Abstract

Optoelectronic effects of sidewall passivation on micro-sized light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) using atomic-layer deposition (ALD) were investigated. Moreover, significant enhancements of the optical and electrical effects by using ALD were compared with conventional sidewall passivation method, namely plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). ALD yielded uniform light emission and the lowest amount of leakage current for all µLED sizes. The importance of sidewall passivation was also demonstrated by comparing leakage current and external quantum efficiency (EQE). The peak EQEs of 20 × 20 µm2 µLEDs with ALD sidewall passivation and without sidewall passivation were 33% and 24%, respectively. The results from ALD sidewall passivation revealed that the size-dependent influences on peak EQE can be minimized by proper sidewall treatment.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  2. F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: a size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From large-size to micro-LEDs: scaling trends revealed by modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi 1700508, 1700508 (2017).
  13. W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. S. Son, D. Lim Choi, H. Nyeon Lee, and W. Geon Lee, “The interfacial reaction between ITO and silicon nitride deposited by PECVD in fringe field switching device,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 229–232 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, and K. L. Chopra, “Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(7), 394–396 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2017 (5)

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: a size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From large-size to micro-LEDs: scaling trends revealed by modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi 1700508, 1700508 (2017).

2016 (1)

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. S. Son, D. Lim Choi, H. Nyeon Lee, and W. Geon Lee, “The interfacial reaction between ITO and silicon nitride deposited by PECVD in fringe field switching device,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 229–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, and K. L. Chopra, “Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(7), 394–396 (1986).
[Crossref]

Aventurier, B.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baehtz, C.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bhatnagar, M.

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, and K. L. Chopra, “Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(7), 394–396 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bulashevich, K. A.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From large-size to micro-LEDs: scaling trends revealed by modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi 1700508, 1700508 (2017).

Chen, H.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chopra, K. L.

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, and K. L. Chopra, “Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(7), 394–396 (1986).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daami, A.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: a size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dupré, L.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Enqing, G.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

French, P. M. W.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geon Lee, W.

K. S. Son, D. Lim Choi, H. Nyeon Lee, and W. Geon Lee, “The interfacial reaction between ITO and silicon nitride deposited by PECVD in fringe field switching device,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 229–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guenther, G.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guohong, W.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, G.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jia, H.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. R.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jing, L.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Karpov, S. Y.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From large-size to micro-LEDs: scaling trends revealed by modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi 1700508, 1700508 (2017).

Kelly, A. E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, G. T.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-S.

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

Konoplev, S. S.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From large-size to micro-LEDs: scaling trends revealed by modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi 1700508, 1700508 (2017).

Krames, M. R.

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kruk, R.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, and K. L. Chopra, “Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(7), 394–396 (1986).
[Crossref]

Largeron, C.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. S.

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Licitra, C.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: a size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lie, D. Y. C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lim Choi, D.

K. S. Son, D. Lim Choi, H. Nyeon Lee, and W. Geon Lee, “The interfacial reaction between ITO and silicon nitride deposited by PECVD in fringe field switching device,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 229–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 2–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Major, S.

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, and K. L. Chopra, “Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(7), 394–396 (1986).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mughal, A.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neil, M. A. A.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nyeon Lee, H.

K. S. Son, D. Lim Choi, H. Nyeon Lee, and W. Geon Lee, “The interfacial reaction between ITO and silicon nitride deposited by PECVD in fringe field switching device,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 229–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Olivier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: a size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poher, V.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prodi-Schwab, A.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pynn, C. D.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schierning, G.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmechel, R.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Son, K. S.

K. S. Son, D. Lim Choi, H. Nyeon Lee, and W. Geon Lee, “The interfacial reaction between ITO and silicon nitride deposited by PECVD in fringe field switching device,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 229–232 (2002).
[Crossref]

Templier, F.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: a size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Theissmann, R.

G. Guenther, G. Schierning, R. Theissmann, R. Kruk, R. Schmechel, C. Baehtz, and A. Prodi-Schwab, “Formation of metallic indium-tin phase from indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles under reducing conditions and its influence on the electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tirano, S.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tongbo, W.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, S. Watson, R. Ferreira, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiaoyan, Y.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-M.

C.-M. Yang, D.-S. Kim, Y. S. Park, J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and J.-H. Lee, “Enhancement in light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using double dielectric surface passivation,” Opt. Photonics J. 2(03), 185–192 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yiyun, Z.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yue, G.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. X.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhi, L.

Z. Yiyun, G. Enqing, L. Zhi, W. Tongbo, L. Jing, Y. Xiaoyan, and W. Guohong, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by curved GaN sidewalls in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 243–245 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zuo, P.

P. Zuo, B. Zhao, S. Yan, G. Yue, H. Yang, Y. Li, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Jia, J. Zhou, and H. Chen, “Improved optical and electrical performances of GaN- based light emitting diodes with nano truncated cone,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(5), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proc. IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross section schematics of the µLED design and (b) SEM images of the six µLEDs
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Electroluminescence images of the µLEDs with different sidewall passivation and etch methods at 1 A/cm2 and (b) light output power characteristics of ALD and PECVD passivation methods at different current density for 20 × 20 µm2 µLEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Current density-voltage characteristics from −4 V to + 4 V of 20 × 20 µm2 µLEDs with different sidewall passivation techniques and (b) the dependence of leakage current at −4 V on the dimensions of µLEDs with different sidewall passivation methods.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cross sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of ITO layer after exposing to ICP etch. The left side was exposed to ICP etch to remove SiO2 and the right side was covered by photoresist during the etch. The layer labelled “Pt” is the platinum layer deposited during focused ion beam (FIB) for cross-sectional SEM imagining.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of EQE on current injection for (a) 100 x 100 µm2 and (b) 20 x 20 µm2 devices with different sidewall passivation methods

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structural details of µLED

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