Abstract

Celebrating the 20th anniversary of Optics Express, this paper reviews the evolution of optical fiber communication systems, and through a look at the previous 20 years attempts to extrapolate fiber-optic technology needs and potential solution paths over the coming 20 years. Well aware that 20-year extrapolations are inherently associated with great uncertainties, we still hope that taking a significantly longer-term view than most texts in this field will provide the reader with a broader perspective and will encourage the much needed out-of-the-box thinking to solve the very significant technology scaling problems ahead of us. Focusing on the optical transport and switching layer, we cover aspects of large-scale spatial multiplexing, massive opto-electronic arrays and holistic optics-electronics-DSP integration, as well as optical node architectures for switching and multiplexing of spatial and spectral superchannels.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (9)

D. Che, A. Li, X. Chen, Q. Hu, and W. Shieh, “Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications,” Opt. Commun. 409, 86–93 (2018).
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S. Okamoto, M. Terayama, M. Yoshida, K. Kasai, T. Hirooka, and M. Nakazawa, “Experimental and numerical comparison of probabilistically shaped 4096 QAM and a uniformly shaped 1024 QAM in all-Raman amplified 160 km transmission,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3535–3543 (2018).
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S. L. I. Olsson, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Chen, P. J. Winzer, and S. Makovejs, “Probabilistically shaped PDM 4096-QAM transmission over up to 200 km of fiber using standard intradyne detection,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4522–4530 (2018).
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A. Alvarado, T. Fehenberger, B. Chen, and F. M. J. Willems, “Achievable information rates for fiber optics: Applications and computations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 424–439 (2018).
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J. Cho, X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, R. Dar, L. Schmalen, E. Burrows, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, Y. Pan, D. Correa, B. McKay, S. Zsigmond, P. Winzer, and S. Grubb, “Trans-Atlantic field trial using high spectral efficiency probabilistically shaped 64-QAM and single-carrier real-time 250-Gb/s 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 103–113 (2018).
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Y. Tamura, H. Sakuma, K. Morita, M. Suzuki, Y. Yamamoto, K. Shimada, Y. Honma, K. Sohma, T. Fujii, and T. Hasegawa, “The first 0.14-dB/km loss optical fiber and its impact on submarine transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 44–49 (2018).
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X. Chen, C. Antonelli, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Kramers-Kronig Receivers for 100-kmDatacenter Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 79–89 (2018).
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N. Sambo, I. Tomkos, A. Shaikh, S. Bigo, M. Suzuki, and H.-J. Schmidtke, “Guest editorial: Optical networks supporting interoperability and white boxes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(15), 3058–3061 (2018).
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R. Dar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, S. Zsigmond, K.-Y. Huang, H. Fevrier, and S. Grubb, “Cost-optimized submarine cables using massive spatial parallelism,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(18), 3855–3865 (2018).
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2017 (9)

D. Marom, P. D. Colbourne, A. D’Errico, N. K. Fontaine, Y. Ikuma, R. Proietti, L. Zong, J. M. Rivas-Moscoso, and I. Tomkos, “Survey of photonic switching architectures and technologies in support of spatially and spectrally flexible optical networking,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(1), 1–26 (2017).
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T. Hasegawa, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Hirano, “Optimal fiber design for large capacity long haul coherent transmission [Invited],” Opt. Express 25(2), 706–712 (2017).
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W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(4), C1 (2017).
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S. K. Turitsyn, J. E. Prilepsky, S. T. Le, S. Wahls, L. L. Frumin, M. Kamalian, and S. A. Derevyanko, “Nonlinear Fourier transform for optical data processing and transmission: advances and perspectives,” Optica 4(3), 307–322 (2017).
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A. V. Turukhin, O. V. Sinkin, H. G. Batshon, Y. Sun, M. Mazurczyk, C. R. Davidson, J.-X. Cai, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “High capacity ultralong-haul power efficient transmission using 12-core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 1028–1032 (2017).
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R. Dar and P. J. Winzer, “Nonlinear interference mitigation: Methods and potential gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 903–930 (2017).

