) are considered to be caused by differences in internal quantum efficiency and/or differences in mode competition. Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a)-(b). Second order photon correlation function g2(t) measured at 1. 3Ith, 2. 1Ith, and 3. 0Ith In L1 nanolaser diode (a) and Ith and 3.2Ith In L2 nanolaser diode (b). (c–e). Measurement results 3QW L1 nanolaser diode (a = 435 nm, BH size: 0.2x0.61x0.15 μm3, Vgain: 2x10−15 cm3) (c). Expanded I-L curve. (d-e) Expanded (d) and wideband (e) EL spectra. Qth was 69,000. Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a)-(b). Blue laser microscope images (a) and wideband EL spectra including the lasing mode above the threshold in L3 and L5 nanolaser diodes (b). Fig. 10

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Design of Lx nanolaser diodes and its theoretical characteristics evaluated by FDTD. 0th and 1st correspond to fundamental and 1st high order cavity modes. L3 and L5 (*) were designed according to Ref. 33.

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