Abstract

The total internal reflection restricts light extraction efficiency of scintillator, leading to reduced detection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio in the field of scintillator-based radiation detection system. This research presents the method of applying microlens arrays to improve the light extraction efficiency as well as achieve directional control of emission for scintillators. For BGO (Bi4Ge3O12) scintillator covered with PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) hemispherical microlens array, the 2.59-fold in particular angle (θem = 45°) and overall 1.94-fold angle-integrated enhancement ratios have been obtained. Furthermore, we analyze and optimize some parameters of microlens arrays such as the packing arrangement, duty ratio, size, refractive index, and shape. As a result, when the refractive index of microlens is slightly larger than that of scintillator, a maximum 6.23-fold angle-integrated enhancements can be achieved. It can be concluded that the microlens array covered on scintillator has considerable value for practical applications on radiation detection.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, G. Du, H. Bian, D. Zhang, J. Si, F. Yun, and X. Hou, “Rapid fabrication of large-area concave microlens arrays on PDMS by a femtosecond laser,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(19), 9382–9385 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C. C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. I. Chang, J. B. Yoon, H. Kim, J. J. Kim, B. K. Lee, and D. H. Shin, “Microlens array diffuser for a light-emitting diode backlight system,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3016–3018 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, K. Y. Peng, M. C. Tsai, W. C. Tian, and P. K. Wei, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diode using metallic nanomesh electrodes and microlens array,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8535–8543 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. C. H. Choy, W. K. Chan, and Y. Yuan, “Recent advances in transition metal complexes and light-management engineering in organic optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(31), 5368–5399 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  31. D. Banerjee, V. Burtsev, D. Cooke, P. Crivelli, E. Depero, A. V. Dermenev, S. V. Donskov, F. Dubinin, R. R. Dusaev, S. Emmenegger, A. Fabich, V. N. Frolov, A. Gardikiotis, S. N. Gninenko, M. Hösgen, V. A. Kachanov, A. E. Karneyeu, B. Ketzer, D. V. Kirpichnikov, M. M. Kirsanov, S. G. Kovalenko, V. A. Kramarenko, L. V. Kravchuk, N. V. Krasnikov, S. V. Kuleshov, V. E. Lyubovitskij, V. Lysan, V. A. Matveev, Y. V. Mikhailov, V. V. Myalkovskiy, V. D. Peshekhonov, D. V. Peshekhonov, O. Petuhov, V. A. Polyakov, B. Radics, A. Rubbia, V. D. Samoylenko, V. O. Tikhomirov, D. A. Tlisov, A. N. Toropin, A. Y. Trifonov, B. Vasilishin, G. Vasquez Arenas, P. Ulloa, K. Zhukov, and K. Zioutas, “Search for invisible decays of sub-GeV dark photons in missing-energy events at the CERN SPS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 011802 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. Xie, X. Chang, X. Shu, Y. Wang, H. Ding, and Y. Liu, “Rapid fabrication of thermoplastic polymer refractive microlens array using contactless hot embossing technology,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5154–5166 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

