Abstract

Particles with electric charge 10-14 e in bulk mass are not excluded by present experiments. In the present letter we provide a feasible scheme to measure the millicharged particles via the optical cavity coupled to a levitated nanosphere. The results show that the optical probe spectrum of the nano-oscillator presents a tiny shift due to the existence of millicharged particles. Compare to the previous experiment the sensitivity can be improved by the using of a specific geometry to generate an electric field gradient and a pump-probe scheme to read the weak frequency shift. Owing to the very narrow linewidth(10-6 Hz) of the optical Kerr peak on the spectrum, this shift will be more obvious, which makes the millicharges more easy to be detectable. The technique proposed here paves the way for new applications for probing dark matter and nonzero charged neutrino in the condensed matter.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  39. V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(24), 243601 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

J. Liu and K. D. Zhu, “Nanogravity gradiometer based on a sharp optical nonlinearity in a levitated particle optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 95(4), 044014 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xiong, L. G. Si, and Y. Wu, “Precision measurement of electrical charges in an optomechanical system beyond linearized dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(17), 171102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. L. Chen, W. L. Jin, Y. F. Xiao, and X. Zhang, “Measuring the charge of a single dielectric nanoparticle using a High-Q optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044021 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Profumo, “GeV dark matter searches with the NEWS detector,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 93(5), 055036 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(24), 243601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

E. Gabrielli, L. Marzola, M. Raidal, and H. Veermae, “Dark matter and spin-1 milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 8(8), 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Haas, C. S. Hill, E. Izaguirre, and I. Yavin, “Looking for milli-charged particles with a new experiment at the LHC,” Phys. Lett. B 746, 117–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. C. Moore, A. D. Rider, and G. Gratta, “Search for Millicharged Particles Using Optically Levitated Microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(25), 251801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1445 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9(12), 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Dolgov, S. L. Dubovsky, G. I. Rubtsov, and I. I. Tkachev, “Constraints on millicharged particles from Planck data,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 88(11), 117701 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. M. Cline, Z. Liu, and W. Xue, “Millicharged atomic dark matter,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 85(10), 101302 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. C. Pflanzer, O. Romero-Isart, and J. I. Cirac, “Master-equation approach to optomechanics with arbitrary dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013802 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. R. Vanner, I. Pikovski, G. D. Cole, M. S. Kim, C. Brukner, K. Hammerer, G. J. Milburn, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Pulsed quantum optomechanics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(39), 16182–16187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider, “Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023826 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-Range Force Detection Using Optically Cooled Levitated Microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 101101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1155–1208 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Genes, D. Vitali, P. Tombesi, S. Gigan, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Ground-state cooling of a micromechanical oscillator: Comparing cold damping and cavity-assisted cooling schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033804 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. N. Gninenko, N. V. Krasnikov, and A. Rubbia, “New limit on millicharged particles from reactor neutrino experiments and the PVLAS anomaly,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 75(7), 075014 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. C. Kim, E. R. Lee, I. T. Lee, M. L. Perl, V. Halyo, and D. Loomba, “Search for Fractional-Charge Particles in Meteoritic Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 161804 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. L. Ekinci, Y. T. Yang, and M. L. Roukes, “Ultimate limits to inertial mass sensing based upon nanoelectromechanical systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2682–2689 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

V. Giovannetti and D. Vitali, “Phase-noise measurement in a cavity with a movable mirror undergoing quantum Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 023812 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Davidson, S. Hannestad, and G. Raffelt, “Updated bounds on milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 5, 003 (2000).

1998 (1)

A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Y. Ignatiev and G. C. Joshi, “Neutrino electric charge and the possible anisotropy of the solar neutrino flux,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 51(5), 2411–2420 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

T. Mitsui, R. Fujimoto, Y. Ishisaki, Y. Ueda, Y. Yamazaki, S. Asai, and S. Orito, “Search for invisible decay of orthopositronium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(15), 2265–2268 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

F. R. Blom, S. Bouwstra, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J. Fiuitman, “Dependence of the quality factor of micromachined silicon beam resonators on pressure and geometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(1), 19–26 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. Foot, G. C. Joshi, H. Lew, and R. R. Volkas, “Charge quantization in the standard model and some of its extensions,” Mod. Phys. Lett. A 5(32), 2721–2731 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P. F. Smith, “Searches for fractional electric charge in terrestrial materials,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 39(1), 73–111 (1989).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Marinelli and G. Morpurgo, “Searches of fractionally charged particles in matter with the magnetic levitation technique,” Phys. Rep. 85(4), 161–258 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

G. S. LaRue, J. D. Phillips, and W. M. Fairbank, “Observation of Fractional Charge of (1/3)e on Matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(15), 967–970 (1981).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. P. M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, M. S.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asai, S.

