Abstract

Magnetic light-matter interaction plays a crucial role in nanophysics, such as in photonic topological insulators and metamaterials. Recent advances in all-dielectric nanophotonics especially demand vectorial mapping of magnetic light at visible wavelengths. Here, we report that a novel functional nanoprobe decorated with a silicon nanoparticle predominantly senses both the vertical and lateral magnetic field, that is, the magnetic field vector, complementary to a metal nanoparticle probe detecting the local electric field vector. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate the mapping of magnetic field vectors in a transverse electric (TE) evanescent standing wave by this probe in a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) with nanopolarimetry. It is for the first time that the full magnetic field vector of visible light, whose frequency exceeds 550 THz, can be directly detected with deep subwavelength resolution. Such functional probe and nanopolarimetry may pave the way toward complete vectorial near-field characterization over the whole visible band for nano-optics and subwavelength optics.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

M. Neugebauer, J. Eismann, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Magnetic and electric transverse spin density of spatially confined light,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021042 (2018).

L. Sun, B. Bai, and J. Wang, “Probing vectorial near field of light: imaging theory and design principles of nanoprobes,” Opt. Express 26, 18644–18663 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Zhao, and S. E. Lee, “High-speed nano-polarimetry for real-time plasmonic bio-imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10509, 1050908 (2018).

2017 (5)

D. G. Baranov, D. A. Zuev, S. I. Lepeshov, O. V. Kotov, A. E. Krasnok, A. B. Evlyukhin, and B. N. Chichkov, “All-dielectric nanophotonics: the quest for better materials and fabrication techniques,” Optica 4, 814–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Staude and J. Schilling, “Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 11, 274–284 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kruk and Y. Kivshar, “Functional meta-optics and nanophotonics govern by mie resonances,” ACS Photonics 4, 2638–2649 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bakker, Y. F. Yu, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Resonant light guiding along a chain of silicon nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 17, 3458–3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kruk, A. Slobozhanyuk, D. Denkova, A. Poddubny, I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, and Y. Kivshar, “Edge states and topological phase transitions in chains of dielectric nanoparticles,” Small 13, 1603190 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354, aag2472 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Kabakova, A. de Hoogh, R. E. C. van der Wel, M. Wulf, B. le Feber, and L. Kuipers, “Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22665 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

N. Rotenberg, B. le Feber, T. D. Visser, and L. Kuipers, “Tracking nanoscale electric and magnetic singularities through three-dimensional space,” Optica 2, 540–546 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bao, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic toroidal dipolar response under radially polarized excitation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. B. Evlyukhin, Y. F. Yu, R. M. Bakker, A. Chipouline, A. I. Kuznetsov, B. Luk’yanchuk, B. N. Chichkov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonradiating anapole modes in dielectric nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Singh, J. S. Ahn, S. Koo, T. Kang, J. Kim, S. Lee, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Selective electric and magnetic sensitivity of aperture probes,” Opt. Express 23, 20820–20828 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechtel, Y. Xu, B. A. Lail, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1, 894–899 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. l. Feber, N. Rotenberg, D. M. Beggs, and L. Kuipers, “Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 8, 43–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Lateral magnetic near-field imaging of plasmonic nanoantennas with increasing complexity,” Small 10, 1959–1966 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Chong Katie, B. Hopkins, I. Staude, E. Miroshnichenko Andrey, J. Dominguez, M. Decker, N. Neshev Dragomir, I. Brener, and S. Kivshar Yuri, “Observation of fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers,” Small 10, 1985–1990 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Zywietz, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser printing of silicon nanoparticles with resonant optical electric and magnetic responses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

H. W. Kihm, J. Kim, S. Koo, J. Ahn, K. Ahn, K. Lee, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Optical magnetic field mapping using a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 21, 5625–5633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. V. Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7, 3168–3176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

