Abstract

Imaging speed and range are two important parameters for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A conventional video-rate centimeter-range OCT requires an optical source with hundreds of kHz repetition rate and needs the support of broadband detectors and electronics (>1 GHz). In this paper, a type of video-rate centimeter-range OCT system is proposed and demonstrated based on dual optical frequency combs by leveraging electro-optic modulators. The repetition rate difference between dual combs, i.e. the A-scan rate of dual-comb OCT, can be adjusted within 0~6 MHz. By down-converting the interference signal from optical domain to radio-frequency domain through dual comb beating, the down-converted bandwidth of the interference signal is less than 22.5 MHz which is at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in conventional OCT systems. A LabVIEW program is developed for video-rate operation, and the centimeter imaging depth is proved by using 10 pieces of 1-mm thick glass stacked as the sample. The effective beating bandwidth between two optical comb sources is 7 nm corresponding to ~108 comb lines, and the axial resolution of the dual-comb OCT is 158 µm. Dual optical frequency combs provide a promising solution to relax the detection bandwidth requirement in fast long-range OCT systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (7)

E. Hase, T. Minamikawa, T. Mizuno, S. Miyamoto, R. Ichikawa, Y. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, K. Sato, Y. Nakajima, A. Asahara, K. Minoshima, Y. Mizutani, T. Iwata, H. Yamamoto, and T. Yasui, “Scan-less confocal phase imaging based on dual-comb microscopy,” Optica 5(5), 634–643 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Deng, C. Gu, Y. Liu, D. Luo, Z. Zhu, W. Li, and H. Zeng, “Line-scan spectrum-encoded imaging by dual-comb interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1606–1609 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359(6378), 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kang, P. Feng, X. Wei, E. Y. Lam, K. K. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “102-nm, 44.5-MHz inertial-free swept source by mode-locked fiber laser and time stretch technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4370–4381 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, D. C. Cole, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Dual-comb interferometry via repetition rate switching of a single frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3614–3617 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

2016 (7)

2015 (1)

R. H. Wilson, K. P. Nadeau, F. B. Jaworski, B. J. Tromberg, and A. J. Durkin, “Review of short-wave infrared spectroscopy and imaging methods for biological tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 030901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Diebold, B. W. Buckley, D. R. Gossett, and B. Jalali, “Digitally synthesized beat frequency multiplexing for sub-millisecond fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, and M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-Time FPGA Processing for High-Speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 766–768 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291(5510), 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878–L880 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 157–173 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1951–1963 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

Abe, K.

Alic, N.

Andrekson, P. A.

Andrés, P.

Asahara, A.

Ataie, V.

Baumann, E.

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Fast high-resolution spectroscopy of dynamic continuous-wave laser sources,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 853–857 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bendahmane, A.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bielska, K.

Bouma, B. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-Time FPGA Processing for High-Speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckley, B. W.

E. D. Diebold, B. W. Buckley, D. R. Gossett, and B. Jalali, “Digitally synthesized beat frequency multiplexing for sub-millisecond fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cable, A. E.

Carlson, D. R.

Cermak, M.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Fast high-resolution spectroscopy of dynamic continuous-wave laser sources,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 853–857 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I. R.

Cole, D. C.

Corkum, P. B.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291(5510), 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cossel, K. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Z.

Desjardins, A. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-Time FPGA Processing for High-Speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, D. C. Cole, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Dual-comb interferometry via repetition rate switching of a single frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3614–3617 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Video-rate centimeter-range OCT with 10 slices of 1-mm thick glass
» Visualization 2       Video-rate centimeter-range OCT based on dual optical frequency combs by EO modulators with inserting and removing a glass slide

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experiment setup. CW: continuous wave; PC: polarization controller; IM: intensity modulator; PM: phase modulator; CIR: circulator; SMF: single-mode fiber; NF: notch filter. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; NOLM/NALM: nonlinear optical/amplifying loop mirror; DF-HNLF: dispersion-flattened highly- nonlinear fiber; TBPF: tunable bandpass filter; OC: optical coupler; BD: balanced detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a): Optical spectrum of EO comb after high power EDFA with PM turned off; (b): Time domain waveform of EO comb after high power EDFA with PM turned off; (c): Optical spectrum of EO comb after high power EDFA with PM turned on; (d): Time domain waveform of EO comb after high power EDFA with PM turned on.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a): Optical spectrum after NOLM; (b): Pulse shape after NOLM; (c): Optical spectrum after NALM; (d): Pulse shape after NALM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical spectrum after filter with 7-nm bandwidth from 1554.1 nm to 1561.1 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Interferogram with 6-MHz repetition rate difference. (a): Without RF low pass filter; (b): With RF low pass filter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a): Interferogram with a mirror; (b): RF spectrum; (c): Interferogram with a 1-mm thick glass slide; (d): Axial resolution of the DC-OCT in glass.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Interferogram and image of 6 slice of glass with DC-OCT. left inset: sample; right inset: OCT image.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a): Image with 10 slices of 1-mm thick glass; (b) Time domain waveform of an A-line.

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