T. Mitsui, R. Fujimoto, Y. Ishisaki, Y. Ueda, Y. Yamazaki, S. Asai, and S. Orito, “Search for invisible decay of orthopositronium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(15), 2265–2268 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1445 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Vanner, I. Pikovski, G. D. Cole, M. S. Kim, C. Brukner, K. Hammerer, G. J. Milburn, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Pulsed quantum optomechanics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(39), 16182–16187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Genes, D. Vitali, P. Tombesi, S. Gigan, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Ground-state cooling of a micromechanical oscillator: Comparing cold damping and cavity-assisted cooling schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baggs, R.

A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ballam, J.

A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barker, P. F.

P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider, “Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blaser, F.

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blom, F. R.

F. R. Blom, S. Bouwstra, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J. Fiuitman, “Dependence of the quality factor of micromachined silicon beam resonators on pressure and geometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(1), 19–26 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bouwstra, S.

F. R. Blom, S. Bouwstra, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J. Fiuitman, “Dependence of the quality factor of micromachined silicon beam resonators on pressure and geometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(1), 19–26 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brukner, C.

M. R. Vanner, I. Pikovski, G. D. Cole, M. S. Kim, C. Brukner, K. Hammerer, G. J. Milburn, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Pulsed quantum optomechanics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(39), 16182–16187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, W. L. Jin, Y. F. Xiao, and X. Zhang, “Measuring the charge of a single dielectric nanoparticle using a High-Q optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cicak, K.

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S. Davidson, S. Hannestad, and G. Raffelt, “Updated bounds on milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 5, 003 (2000).

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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
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N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14180–14185 (2013).
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A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
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N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14180–14185 (2013).
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Kim, M. S.

M. R. Vanner, I. Pikovski, G. D. Cole, M. S. Kim, C. Brukner, K. Hammerer, G. J. Milburn, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Pulsed quantum optomechanics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(39), 16182–16187 (2011).
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P. C. Kim, E. R. Lee, I. T. Lee, M. L. Perl, V. Halyo, and D. Loomba, “Search for Fractional-Charge Particles in Meteoritic Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 161804 (2007).
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I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
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M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1445 (2014).
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S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitching, J.

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-Range Force Detection Using Optically Cooled Levitated Microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(10), 101101 (2010).
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S. N. Gninenko, N. V. Krasnikov, and A. Rubbia, “New limit on millicharged particles from reactor neutrino experiments and the PVLAS anomaly,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 75(7), 075014 (2007).
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I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
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G. S. LaRue, J. D. Phillips, and W. M. Fairbank, “Observation of Fractional Charge of (1/3)e on Matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(15), 967–970 (1981).
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P. C. Kim, E. R. Lee, I. T. Lee, M. L. Perl, V. Halyo, and D. Loomba, “Search for Fractional-Charge Particles in Meteoritic Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 161804 (2007).
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I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, I. T.

P. C. Kim, E. R. Lee, I. T. Lee, M. L. Perl, V. Halyo, and D. Loomba, “Search for Fractional-Charge Particles in Meteoritic Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 161804 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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Lehnert, K. W.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
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Leonard, R.

A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
[Crossref]

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R. Foot, G. C. Joshi, H. Lew, and R. R. Volkas, “Charge quantization in the standard model and some of its extensions,” Mod. Phys. Lett. A 5(32), 2721–2731 (1990).
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Li, D.

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, T.

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
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J. Liu and K. D. Zhu, “Nanogravity gradiometer based on a sharp optical nonlinearity in a levitated particle optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 95(4), 044014 (2017).
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J. M. Cline, Z. Liu, and W. Xue, “Millicharged atomic dark matter,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 85(10), 101302 (2012).
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P. C. Kim, E. R. Lee, I. T. Lee, M. L. Perl, V. Halyo, and D. Loomba, “Search for Fractional-Charge Particles in Meteoritic Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 161804 (2007).
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I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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M. Marinelli and G. Morpurgo, “Searches of fractionally charged particles in matter with the magnetic levitation technique,” Phys. Rep. 85(4), 161–258 (1982).
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M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1445 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Clerk, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, F. Marquardt, and R. J. Schoelkopf, “Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1155–1208 (2010).
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Marvin, T.