T. J. Li, S. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. D. Liu, C. L. Xu, Y. Shuai, and H. P. Tan, “Multi-focused microlens array optimization and light field imaging study based on Monte Carlo method,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8274–8287 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Banerjee, V. Burtsev, D. Cooke, P. Crivelli, E. Depero, A. V. Dermenev, S. V. Donskov, F. Dubinin, R. R. Dusaev, S. Emmenegger, A. Fabich, V. N. Frolov, A. Gardikiotis, S. N. Gninenko, M. Hösgen, V. A. Kachanov, A. E. Karneyeu, B. Ketzer, D. V. Kirpichnikov, M. M. Kirsanov, S. G. Kovalenko, V. A. Kramarenko, L. V. Kravchuk, N. V. Krasnikov, S. V. Kuleshov, V. E. Lyubovitskij, V. Lysan, V. A. Matveev, Y. V. Mikhailov, V. V. Myalkovskiy, V. D. Peshekhonov, D. V. Peshekhonov, O. Petuhov, V. A. Polyakov, B. Radics, A. Rubbia, V. D. Samoylenko, V. O. Tikhomirov, D. A. Tlisov, A. N. Toropin, A. Y. Trifonov, B. Vasilishin, G. Vasquez Arenas, P. Ulloa, K. Zhukov, and K. Zioutas, “Search for invisible decays of sub-GeV dark photons in missing-energy events at the CERN SPS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 011802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Wu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Plasmonic lattice resonance-enhanced light emission from plastic scintillators by periodical Ag nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181905 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. F. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, X. P. Ouyang, C. F. Xue, and Y. Q. Wu, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(5), 051901 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-scintillators for medical imaging: a tutorial overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3121–R3125 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, S. I. Moon, D. E. Hwang, K. W. Jeong, C. K. Kim, D. G. Moon, and C. Hong, “Novel fabrication method of microlens arrays with High OLED outcoupling efficiency,” Opt. Laser Technol. 77, 104–110 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Lecoq, “Development of new scintillators for medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 809, 130–139 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

D. Xie, X. Chang, X. Shu, Y. Wang, H. Ding, and Y. Liu, “Rapid fabrication of thermoplastic polymer refractive microlens array using contactless hot embossing technology,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5154–5166 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Zhu, S. Wu, C. F. Xue, J. Zhao, L. S. Wang, Y. Q. Wu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Z. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D trends in inorganic single-crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(4), 463–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

B. Liu, Z. C. Zhu, J. T. Zhu, S. Wu, H. Chen, M. Gu, Q. Cheng, H. Chen, C. W. Cheng, Z. S. Wang, Y. P. Zhao, and Q. L. Zhang, “An approach to achieve significantly faster luminescence decay of thin-film scintillator by surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. C. H. Choy, W. K. Chan, and Y. Yuan, “Recent advances in transition metal complexes and light-management engineering in organic optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(31), 5368–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, G. Du, H. Bian, D. Zhang, J. Si, F. Yun, and X. Hou, “Rapid fabrication of large-area concave microlens arrays on PDMS by a femtosecond laser,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(19), 9382–9385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Tong, B. Liu, H. Chen, Z. C. Zhu, and M. Gu, “Enhanced light extraction of Bi3Ge4O12 scintillator by graded-refractive-index antireflection coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, K. Y. Peng, M. C. Tsai, W. C. Tian, and P. K. Wei, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diode using metallic nanomesh electrodes and microlens array,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8535–8543 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C. C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. H. Huang, T. C. Huang, Y. T. Sun, and S. Y. Yang, “Fabrication of large area resin microlens arrays using gas-assisted ultraviolet embossing,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3041–3048 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 214104 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. I. Chang, J. B. Yoon, H. Kim, J. J. Kim, B. K. Lee, and D. H. Shin, “Microlens array diffuser for a light-emitting diode backlight system,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3016–3018 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6(6), 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Auffray, E.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee, V. Burtsev, D. Cooke, P. Crivelli, E. Depero, A. V. Dermenev, S. V. Donskov, F. Dubinin, R. R. Dusaev, S. Emmenegger, A. Fabich, V. N. Frolov, A. Gardikiotis, S. N. Gninenko, M. Hösgen, V. A. Kachanov, A. E. Karneyeu, B. Ketzer, D. V. Kirpichnikov, M. M. Kirsanov, S. G. Kovalenko, V. A. Kramarenko, L. V. Kravchuk, N. V. Krasnikov, S. V. Kuleshov, V. E. Lyubovitskij, V. Lysan, V. A. Matveev, Y. V. Mikhailov, V. V. Myalkovskiy, V. D. Peshekhonov, D. V. Peshekhonov, O. Petuhov, V. A. Polyakov, B. Radics, A. Rubbia, V. D. Samoylenko, V. O. Tikhomirov, D. A. Tlisov, A. N. Toropin, A. Y. Trifonov, B. Vasilishin, G. Vasquez Arenas, P. Ulloa, K. Zhukov, and K. Zioutas, “Search for invisible decays of sub-GeV dark photons in missing-energy events at the CERN SPS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 011802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkowski, M.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bian, H.

