Abstract

We report the real-time observation of entire structural change in dye-doped semi-crystalline polymer (polyethylene) films through mid-IR transmission spectroscopy. The laser-heated dye molecules heat the polymer film through thermal diffusion, and accordingly the polymer film undergoes the structural change from the crystalline to amorphous structures, which is followed by the reverse structural change, namely recrystallization, during the natural cooling. By tuning the mid-IR probe pulse to one of the few structure-sensitive vibrational modes and varying the time delay between the pump and probe pulses we can monitor the structural change of the polymer film and time-varying film temperature during recrystallization through the transmission change of the resonant mid-IR probe pulse with the time-resolution of sub-μs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting and metallic polymers: The fourth generation of polymeric materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73(3), 681–700 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer electronics,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 358(1765), 193–210 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Ghebbemichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Nonlinear optics and polymer physics,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 22(6), 1147–1201 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Stable polymeric materials for nonlinear optics: a review based on azobenzene systems,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29(1), 45–74 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.-K. Chen and C.-J. Chang, “Fabrications and Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Polymer Films and Patterns on Surfaces: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 7(2), 805–875 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W.-F. Su, “Structure Morphology Flow of Polymer. Principles of Polymer Design and Synthesis,” Lecture note in chemistry 82, 27–59 (2013).
  9. S. Doroudiani, C. B. Park, and M. T. Kortschot, “Effect of the crystallinity and morphology on the microcellular foam structure of semicrystalline polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 34(21), 2645–2662 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. R. A. Manaf, T. Sugiyama, and J. Yan, “Design and fabrication of Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared imaging systems,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1202–1220 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
  12. R. G. Snyder, “Vibrational spectra of crystalline n-paraffins: II. Intermolecular effects,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 7(1–6), 116–144 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. G. Snyder and J. H. Schachtschneider, “Vibrational analysis of the n-paraffins-I Assignments of infrared bands in the spectra of C3H8 through n-C19H40,” Spectrochimica Acta 19(1), 85–116 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Qin, H. Zen, X. Wang, T. Kii, T. Nakajima, and H. Ohgaki, “Pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1068–1070 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. Wunderlich, “Motion in polyethylene. I. Temperature and crystallinity dependence of specific heat,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(6), 1203–1207 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  24. U. Gaur and B. Wunderlich, “Heat Capacity and other thermodynamic properties of linear macromolecules. II. Polyethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. Ref. Data 10(1), 119–152 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Okada and L. Mandelkern, “Effect of Morphology and Degree of Crystallinity on the Infrared Absorption Spectra of Linear Polyethylene,” J. Polymer Sci: Part A-2 5(2), 239–262 (1967).

2017 (1)

2015 (1)

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J.-K. Chen and C.-J. Chang, “Fabrications and Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Polymer Films and Patterns on Surfaces: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 7(2), 805–875 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

W.-F. Su, “Structure Morphology Flow of Polymer. Principles of Polymer Design and Synthesis,” Lecture note in chemistry 82, 27–59 (2013).

Y. Qin, H. Zen, X. Wang, T. Kii, T. Nakajima, and H. Ohgaki, “Pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1068–1070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe, I. Noda, and Y. Ozaki, “Thermally induced conformational and structural disordering in polyethylene crystal studied by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 774–784 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Stable polymeric materials for nonlinear optics: a review based on azobenzene systems,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29(1), 45–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting and metallic polymers: The fourth generation of polymeric materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73(3), 681–700 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer electronics,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 358(1765), 193–210 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Ghebbemichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Nonlinear optics and polymer physics,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 22(6), 1147–1201 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Doroudiani, C. B. Park, and M. T. Kortschot, “Effect of the crystallinity and morphology on the microcellular foam structure of semicrystalline polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 34(21), 2645–2662 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

U. Gaur and B. Wunderlich, “Heat Capacity and other thermodynamic properties of linear macromolecules. II. Polyethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. Ref. Data 10(1), 119–152 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

B. Cranfill, “Preparation of ultrathin polyethylene foils by film casting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49(2), 264–265 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

T. Okada and L. Mandelkern, “Effect of Morphology and Degree of Crystallinity on the Infrared Absorption Spectra of Linear Polyethylene,” J. Polymer Sci: Part A-2 5(2), 239–262 (1967).

1963 (1)

R. G. Snyder and J. H. Schachtschneider, “Vibrational analysis of the n-paraffins-I Assignments of infrared bands in the spectra of C3H8 through n-C19H40,” Spectrochimica Acta 19(1), 85–116 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

B. Wunderlich, “Motion in polyethylene. I. Temperature and crystallinity dependence of specific heat,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(6), 1203–1207 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. G. Snyder, “Vibrational spectra of crystalline n-paraffins: II. Intermolecular effects,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 7(1–6), 116–144 (1961).
[Crossref]

Ageev, E.

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akelaitis, A. J. P.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brédas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-J.

J.-K. Chen and C.-J. Chang, “Fabrications and Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Polymer Films and Patterns on Surfaces: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 7(2), 805–875 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-K.