L. Yu, T. Sfez, V. Paeder, P. Stenberg, W. Nakagawa, M. Kuittinen, and H. P. Herzig, “Concurrent polarization retrieval in multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy: validation on silicon form-birefringent grating,” Opt. Express 20, 23088–23099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, and Ph. Dumas, “Near field optical microscopy: a brief review,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. 9, 488–501 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23, 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Esslinger and R. Vogelgesang, “Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes,” ACS Nano 6, 8173–8182 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: A near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 167403 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Burresi, T. Kampfrath, D. van Oosten, J. C. Prangsma, B. S. Song, S. Noda, and L. Kuipers, “Magnetic light-matter interactions in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. S. Ahn, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, D. S. Kim, and K. G. Lee, “3-dimensional local field polarization vector mapping of a focused radially polarized beam using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips,” Opt. Express 17, 2280–2286 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Yang, “Laser ablation in liquids: Applications in the synthesis of nanocrystals,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 52, 648–698 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, K. J. Ahn, J. S. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field mapping of local polarization using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips: independence of the tip shape,” Opt. Express 15, 14993–15001 (2007).
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2005 (2)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
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2001 (1)

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Tamstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, “A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc 202, 72–76 (2001).
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2000 (1)

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. J. Greffet, “Theory of electromagnetic field imaging and spectroscopy in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J Appl. Phys. 88, 4845–4850 (2000).
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1998 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
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Abel-Tiberini, L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23, 045701 (2012).
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Ahn, J.

Ahn, J. S.

Ahn, K.

Ahn, K. J.

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
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Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
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Ananias, D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 163903 (2015).
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Baba, T.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
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Bai, B.

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
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Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
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Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, Y. F. Yu, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Resonant light guiding along a chain of silicon nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 17, 3458–3464 (2017).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. B. Evlyukhin, Y. F. Yu, R. M. Bakker, A. Chipouline, A. I. Kuznetsov, B. Luk’yanchuk, B. N. Chichkov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonradiating anapole modes in dielectric nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).
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Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123902 (2010).
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Banzer, P.

M. Neugebauer, J. Eismann, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Magnetic and electric transverse spin density of spatially confined light,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021042 (2018).

Bao, K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Y.

Y. Bao, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic toroidal dipolar response under radially polarized excitation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baranov, D. G.

Bauer, T.

M. Neugebauer, J. Eismann, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Magnetic and electric transverse spin density of spatially confined light,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021042 (2018).

Bechtel, H. A.

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechtel, Y. Xu, B. A. Lail, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1, 894–899 (2014).
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Beggs, D. M.

B. l. Feber, N. Rotenberg, D. M. Beggs, and L. Kuipers, “Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 8, 43–46 (2014).
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Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: A near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 167403 (2010).
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Boulesbaa, A.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
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Brener, I.

E. Chong Katie, B. Hopkins, I. Staude, E. Miroshnichenko Andrey, J. Dominguez, M. Decker, N. Neshev Dragomir, I. Brener, and S. Kivshar Yuri, “Observation of fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers,” Small 10, 1985–1990 (2014).
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Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
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Brongersma, M. L.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354, aag2472 (2016).
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Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, T. Kampfrath, D. van Oosten, J. C. Prangsma, B. S. Song, S. Noda, and L. Kuipers, “Magnetic light-matter interactions in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123901 (2010).
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M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
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M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cambril, E.

Carlos, L. D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. J. Greffet, “Theory of electromagnetic field imaging and spectroscopy in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J Appl. Phys. 88, 4845–4850 (2000).
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Caselli, N.

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
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Chen, Y.

N. Essaidi, Y. Chen, V. Kottler, E. Cambril, C. Mayeux, N. Ronarch, and C. Vieu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical-fiber nanoprobes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 609–615 (1998).
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M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B. N.