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, G. Du, H. Bian, D. Zhang, J. Si, F. Yun, and X. Hou, “Rapid fabrication of large-area concave microlens arrays on PDMS by a femtosecond laser,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(19), 9382–9385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burtsev, V.

D. Banerjee, V. Burtsev, D. Cooke, P. Crivelli, E. Depero, A. V. Dermenev, S. V. Donskov, F. Dubinin, R. R. Dusaev, S. Emmenegger, A. Fabich, V. N. Frolov, A. Gardikiotis, S. N. Gninenko, M. Hösgen, V. A. Kachanov, A. E. Karneyeu, B. Ketzer, D. V. Kirpichnikov, M. M. Kirsanov, S. G. Kovalenko, V. A. Kramarenko, L. V. Kravchuk, N. V. Krasnikov, S. V. Kuleshov, V. E. Lyubovitskij, V. Lysan, V. A. Matveev, Y. V. Mikhailov, V. V. Myalkovskiy, V. D. Peshekhonov, D. V. Peshekhonov, O. Petuhov, V. A. Polyakov, B. Radics, A. Rubbia, V. D. Samoylenko, V. O. Tikhomirov, D. A. Tlisov, A. N. Toropin, A. Y. Trifonov, B. Vasilishin, G. Vasquez Arenas, P. Ulloa, K. Zhukov, and K. Zioutas, “Search for invisible decays of sub-GeV dark photons in missing-energy events at the CERN SPS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 011802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W. K.

W. C. H. Choy, W. K. Chan, and Y. Yuan, “Recent advances in transition metal complexes and light-management engineering in organic optoelectronic devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(31), 5368–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. I.

Chang, X.

Chen, F.

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, G. Du, H. Bian, D. Zhang, J. Si, F. Yun, and X. Hou, “Rapid fabrication of large-area concave microlens arrays on PDMS by a femtosecond laser,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(19), 9382–9385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

X. Chen, B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. Zhu, J. Zhu, M. Gu, H. Chen, J. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Enhanced light extraction of plastic scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by hot embossing,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11438–11446 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. F. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, X. P. Ouyang, C. F. Xue, and Y. Q. Wu, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(5), 051901 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Wu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Plasmonic lattice resonance-enhanced light emission from plastic scintillators by periodical Ag nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181905 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
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Kim, R. H.

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Letartre, X.

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Li, T. J.

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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, G. Du, H. Bian, D. Zhang, J. Si, F. Yun, and X. Hou, “Rapid fabrication of large-area concave microlens arrays on PDMS by a femtosecond laser,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(19), 9382–9385 (2013).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D trends in inorganic single-crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(4), 463–481 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. F. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, X. P. Ouyang, C. F. Xue, and Y. Q. Wu, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(5), 051901 (2017).
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D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
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B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Wu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Plasmonic lattice resonance-enhanced light emission from plastic scintillators by periodical Ag nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181905 (2017).
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B. Liu, Z. C. Zhu, J. T. Zhu, S. Wu, H. Chen, M. Gu, Q. Cheng, H. Chen, C. W. Cheng, Z. S. Wang, Y. P. Zhao, and Q. L. Zhang, “An approach to achieve significantly faster luminescence decay of thin-film scintillator by surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061902 (2014).
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Z. C. Zhu, S. Wu, C. F. Xue, J. Zhao, L. S. Wang, Y. Q. Wu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Z. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
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K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
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ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-scintillators for medical imaging: a tutorial overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3121–R3125 (2016).
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IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
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S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
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Nature (1)

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

P. Lecoq, “Development of new scintillators for medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 809, 130–139 (2016).
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Opt. Express (8)