J.-K. Chen and C.-J. Chang, “Fabrications and Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Polymer Films and Patterns on Surfaces: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 7(2), 805–875 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, M. J.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. H.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cranfill, B.

B. Cranfill, “Preparation of ultrathin polyethylene foils by film casting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49(2), 264–265 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

Doroudiani, S.

S. Doroudiani, C. B. Park, and M. T. Kortschot, “Effect of the crystallinity and morphology on the microcellular foam structure of semicrystalline polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 34(21), 2645–2662 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gaur, U.

U. Gaur and B. Wunderlich, “Heat Capacity and other thermodynamic properties of linear macromolecules. II. Polyethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. Ref. Data 10(1), 119–152 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ghebbemichael, F.

F. Ghebbemichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Nonlinear optics and polymer physics,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 22(6), 1147–1201 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hagemann, H.

H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
[Crossref]

Heeger, A. J.

A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting and metallic polymers: The fourth generation of polymeric materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73(3), 681–700 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, T.

M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kii, T.

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, H. Zen, X. Wang, T. Kii, T. Nakajima, and H. Ohgaki, “Pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1068–1070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kinjo, R.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kortschot, M. T.

S. Doroudiani, C. B. Park, and M. T. Kortschot, “Effect of the crystallinity and morphology on the microcellular foam structure of semicrystalline polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 34(21), 2645–2662 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. G.

F. Ghebbemichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Nonlinear optics and polymer physics,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 22(6), 1147–1201 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lackritz, H. S.

F. Ghebbemichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Nonlinear optics and polymer physics,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 22(6), 1147–1201 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lögdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Manaf, A. R. A.

Mandelkern, L.

H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Okada and L. Mandelkern, “Effect of Morphology and Degree of Crystallinity on the Infrared Absorption Spectra of Linear Polyethylene,” J. Polymer Sci: Part A-2 5(2), 239–262 (1967).

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Masuda, K.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mizobata, K.

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mizushima, M.

M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, H. Zen, X. Wang, T. Kii, T. Nakajima, and H. Ohgaki, “Pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1068–1070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nieto, J.

M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nitta, K.-H.

M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noda, I.

S. Watanabe, I. Noda, and Y. Ozaki, “Thermally induced conformational and structural disordering in polyethylene crystal studied by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 774–784 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohgaki, H.

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, H. Zen, X. Wang, T. Kii, T. Nakajima, and H. Ohgaki, “Pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1068–1070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okada, T.

T. Okada and L. Mandelkern, “Effect of Morphology and Degree of Crystallinity on the Infrared Absorption Spectra of Linear Polyethylene,” J. Polymer Sci: Part A-2 5(2), 239–262 (1967).

Ozaki, Y.

S. Watanabe, I. Noda, and Y. Ozaki, “Thermally induced conformational and structural disordering in polyethylene crystal studied by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 774–784 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, C. B.

S. Doroudiani, C. B. Park, and M. T. Kortschot, “Effect of the crystallinity and morphology on the microcellular foam structure of semicrystalline polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 34(21), 2645–2662 (1996).
[Crossref]

Peacock, A. J.

H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
[Crossref]

Plass, M.

M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

Sadashiva Pillai, C. K.

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Stable polymeric materials for nonlinear optics: a review based on azobenzene systems,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29(1), 45–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sakaki, S.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer electronics,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 358(1765), 193–210 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schachtschneider, J. H.

R. G. Snyder and J. H. Schachtschneider, “Vibrational analysis of the n-paraffins-I Assignments of infrared bands in the spectra of C3H8 through n-C19H40,” Spectrochimica Acta 19(1), 85–116 (1963).
[Crossref]

Shiiyama, T.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Siesler, H. W.

M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
[Crossref]

Snyder, R. G.

H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. G. Snyder and J. H. Schachtschneider, “Vibrational analysis of the n-paraffins-I Assignments of infrared bands in the spectra of C3H8 through n-C19H40,” Spectrochimica Acta 19(1), 85–116 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. G. Snyder, “Vibrational spectra of crystalline n-paraffins: II. Intermolecular effects,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 7(1–6), 116–144 (1961).
[Crossref]

Streck, R.

M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, W.-F.

W.-F. Su, “Structure Morphology Flow of Polymer. Principles of Polymer Design and Synthesis,” Lecture note in chemistry 82, 27–59 (2013).

Sugiyama, T.

Sullivan, P. A.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, K.

M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, N.

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Stable polymeric materials for nonlinear optics: a review based on azobenzene systems,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29(1), 45–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, I. Noda, and Y. Ozaki, “Thermally induced conformational and structural disordering in polyethylene crystal studied by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 774–784 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wunderlich, B.

U. Gaur and B. Wunderlich, “Heat Capacity and other thermodynamic properties of linear macromolecules. II. Polyethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. Ref. Data 10(1), 119–152 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. Wunderlich, “Motion in polyethylene. I. Temperature and crystallinity dependence of specific heat,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(6), 1203–1207 (1962).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, T.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

Yesodha, S. K.

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Stable polymeric materials for nonlinear optics: a review based on azobenzene systems,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29(1), 45–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, K.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zen, H.