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D. Charlton, S. Clarke, D. Doucet, M. O’Sullivan, D. L. Peterson, D. Wilson, G. Wellbrock, and M. Bélanger, “Field measurements of SOP transients in OPGW, with time and location correlation to lightning strikes,” Opt. Express 25(9), 9689–9696 (2017).
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R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
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2016 (11)

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. J. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
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Z. Wang, B. Potsaid, L. Chen, C. Doerr, H.-C. Lee, T. Nielson, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, E. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography,” Optica 3(12), 1496–1503 (2016).
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P. J. Winzer, “From first fibers to mode-division multiplexing,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(12), 120002 (2016).
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K. Kikuchi, “Fundamentals of coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 157–179 (2016).
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C. Antonelli, M. Shtaif, and A. Mecozzi, “Modeling of nonlinear propagation in space-division multiplexed fiber-optic transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 36–54 (2016).
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K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 55–66 (2016).
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L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Intramodal dispersion properties of step-index few-mode spun fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 303–313 (2016).
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Y. Yamamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Hirano, “Low-loss and low nonlinearity pure-silica-core fiber for C- and L-band broadband transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 321–326 (2016).
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R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Pulse collision picture of inter-channel nonlinear interference in fiber-optic communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 593–607 (2016).
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F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Böcherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate adaptation and reach increase by probabilistically shaped 64-QAM: An experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(7), 1599–1609 (2016).
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A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Kramers–Kronig coherent receiver,” Optica 3(11), 1220–1227 (2016).
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2015 (4)

2014 (6)

2013 (4)

2012 (11)