D. G. Baranov, D. A. Zuev, S. I. Lepeshov, O. V. Kotov, A. E. Krasnok, A. B. Evlyukhin, and B. N. Chichkov, “All-dielectric nanophotonics: the quest for better materials and fabrication techniques,” Optica 4, 814–825 (2017).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. B. Evlyukhin, Y. F. Yu, R. M. Bakker, A. Chipouline, A. I. Kuznetsov, B. Luk’yanchuk, B. N. Chichkov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonradiating anapole modes in dielectric nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).
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U. Zywietz, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser printing of silicon nanoparticles with resonant optical electric and magnetic responses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chipouline, A.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. B. Evlyukhin, Y. F. Yu, R. M. Bakker, A. Chipouline, A. I. Kuznetsov, B. Luk’yanchuk, B. N. Chichkov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonradiating anapole modes in dielectric nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).
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Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
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Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chong Katie, E.

E. Chong Katie, B. Hopkins, I. Staude, E. Miroshnichenko Andrey, J. Dominguez, M. Decker, N. Neshev Dragomir, I. Brener, and S. Kivshar Yuri, “Observation of fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers,” Small 10, 1985–1990 (2014).
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Courjon, D.

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[Crossref]

de Hoogh, A.

I. V. Kabakova, A. de Hoogh, R. E. C. van der Wel, M. Wulf, B. le Feber, and L. Kuipers, “Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22665 (2016).
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Decker, M.

E. Chong Katie, B. Hopkins, I. Staude, E. Miroshnichenko Andrey, J. Dominguez, M. Decker, N. Neshev Dragomir, I. Brener, and S. Kivshar Yuri, “Observation of fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers,” Small 10, 1985–1990 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denkova, D.

S. Kruk, A. Slobozhanyuk, D. Denkova, A. Poddubny, I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, and Y. Kivshar, “Edge states and topological phase transitions in chains of dielectric nanoparticles,” Small 13, 1603190 (2017).
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D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Lateral magnetic near-field imaging of plasmonic nanoantennas with increasing complexity,” Small 10, 1959–1966 (2014).
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D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. V. Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7, 3168–3176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deryckx, K. S.

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechtel, Y. Xu, B. A. Lail, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1, 894–899 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, J.

E. Chong Katie, B. Hopkins, I. Staude, E. Miroshnichenko Andrey, J. Dominguez, M. Decker, N. Neshev Dragomir, I. Brener, and S. Kivshar Yuri, “Observation of fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers,” Small 10, 1985–1990 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorpe, P. V.

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. V. Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7, 3168–3176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorpe, P. Van

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Lateral magnetic near-field imaging of plasmonic nanoantennas with increasing complexity,” Small 10, 1959–1966 (2014).
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Dumas, Ph.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, and Ph. Dumas, “Near field optical microscopy: a brief review,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. 9, 488–501 (2012).
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Eah, S. H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eismann, J.

M. Neugebauer, J. Eismann, T. Bauer, and P. Banzer, “Magnetic and electric transverse spin density of spatially confined light,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021042 (2018).

Engelen, R. J. P.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Essaidi, N.

Esslinger, M.

M. Esslinger and R. Vogelgesang, “Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes,” ACS Nano 6, 8173–8182 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

D. G. Baranov, D. A. Zuev, S. I. Lepeshov, O. V. Kotov, A. E. Krasnok, A. B. Evlyukhin, and B. N. Chichkov, “All-dielectric nanophotonics: the quest for better materials and fabrication techniques,” Optica 4, 814–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. B. Evlyukhin, Y. F. Yu, R. M. Bakker, A. Chipouline, A. I. Kuznetsov, B. Luk’yanchuk, B. N. Chichkov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonradiating anapole modes in dielectric nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Zywietz, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser printing of silicon nanoparticles with resonant optical electric and magnetic responses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

Y. Bao, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic toroidal dipolar response under radially polarized excitation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farahi, R. H.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23, 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feber, B. l.

B. l. Feber, N. Rotenberg, D. M. Beggs, and L. Kuipers, “Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 8, 43–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francardi, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Parajo, M.

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 155–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Geohegan, D.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerardino, A.

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123902 (2010).
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Goldstein, D.

D. Goldstein, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, 2003), 2nd ed.

Greffet, J. J.