A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
[Crossref]

Marzola, L.

E. Gabrielli, L. Marzola, M. Raidal, and H. Veermae, “Dark matter and spin-1 milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 8(8), 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Milburn, G. J.

M. R. Vanner, I. Pikovski, G. D. Cole, M. S. Kim, C. Brukner, K. Hammerer, G. J. Milburn, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Pulsed quantum optomechanics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(39), 16182–16187 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitsui, T.

T. Mitsui, R. Fujimoto, Y. Ishisaki, Y. Ueda, Y. Yamazaki, S. Asai, and S. Orito, “Search for invisible decay of orthopositronium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(15), 2265–2268 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, D. C.

D. C. Moore, A. D. Rider, and G. Gratta, “Search for Millicharged Particles Using Optically Levitated Microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(25), 251801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moritz, C.

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(24), 243601 (2016).
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A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
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V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(24), 243601 (2016).
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A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
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V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(24), 243601 (2016).
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J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9(12), 806–810 (2013).
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S. Davidson, S. Hannestad, and G. Raffelt, “Updated bounds on milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 5, 003 (2000).

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E. Gabrielli, L. Marzola, M. Raidal, and H. Veermae, “Dark matter and spin-1 milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 8(8), 150 (2015).
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D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
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Rogers, H.

I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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A. C. Pflanzer, O. Romero-Isart, and J. I. Cirac, “Master-equation approach to optomechanics with arbitrary dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013802 (2012).
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K. L. Ekinci, Y. T. Yang, and M. L. Roukes, “Ultimate limits to inertial mass sensing based upon nanoelectromechanical systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2682–2689 (2004).
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S. N. Gninenko, N. V. Krasnikov, and A. Rubbia, “New limit on millicharged particles from reactor neutrino experiments and the PVLAS anomaly,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 75(7), 075014 (2007).
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A. D. Dolgov, S. L. Dubovsky, G. I. Rubtsov, and I. I. Tkachev, “Constraints on millicharged particles from Planck data,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 88(11), 117701 (2013).
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Schliesser, A.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
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I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider, “Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023826 (2010).
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H. Xiong, L. G. Si, and Y. Wu, “Precision measurement of electrical charges in an optomechanical system beyond linearized dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(17), 171102 (2017).
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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
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A. D. Dolgov, S. L. Dubovsky, G. I. Rubtsov, and I. I. Tkachev, “Constraints on millicharged particles from Planck data,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 88(11), 117701 (2013).
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C. Genes, D. Vitali, P. Tombesi, S. Gigan, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Ground-state cooling of a micromechanical oscillator: Comparing cold damping and cavity-assisted cooling schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033804 (2008).
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T. Mitsui, R. Fujimoto, Y. Ishisaki, Y. Ueda, Y. Yamazaki, S. Asai, and S. Orito, “Search for invisible decay of orthopositronium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(15), 2265–2268 (1993).
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M. R. Vanner, I. Pikovski, G. D. Cole, M. S. Kim, C. Brukner, K. Hammerer, G. J. Milburn, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Pulsed quantum optomechanics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(39), 16182–16187 (2011).
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E. Gabrielli, L. Marzola, M. Raidal, and H. Veermae, “Dark matter and spin-1 milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 8(8), 150 (2015).
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C. Genes, D. Vitali, P. Tombesi, S. Gigan, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Ground-state cooling of a micromechanical oscillator: Comparing cold damping and cavity-assisted cooling schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033804 (2008).
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V. Giovannetti and D. Vitali, “Phase-noise measurement in a cavity with a movable mirror undergoing quantum Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 023812 (2001).
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R. Foot, G. C. Joshi, H. Lew, and R. R. Volkas, “Charge quantization in the standard model and some of its extensions,” Mod. Phys. Lett. A 5(32), 2721–2731 (1990).
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A. A. Prinz, R. Baggs, J. Ballam, S. Ecklund, C. Fertig, J. A. Jaros, K. Kase, A. Kulikov, W. G. J. Langeveld, R. Leonard, T. Marvin, T. Nakashima, W. R. Nelson, A. Odian, M. Pertsova, G. Putallaz, and A. Weinstein, “Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(6), 1175–1178 (1998).
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S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
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J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
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D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
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A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
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Wu, Y.