D. Xie, X. Chang, X. Shu, Y. Wang, H. Ding, and Y. Liu, “Rapid fabrication of thermoplastic polymer refractive microlens array using contactless hot embossing technology,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5154–5166 (2015).
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Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, K. Y. Peng, M. C. Tsai, W. C. Tian, and P. K. Wei, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diode using metallic nanomesh electrodes and microlens array,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8535–8543 (2013).
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P. H. Huang, T. C. Huang, Y. T. Sun, and S. Y. Yang, “Fabrication of large area resin microlens arrays using gas-assisted ultraviolet embossing,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3041–3048 (2008).
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S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
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X. Chen, B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. Zhu, J. Zhu, M. Gu, H. Chen, J. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Enhanced light extraction of plastic scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by hot embossing,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11438–11446 (2018).
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Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
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Phys. Rep. (1)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Banerjee, V. Burtsev, D. Cooke, P. Crivelli, E. Depero, A. V. Dermenev, S. V. Donskov, F. Dubinin, R. R. Dusaev, S. Emmenegger, A. Fabich, V. N. Frolov, A. Gardikiotis, S. N. Gninenko, M. Hösgen, V. A. Kachanov, A. E. Karneyeu, B. Ketzer, D. V. Kirpichnikov, M. M. Kirsanov, S. G. Kovalenko, V. A. Kramarenko, L. V. Kravchuk, N. V. Krasnikov, S. V. Kuleshov, V. E. Lyubovitskij, V. Lysan, V. A. Matveev, Y. V. Mikhailov, V. V. Myalkovskiy, V. D. Peshekhonov, D. V. Peshekhonov, O. Petuhov, V. A. Polyakov, B. Radics, A. Rubbia, V. D. Samoylenko, V. O. Tikhomirov, D. A. Tlisov, A. N. Toropin, A. Y. Trifonov, B. Vasilishin, G. Vasquez Arenas, P. Ulloa, K. Zhukov, and K. Zioutas, “Search for invisible decays of sub-GeV dark photons in missing-energy events at the CERN SPS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 011802 (2017).
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Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
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W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of scintillator covered with a hemispherical microlens array (a), the defined coordinate system in simulation (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the packing arrangements of hexagonal lattice and square lattice for microlens arrays on the top surface of the scintillator (a), sketch of the scintillator covered with microlens arrays with a hemispherical shape (b) and a parabola shape (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated spatial distribution of light emission for the reference sample (a) and the sample covered with a PMMA hemispherical microlens array (b), simulated angular profiles of light emission for the reference sample and the sample covered with a PMMA hemispherical microlens array (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Path of scintillation light beams passing through the plane surface (a) and the surface covered with a hemispherical microlens (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated angular profiles of emission light divided into different sections (a), path of light from different sections after passing through the surface covered with a hemispherical microlens (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 For the scintillator covered with a PMMA hemispherical microlens array, the simulated spatial distribution of light emission when the interfacial property of the bottom surface is set as absorption (a), simulated angular profiles of light emission when the interfacial property of the bottom surface is set and not set as absorption (b).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The schematic diagram of a beam of parallel light passing through a microlens (a), simulated angular profiles of emission light from θ1-θ2 downwards with the change of ns (b) and nmc (c).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulated angular profiles of light emission for scintillators covered with a hemispherical microlens array with different arrangements but the same duty ratio of 22.67% (a), simulated angular profiles of light emission for the sample covered with a hemispherical microlens array with different sizes but the same duty ratio (b).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated angular profiles of light emission for the sample covered with a hemispherical microlens array with different duty ratios (a), different refractive indices (b), different shapes of microlenses (c).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relationship between duty ratio and P/2R

Equations (7)

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D= 2π R 2 3 P 2
D= π R 2 P 2
y=ax 2 +b
sin θ in n s =sin θ out n mc
sin θ 1 n s =sin θ max n mc
sin θ 1 n s =sin(arcsin(1/ n s )) n s =1
θ max =arcsin(1/ n mc )

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