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. J. Greffet, “Theory of electromagnetic field imaging and spectroscopy in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J Appl. Phys. 88, 4845–4850 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gurioli, M.

N. Caselli, F. La China, W. Bao, F. Riboli, A. Gerardino, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. Weber-Bargioni, M. Gurioli, and F. Intonti, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heideman, R.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzig, H. P.

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopkins, B.

E. Chong Katie, B. Hopkins, I. Staude, E. Miroshnichenko Andrey, J. Dominguez, M. Decker, N. Neshev Dragomir, I. Brener, and S. Kivshar Yuri, “Observation of fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers,” Small 10, 1985–1990 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Intonti, F.

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ACS Nano (2)

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. V. Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7, 3168–3176 (2013).
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ACS Photonics (2)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Int. J. Nanotechnol. (1)

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J Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scattering of TE evanescent standing wave by a nanoparticle probe. (a) Schematic of the probe-field system. Green and red arrows represent the local magnetic and electric field vectors, respectively. The grey background indicates the intensity distribution of the magnetic field vector. The nanoparticle probe couples to the near field and generates dipole moments parallel to the local field vectors. Then, the induced dipole moments radiates to the far field. (b,c) Far-field electric vector distributions generated by the local electric and magnetic dipole moments, respectively. The dashed lines illustrate the radiation pattern of electric fields and the arrows show the direction of polarization.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Dark-field spectrum of the selected silicon nanoparticle (SiNP). The inset shows a 100× blowup dark-field microscopic image of the measured SiNP. Scale bar, 500 nm. (b-f) Fabrication procedure of the functional SiNP probe. (g) SEM images of the fabricated probes: bare fiber probe (upper panel) and the functional probe with a SiNP (lower panel). Scale bars, 500 nm. (h) Schematics of the vectorial near-field microscope system. The nanoprobe converts the near fields into far fields and the Stokes parameters of the far-field light are analyzed by the vectorial near-field microscope. The rotating quarter-wave plate together with a stationary analyzer can continuously obtain the local Stokes parameters. The modulation of the chopper further increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Mapping of the TE evanescent standing wave in near field by a bare fiber probe at a wavelength of 532 nm. (a) Electric field vector measurements: distribution of the amplitude and orientation (denoted by double arrows) for an xz area (720 nm × 280 nm) and distribution of polarization ellipse for one period along x-axis at z = 0 nm are displayed in the upper and lower panels, respectively. Backgrounds indicate the normalized measured electric intensities. Scale bars, 50 nm. (b) Statistics of the measured relative angles (3,840 samples) in degree (i.e., ΨE − 90°) by the vectorial near-field microscopic system equipped with the bare fiber probe. (c) Orientation angles ΨE of the electric field vectors at z = 0 nm. The red dashed line represents the theoretical values of the orientation angles. Inset shows the definition of the orientation angle ΨE.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Mapping of the TE evanescent standing wave in near field by a SiNP probe. (a) Magnetic field vector measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm: distribution of the amplitude and orientation (denoted by double arrows) for an xz area (720 nm × 280 nm) and distribution of polarization ellipse for one period along x-axis at z = 0 nm are displayed in the upper and lower panels, respectively. White double arrows in (a) show the directly measured electric field vectors. Backgrounds indicate the normalized measured magnetic intensities. Scale bars, 50 nm. Orientation angles ΨB of the magnetic field vectors at z = 0 nm at a wavelength of (b) 532 nm and (c) 561 nm. Red dashed lines represent the theoretical values of the orientation angles. Inset in (b) shows the definition of the orientation angle ΨB.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Interpretation of the measured polarization ellipses. The middle blue row represents the complete polarization ellipses with helicity of the lower panel in Fig. 3(b), while the upper black row and the lower red row indicate the corresponding polarization ellipses based on Eqs. (1) and (5), respectively. The green arrows in counterclockwise mean the helicity is left-handed or σ = −1, and the grey arrows in clockwise stand for the right-handed helicity or σ = 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM images of probes at different procedures. (a,b) Original SEM images of the apexes of the bare fiber probe and the SiNP probe, respectively. (c) SEM image of a parabolic fiber probe after the heating-pulling procedure. (d,e) SEM images of fiber tips with etching time about 5 and 7 minutes, respectively. (f) SEM image of a fiber tip after attaching APTES without the clean and hydrophilic treatment.