H. Xiong, L. G. Si, and Y. Wu, “Precision measurement of electrical charges in an optomechanical system beyond linearized dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(17), 171102 (2017).
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Y. L. Chen, W. L. Jin, Y. F. Xiao, and X. Zhang, “Measuring the charge of a single dielectric nanoparticle using a High-Q optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044021 (2016).
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H. Xiong, L. G. Si, and Y. Wu, “Precision measurement of electrical charges in an optomechanical system beyond linearized dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(17), 171102 (2017).
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Xue, W.

J. M. Cline, Z. Liu, and W. Xue, “Millicharged atomic dark matter,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 85(10), 101302 (2012).
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T. Mitsui, R. Fujimoto, Y. Ishisaki, Y. Ueda, Y. Yamazaki, S. Asai, and S. Orito, “Search for invisible decay of orthopositronium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(15), 2265–2268 (1993).
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K. L. Ekinci, Y. T. Yang, and M. L. Roukes, “Ultimate limits to inertial mass sensing based upon nanoelectromechanical systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2682–2689 (2004).
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A. Haas, C. S. Hill, E. Izaguirre, and I. Yavin, “Looking for milli-charged particles with a new experiment at the LHC,” Phys. Lett. B 746, 117–120 (2015).
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D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
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Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033614 (2013).
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Y. L. Chen, W. L. Jin, Y. F. Xiao, and X. Zhang, “Measuring the charge of a single dielectric nanoparticle using a High-Q optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044021 (2016).
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Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033614 (2013).
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Zhu, K. D.

J. Liu and K. D. Zhu, “Nanogravity gradiometer based on a sharp optical nonlinearity in a levitated particle optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 95(4), 044014 (2017).
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D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
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Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (1)

P. F. Smith, “Searches for fractional electric charge in terrestrial materials,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 39(1), 73–111 (1989).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Xiong, L. G. Si, and Y. Wu, “Precision measurement of electrical charges in an optomechanical system beyond linearized dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(17), 171102 (2017).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. L. Ekinci, Y. T. Yang, and M. L. Roukes, “Ultimate limits to inertial mass sensing based upon nanoelectromechanical systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2682–2689 (2004).
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J. High Energy Phys. (2)

S. Davidson, S. Hannestad, and G. Raffelt, “Updated bounds on milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 5, 003 (2000).

E. Gabrielli, L. Marzola, M. Raidal, and H. Veermae, “Dark matter and spin-1 milli-charged particles,” J. High Energy Phys. 8(8), 150 (2015).
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F. R. Blom, S. Bouwstra, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J. Fiuitman, “Dependence of the quality factor of micromachined silicon beam resonators on pressure and geometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(1), 19–26 (1992).
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R. Foot, G. C. Joshi, H. Lew, and R. R. Volkas, “Charge quantization in the standard model and some of its extensions,” Mod. Phys. Lett. A 5(32), 2721–2731 (1990).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9(12), 806–810 (2013).
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Nature (2)

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, and R. W. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475(7356), 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett. B (1)

A. Haas, C. S. Hill, E. Izaguirre, and I. Yavin, “Looking for milli-charged particles with a new experiment at the LHC,” Phys. Lett. B 746, 117–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. Marinelli and G. Morpurgo, “Searches of fractionally charged particles in matter with the magnetic levitation technique,” Phys. Rep. 85(4), 161–258 (1982).
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Phys. Rev. A (5)

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider, “Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023826 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Pflanzer, O. Romero-Isart, and J. I. Cirac, “Master-equation approach to optomechanics with arbitrary dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013802 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Genes, D. Vitali, P. Tombesi, S. Gigan, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Ground-state cooling of a micromechanical oscillator: Comparing cold damping and cavity-assisted cooling schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033804 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Giovannetti and D. Vitali, “Phase-noise measurement in a cavity with a movable mirror undergoing quantum Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 023812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Y. L. Chen, W. L. Jin, Y. F. Xiao, and X. Zhang, “Measuring the charge of a single dielectric nanoparticle using a High-Q optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields (2)

