Abstract

As the distance between neighboring devices in large CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays is reduced for improving the density, increased crosstalk becomes an important issue, limiting the maximum practical fill factor of the array. In this study, the temporal correlation of crosstalk events, as well as the crosstalk probability, and their dependence on parameters, such as the illumination wavelength and intensity, and the distance between SPADs, are investigated via measurement of a ~45%-fill factor CMOS SPAD array fabricated using 0.35-µm high-voltage CMOS technology. The SPADs have 24 µm × 24 µm square-shaped active areas, and all devices share a common deep-N-well cathode. On-chip time-to-digital converters with 65-ps resolution are used to measure the timing of crosstalk events in “coincidence measurements.” For the crosstalk measurements, the internal noise in one SPAD is used to produce crosstalk events in the neighboring devices. The measurement results indicate both optical and electrical crosstalk with the crosstalk events, having a specific temporal distribution. The crosstalk probability in the first two adjacent pixels is found to be 0.3% and 0.01%, with a distribution having full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of 700 and 400 ps, respectively. In pulsed time-of-flight measurements, when one SPAD is triggered with external short-pulsed (FWHM of approximately 200 ps) illumination, extra correlated noise in the adjacent SPADs added to the crosstalk noise, increasing the correlated noise considerably. This additional noise was a secondary effect of the absorbed laser photons deep in the substrate.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

S. Burri, Y. Maruyama, X. Michalet, F. Regazzoni, C. Bruschini, and E. Charbon, “Architecture and applications of a high resolution gated SPAD image sensor,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17573–17589 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Crosstalk-free single photon avalanche photodiodes located in a shared well,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(1), 99–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Lanz, B. S. Ryvkin, E. A. Avrutin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “Performance improvement by a saturable absorber in gain-switched asymmetric-waveguide laser diodes,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29780–29791 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, L. Kral, and J. Blazej, “Silicon photon counting detector optical cross-talk effect,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 618001 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[Crossref]

Alonso, O.

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Crosstalk-free single photon avalanche photodiodes located in a shared well,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(1), 99–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

Ameer-Beg, S. M.

Aurite, S.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, E. A.

Barber, P.

Besse, P. A.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bigliardi, S.

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[Crossref]

Blazej, J.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, L. Kral, and J. Blazej, “Silicon photon counting detector optical cross-talk effect,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 618001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Braga, L. H. C.

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. H. C. Braga, D. Stoppa, and L. Pancheri, “Characterization of single-photon avalanche diode arrays in 150nm CMOS technology,” XVIII AISEM Annual Conference (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Brogi, P.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Bruschini, C.

Burri, S.

Charbon, E.

Chludzinski, J. W.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Coelho, S.

Collazuol, G.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Condorelli, G.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalla Betta, G.-F.

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Devauges, V.

Dieguez, A.

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Crosstalk-free single photon avalanche photodiodes located in a shared well,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(1), 99–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

Donnelly, J. P.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Dutton, N.

Fallica, G.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ficorella, A.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Funk, J. E.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Furrer, B.

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gani, M.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ghioni, M.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hamal, K.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, L. Kral, and J. Blazej, “Silicon photon counting detector optical cross-talk effect,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 618001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. K.

Holma, J.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Holma, and J. Kostamovaara, “Cross talk measurements of a time-gated 4×128 SPAD array for pulsed Raman spectroscopy,” inProceedings of IEEE NORCHIP (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Huang, Y.-H.

Ingargiola, A.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jahromi, S.

S. Jahromi, J.-P. Jansson, and J. Kostamovaara, “Solid-state 3D imaging using a 1nJ/100ps laser diode transmitter and a single photon receiver matrix,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21619–21632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and J. Kostamovaara, “A single chip laser radar receiver with a 9×9 SPAD detector array and a 10-channel TDC,” inProceedings of 41st European Solid-State Circuits Conference ESSCIRC, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 364–367.
[Crossref]

Jansson, J.

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and J. Kostamovaara, “A single chip laser radar receiver with a 9×9 SPAD detector array and a 10-channel TDC,” inProceedings of 41st European Solid-State Circuits Conference ESSCIRC, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 364–367.
[Crossref]

Jansson, J.-P.

Kindt, W. J.