Equations (14)

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{ c B x = n 2 sin 2 θ 1 E 0 sin ( k x x ) exp ( γ z ) E y = i E 0 sin ( k x x ) exp ( γ z ) c B z = n sin θ E 0 cos ( k x x ) exp ( γ z ) ,
E ( m sin ψ 0 m cos ψ ) 1 2 θ ( m θ sin ψ 0 2 c p ) ,
I ( t ) = 1 2 S 0 + 1 2 S 1 1 2 S 3 sin 2 ω t + 1 4 S 1 cos 4 ω t + 1 4 S 2 sin 4 ω t .
{ I Ω 2 ω ( t ) = 1 2 π S 3 cos ( Ω 2 ω ) t I Ω 2 ω ( t ) = 1 4 π S 2 cos ( Ω 4 ω ) t + 1 4 π S 1 sin ( Ω 4 ω ) t .
{ E F F , x ( x ) = p y , x exp ( i δ y , x ) E y ( x ) + m cos ( 15 ° ) B z ( x ) E F F , z ( x ) = p y , x exp ( i δ y , z ) E y ( x ) + m B x ( x ) ,
E = E p + E m ( 0 p sin 2 θ p sin θ cos θ ) c 1 ( m sin ψ cos θ m cos ψ sin θ m cos ψ cos θ ) ,
E = E p + E m ( 0 0 p sin θ ) c 1 ( m sin ψ cos θ 0 m cos ψ )
I ( ω ) = I signal ( ω ) I background ( ω ) I source ( ω ) I noise ( ω ) .
{ I ref , 2 ( t ) = cos [ ( Ω 2 ω ) t + ϕ 1 ] I ref , 4 ( t ) = cos [ ( Ω 4 ω ) t + ϕ 2 ]
{ x Ω 2 ω = 1 4 π S 3 cos ϕ 1 y Ω 2 ω = 1 4 π S 3 sin ϕ 1 x Ω 4 ω = 1 8 π ( S 1 sin ϕ 2 S 2 cos ϕ 2 ) y Ω 4 ω = 1 8 π ( S 1 cos ϕ 2 S 2 sin ϕ 2 ) .
{ ϕ ˜ 2 = sgn ( y ˜ Ω 4 ω ) arccos x ˜ Ω 4 ω x ˜ Ω 4 ω 2 + y ˜ Ω 4 ω 2 ϕ ˜ 1 = sgn ( y ˜ Ω 2 ω ) arccos x ˜ Ω 2 ω x ˜ Ω 2 ω 2 + y ˜ Ω 2 ω 2 .
{ S 1 = 8 π ( x Ω 4 ω sin ϕ ˜ 2 y Ω 4 ω cos ϕ ˜ 2 ) S 2 = 8 π ( x Ω 4 ω cos ϕ ˜ 2 y Ω 4 ω sin ϕ ˜ 2 ) S 3 = 4 π ( x Ω 2 ω cos ϕ ˜ 1 y Ω 2 ω cos ϕ ˜ 1 ) S 0 = S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 .
χ = 1 2 arcsin S 3 S 0
ψ { 1 2 arcsin S 2 S 0 cos 2 χ , for S 1 > 0 , S 2 0 1 2 arccos S 1 S 0 cos 2 χ , for S 1 0 , S 2 > 0 π 1 2 arccos S 1 S 0 cos 2 χ , for S 1 < 0 , S 2 0 π 1 2 arcsin S 2 S 0 cos 2 χ , for S 1 0 , S 2 < 0 .

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