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, H. Zen, X. Wang, T. Kii, T. Nakajima, and H. Ohgaki, “Pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1068–1070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Ageev, K. Mizobata, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Wunderlich, “Motion in polyethylene. I. Temperature and crystallinity dependence of specific heat,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(6), 1203–1207 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. Ref. Data (1)

U. Gaur and B. Wunderlich, “Heat Capacity and other thermodynamic properties of linear macromolecules. II. Polyethylene,” J. Chem. Phys. Ref. Data 10(1), 119–152 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

R. G. Snyder, “Vibrational spectra of crystalline n-paraffins: II. Intermolecular effects,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 7(1–6), 116–144 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Polymer Sci: Part A-2 (1)

T. Okada and L. Mandelkern, “Effect of Morphology and Degree of Crystallinity on the Infrared Absorption Spectra of Linear Polyethylene,” J. Polymer Sci: Part A-2 5(2), 239–262 (1967).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. (1)

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sakaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, “Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I. 47(1010R), 8091–8094 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lecture note in chemistry (1)

W.-F. Su, “Structure Morphology Flow of Polymer. Principles of Polymer Design and Synthesis,” Lecture note in chemistry 82, 27–59 (2013).

Macromol. Symp. (1)

M. Plass, R. Streck, J. Nieto, and H. W. Siesler, “Rheo-optical FT-IR Spectroscopy of LLDPE: Effect of Comonomer and Composite Materials,” Macromol. Symp. 265(1), 166–177 (2008).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

H. Hagemann, R. G. Snyder, A. J. Peacock, and L. Mandelkern, “Quantitative infrared method for the measurement of crystallinity and its temperature dependence: polyethylene,” Macromolecules 22(9), 3600–3606 (1989).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

J.-K. Chen and C.-J. Chang, “Fabrications and Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Polymer Films and Patterns on Surfaces: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 7(2), 805–875 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

I. D. W. Samuel, “Polymer electronics,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 358(1765), 193–210 (2000).
[Crossref]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

S. Doroudiani, C. B. Park, and M. T. Kortschot, “Effect of the crystallinity and morphology on the microcellular foam structure of semicrystalline polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 34(21), 2645–2662 (1996).
[Crossref]

Polym. J. (1)

M. Mizushima, T. Kawamura, K. Takahashi, and K.-H. Nitta, “In situ near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the structural changes of polyethylene during melting’,” Polym. J. 44(2), 162–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

S. Watanabe, I. Noda, and Y. Ozaki, “Thermally induced conformational and structural disordering in polyethylene crystal studied by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Polymer (Guildf.) 49(3), 774–784 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prog. Polym. Sci. (3)

F. Ghebbemichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Nonlinear optics and polymer physics,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 22(6), 1147–1201 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, “Stable polymeric materials for nonlinear optics: a review based on azobenzene systems,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29(1), 45–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting and metallic polymers: The fourth generation of polymeric materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73(3), 681–700 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Cranfill, “Preparation of ultrathin polyethylene foils by film casting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49(2), 264–265 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochimica Acta (1)

R. G. Snyder and J. H. Schachtschneider, “Vibrational analysis of the n-paraffins-I Assignments of infrared bands in the spectra of C3H8 through n-C19H40,” Spectrochimica Acta 19(1), 85–116 (1963).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for the transmission measurement. MC, MCT, and D are a monochromator, mercury cadmium telluride detector, and photodiode, respectively. M, BS, A, DG, LPF and S are a gold mirror, beam splitter, aperture, delay generator, low-pass filter and film sample on a NaCl substrate, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Strategy to determine the film properties from the probe pulse transmittance.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmittance of the dye-doped PE film obtained by scanning the FEL wavelength. An FTIR spectrum is also shown for comparison.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Variation of pump pulse transmittance through the dye-doped PE film as a function of pump pulse fluence. The pump pulse fluence is first increased from 8 to 200 mJ/cm2, and then decreased from 200 back to 8 mJ/cm2 as indicated by the arrows. (b) Estimated temperature of the PE film as a function of absorbed pump pulse fluence.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized probe signals under the absence (black) and presence (red) of the pump pulse. The probe pulse wavelength is 730 cm−1 and the pump pulse fluence is 159 mJ/cm2. The temporal position of the pump pulse is also shown (green).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized transmission signal of the probe pulses at different pump pulse fluence. The probe pulse wavelengths are (a) resonant (730 cm−1) and (b) off-resonant (699 cm−1) with respect to the structure-sensitive vibrational mode of PE. For all curves, averaging is performed over 10 probe pulses.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmittance of the probe pulse at the two resonant wavelengths, 730 and 719 cm−1, (a) as a function of absorbed pump pulse fluence by the film, and (b) as a function of film temperature. Throughout this measurement, the pump pulse is turned on at time zero.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Transmittance of the probe pulse at the two resonant wavelengths, 730 and 719 cm−1, as a function of time delay between the pump and probe pulses. Throughout this measurement, the pump pulse is turned on at time zero with the fluence of 159 mJ/cm2.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Time evolution of (a) instantaneous film temperature and (b) crystallinity after the pump pulse, which is turned on at time zero. The inset in graph (b) shows the same result in the log-linear scale.

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