I. T. Lee, S. Fan, V. Halyo, E. R. Lee, P. C. Kim, M. L. Perl, H. Rogers, D. Loomba, K. S. Lackner, and G. Shaw, “Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 66(1), 012002 (2002).
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J. M. Cline, Z. Liu, and W. Xue, “Millicharged atomic dark matter,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 85(10), 101302 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Profumo, “GeV dark matter searches with the NEWS detector,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 93(5), 055036 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. N. Gninenko, N. V. Krasnikov, and A. Rubbia, “New limit on millicharged particles from reactor neutrino experiments and the PVLAS anomaly,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 75(7), 075014 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. D. Dolgov, S. L. Dubovsky, G. I. Rubtsov, and I. I. Tkachev, “Constraints on millicharged particles from Planck data,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 88(11), 117701 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liu and K. D. Zhu, “Nanogravity gradiometer based on a sharp optical nonlinearity in a levitated particle optomechanical system,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 95(4), 044014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(3), 1005–1010 (2010).
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Science (1)

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Other (1)

C. Gardiner and P. Zoller, Quantum Noise, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000), p. 425.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)Schematic diagram of the proposed setup for detecting millicharged particles by optical pump-probe technology in the cavity. Our approach involves optically trapping a fabricated nanosphere in the antinode of an optical standing wave. To eliminate the polarization force background, we use a homogeneously charged ring to produce symmetrical electric field near the nanosphere and the nanosphere should be trapped at the center of the ring. (b) Force analysis for the millicharged particles in the nanosphere.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)The plot of absorption spectrum as a function of probe-pump detuning. The unit of the Stokes scattering absorption intensity is an arbitrary unit(a.u.) which is a relative unit of measurement to show the ratio of amount intensity to a predetermined reference measurement. (b)Nonlinear optical spectrum of the probe field as a function of probe-pump detuning before (black solid line) and after (red dashed line and blue dash line) the action between millicharge and electric field gradient. The signals of the MCP with ε= 10 14 and ε=5× 10 14 can be well recognized in the spectrum. Other parameters used are Ω p =3MHz, Δ c =0, and Q=1.3× 10 11
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Constraints on the abundance of millicharged particles per nucleon N versus the epsilon charge. The results from this work (red rectangle C) are compared to previous results from levitated nanospheres (blue rectangle B) [17], magnetic levitometer (green rectangle A) [14] experiments and WGM nanoresonator [18](dash yellow line). The lines extending from each region show the upper limits below the single particle threshold.

Equations (24)

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F= 2k ω n dω.
E z = q 4 π 2 Ε 0 2z R 0 2 + r 2 + z 2 +2 R 0 r ( R 0 2 + r 2 + z 2 2 R 0 r) O,
E z q 4 π 2 Ε 0 2z R 0 3 .
F z = 2εeq 4 π 2 Ε 0 R 0 3 .
dω= εeυ 2π Ε 0 R 0 2 ω n m .
H= Δ c σ + σ+ ω n s + sg σ + σ( s + +s)i Ω p (σ σ + )i Ω pr (σ e i Δ pr t σ + e i Δ pr t ),
dσ dt =(i Δ c +κ)σ+ignσ+ Ω p + Ω pr e i Δ pr t + κ a ^ in ,
d 2 n d t 2 + γ n dn dt + ω n 2 n=2 ω n g σ + σ+ ξ ^ (t),
σ 0 = Ω p (i Δ c +κ)ig n 0 ,
n 0 = 2g | σ 0 | 2 ω n .
Ω p 2 = ω 0 [ κ 2 + ( Δ c 2 g 2 ω 0 ω n ) 2 ].
σ= σ 0 +δσ,
n= n 0 +δn.
δ σ ˙ =κ δσ +ig( n 0 δσ + σ 0 δn )+ Ω p + Ω pr e i Δ pr t ,
δ n ¨ + γ n δ n ˙ + ω n 2 δn =2 ω n g σ 0 2 .
δσ = σ + e i Δ pr t + σ e i Δ pr t ,
δn = n + e i Δ pr t + n e i Δ pr t .
σ = G (P+ κ 2 ) Ω pr Ω p 2 B( Y 2 P 2 )+2PG ω 0 .
| T ou t | 2 =2κ | σ ou t Ω pr | 2 .
ω n = 1 2π ( 6 K 2 I 0 ρc Re Ε1 Ε+2 ) 1/2 ,
Q= m ω n v pA = aρ ω n v 3p .
g= 3 V s 4 V c Ε1 Ε+2 ω c ,
n ¯ eff 1 2 ( 1+ 1 χ 4 + π n ¯ Q χ 2 1).
d ω min [ k B T eff ω n Δf E c Q ] 1/2 .

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