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
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M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, T. F. Benyuan Zhu, M. Taunay, J. M. Fishteyn, Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1957–1960 (2012).
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S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Reduction of nonlinear penalties due to linear coupling in multicore optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1574–1576 (2012).
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E. Ciaramella, “Wavelength conversion and all-optical regeneration: Achievements and open issues,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 572–582 (2012).
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J. Cho, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer, “Analysis of soft-decision FEC on non-AWGN channels,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7915–7928 (2012).
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C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20(11), 11718–11733 (2012).
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A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23436–23441 (2012).
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P. J. Winzer, “High-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3824–3835 (2012).
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R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 245–260 (2011).
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Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
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P. J. Winzer, “Energy-efficient optical transport capacity scaling through spatial multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 851–853 (2011).
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G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
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L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Optimizing the subcarrier granularity of coherent optical communications systems,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8079–8084 (2011).
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G. Li and X. Liu, “Focus issue: space multiplexed optical transmission,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16574–16575 (2011).
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P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, “MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16680–16696 (2011).
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S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle., “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16697–16707 (2011).
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K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3119–3128 (2011).
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M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. Nelson, P. Xiang Zhou, T. J. Magill, C. Schmidt, B. Malouin, E. Zhang, S. Ibragimov, M. Khatana, R. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, G. Saunders, M. Nicholl, Nowell, and F. Forghieri, “Coherent 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK field trial,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 52–60 (2010).
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B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Seven-core multicore fiber transmissions for passive optical network,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11117–11122 (2010).
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L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, M. Moyer, D. J. S. Beckett, M. O’Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Detection of a single 40 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK channel with a real-time intradyne receiver in the presence of multiple coincident WDM channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2933–2943 (2010).
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D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 12–21 (2006).
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R. W. Berry, D. J. Brace, and I. A. Ravenscroft, “Optical fiber system trials at 8 Mbits/s and 140 Mbit/s,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 26(7), 1020–1027 (1978).
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D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, P. R. Kolodner, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, C. A. Bolle, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, C. R. Giles, S.-H. Oh, C. S. Pai, K. Werder, H. T. Soh, G. R. Bogart, E. Ferry, F. P. Klemens, K. Teffeau, J. F. Miner, S. Rogers, J. E. Bower, R. C. Keller, and W. Mansfield, “Wavelength selective 1x4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing,” Proc. Optical Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC), 857 (2002).
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D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, P. R. Kolodner, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, C. A. Bolle, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, C. R. Giles, S.-H. Oh, C. S. Pai, K. Werder, H. T. Soh, G. R. Bogart, E. Ferry, F. P. Klemens, K. Teffeau, J. F. Miner, S. Rogers, J. E. Bower, R. C. Keller, and W. Mansfield, “Wavelength selective 1x4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing,” Proc. Optical Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC), 857 (2002).
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Figures (25)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Evolution of commercial optical transmission systems over the past 30 years and extrapolations for the coming 20 years (after [1]).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of products and research records in terms of per-carrier interface rates and WDM capacities. The discontinuity in single carrier interface records around 2007 is due to the introduction of coherent detection using polarization division multiplexing (PDM). (Figure after [27].)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Dispersion versus wavelength of SSMF, DSF, and two flavors of TrueWave fiber [6,32]; (b) First implementation of a dispersion map [33].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The “single modulator trick” enabling massive WDM experiments [45], and (b) the re-circulating loop enabling long-haul fiber transmission experiments [46].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Deployment of new fiber since the early 1990 across various sectors [132].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Routing of an inverse-multiplexed signal through an optical network yields filtering penalties on its subcarriers; (b) optical superchannels avoid these penalties through joint routing.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimentally achieved record SEs (in two polarizations) versus transmission distance (markers), shown with the Shannon limit estimate on SSMF (dashed).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scaling of spectral efficiencies in research and products (Figure after [157]).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) First attempt to derive a Shannon limit for the nonlinear optical fiber channel [158]; (b) first quantitatively accurate estimate of the fiber-optic Shannon limit in the context of modern coherent systems [122,159].
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Client and line interfaces.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Conceptual view of multi degree ROADM supporting colorless directionless contentionless (CDC) functionality. Colored lines represent wavelengths being added, dropped, and passing through the node. Wavelengths can be added from any to any direction from any transponder on any color unless that color is already used for a through path; (b) Typical implementation of the functional node of (a), whose functional modules are explained in Fig. 12.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Functional elements of the ROADM node of Fig. 11; (a) WSSs; (b) DxT multicast-switch-based add/drop architecture; (c) DxT WSS-based add/drop architecture.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Global network traffic growth estimated from deployed optical transponders.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a) Aggregate data center footprint in millions of square feet for four major Cloud providers as a function of time, showing a 37% annual growth rate; (b) growth rate of Broadcom Ethernet switch capacities and line rates as a function of time, showing 41% and a 22% annual growth rates [192], along with the 71% annual traffic growth rate reported by Google [184].
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Physical dimensions available for modulation and multiplexing in optical communications. (Figure after [198].)
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 The benefit of parallelism over opto-electronic regeneration. (Figure after [197].)
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Commercially achievable low-loss window of conventional single-mode fiber in the wavelength range from 1260 to 1625 nm (O-band to L-band) using legacy fiber with (red) and without the hydroxyl absorption peak (blue). The dashed green and orange curves are redrawn from [200] and represent model predictions for low-loss photonic crystal hollow-core fiber (green) and nested antiresonant nodeless hollow-core fiber (orange). Note that the wavelength scaling (x-axis) does not represent the frequency bandwidth (double arrows).
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 A matrix of unit cells in frequency and space defines a WDM x SDM system, whose logical channels are spectral, spatial, or hybrid superchannels [1].
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 Array integration across all system elements [198].
Fig. 20
Fig. 20 Architectures for spectral (a, b) and spatial (c, d) superchannel transponders with individual lasers (a, c) and a common optical power supply (b, d).
Fig. 21
Fig. 21 Cumulative number of papers published on SDM in top journals and conferences, and various examples of SDM-specific fiber cross-sections and mode profiles. (Figure after [27].)
Fig. 22
Fig. 22 Array integration, optics-electronics co-integration, and holistic DSP-opto-electronic co-design will be needed for any superchannel transponder to realize fiber-in/fiber-out (FIFO) engines [1].
Fig. 23
Fig. 23 Comparison of the blocking probability of spectral (top) versus spatial (bottom) supper channels. The presence of multiple equivalent paths in the spectral super channel system results in much lower blocking probabilities.
Fig. 24
Fig. 24 (a) Required WSS spectral resolution for a constant spectral utilization of 75% as a function of the number of spectral superchannels within the system bandwidth. Example spectra are given for K = 2, 25 and 100 superchannels. (b) Spectral utilization as a function of the number of spectral superchannels with int system bandwidth for a constant WSS spectral resolution of 6 GHz. Example spectra are given for K = 2, 25, 50 and 100.
Fig. 25
Fig. 25 Possible future spatial switching node showing amplifier and dynamic gain equalization (DGE) on a per-spatial-link basis and a spatial photonic cross-connect (PXC) composed of a Clos network with the first and third stages associated with nodal degrees and central stages providing degree connectivity. Add/drop functionality uses extra spatial degrees and may retain wavelength switching to provide flexible subcarrier multiplexing.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 The previous 20 years and an extrapolation into the next 20 years of fiber optic systems. (*Record numbers in independent experiments; +Submarine cable capacities, counting both directions)

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Table 2 Possible system evolutions over the next 10 and 20 years.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SE= C Sys B Sys = R Ch F Ch .
C=M×B×2× log 2 ( 1+SNR ),
B rel = B f c .

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