W. J. Kindt, H. W. van Zeijl, and S. Middelhoek, “Optical cross talk in geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays: modeling, prevention and measurement,” inProceedings of IEEE 28th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 192–195.

Kostamovaara, J.

S. Jahromi, J.-P. Jansson, and J. Kostamovaara, “Solid-state 3D imaging using a 1nJ/100ps laser diode transmitter and a single photon receiver matrix,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21619–21632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and J. Kostamovaara, “A single chip laser radar receiver with a 9×9 SPAD detector array and a 10-channel TDC,” inProceedings of 41st European Solid-State Circuits Conference ESSCIRC, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 364–367.
[Crossref]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Holma, and J. Kostamovaara, “Cross talk measurements of a time-gated 4×128 SPAD array for pulsed Raman spectroscopy,” inProceedings of IEEE NORCHIP (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Kostamovaara, J. T.

Kral, L.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, L. Kral, and J. Blazej, “Silicon photon counting detector optical cross-talk effect,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 618001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krstajic, N.

Labanca, I.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lacaita, A.

Lacaita, A. L.

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lanz, B.

Li, D. D.-U.

Lin, S.-D.

Lombardo, S.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lotito, A.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mahoney, L. J.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Manfredi, M.

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[Crossref]

Marangoni, S.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marrocchesi, P. S.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Maruyama, Y.

Mazzillo, M.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K. A.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Michalet, X.

Middelhoek, S.

W. J. Kindt, H. W. van Zeijl, and S. Middelhoek, “Optical cross talk in geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays: modeling, prevention and measurement,” inProceedings of IEEE 28th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 192–195.

Montiel, A.

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

Monypenny, J.

Morsani, F.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Ng, T.

Nissinen, I.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Holma, and J. Kostamovaara, “Cross talk measurements of a time-gated 4×128 SPAD array for pulsed Raman spectroscopy,” inProceedings of IEEE NORCHIP (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and J. Kostamovaara, “A single chip laser radar receiver with a 9×9 SPAD detector array and a 10-channel TDC,” inProceedings of 41st European Solid-State Circuits Conference ESSCIRC, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 364–367.
[Crossref]

Nissinen, J.

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and J. Kostamovaara, “A single chip laser radar receiver with a 9×9 SPAD detector array and a 10-channel TDC,” inProceedings of 41st European Solid-State Circuits Conference ESSCIRC, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 364–367.
[Crossref]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Holma, and J. Kostamovaara, “Cross talk measurements of a time-gated 4×128 SPAD array for pulsed Raman spectroscopy,” inProceedings of IEEE NORCHIP (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Oakley, D. C.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Pancheri, L.

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, “Low-noise CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes with 32 ns dead time,” inProceedings of IEEE Solid State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 362–365.
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. H. C. Braga, D. Stoppa, and L. Pancheri, “Characterization of single-photon avalanche diode arrays in 150nm CMOS technology,” XVIII AISEM Annual Conference (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Poland, S. P.

Popovic, R. S.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prochazka, I.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, L. Kral, and J. Blazej, “Silicon photon counting detector optical cross-talk effect,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 618001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ratti, L.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Rech, I.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

Regazzoni, F.

Ribordy, G.

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Richardson, J.

Rimini, E.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rochas, A.

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ryvkin, B. S.

Samori, C.

Sanfilippo, D.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Savoy-Navarro, A.

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

Sciacca, E.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spinelli, R.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8381–8394 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stoppa, D.

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, “Low-noise CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes with 32 ns dead time,” inProceedings of IEEE Solid State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 362–365.
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. H. C. Braga, D. Stoppa, and L. Pancheri, “Characterization of single-photon avalanche diode arrays in 150nm CMOS technology,” XVIII AISEM Annual Conference (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Suhling, K.

Tsai, C.-M.

Tyndall, D.

van Zeijl, H. W.

W. J. Kindt, H. W. van Zeijl, and S. Middelhoek, “Optical cross talk in geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays: modeling, prevention and measurement,” inProceedings of IEEE 28th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 192–195.

Verghese, S.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Vilà, A.

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Crosstalk-free single photon avalanche photodiodes located in a shared well,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(1), 99–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

Vilella, E.

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Crosstalk-free single photon avalanche photodiodes located in a shared well,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(1), 99–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

Walker, R. J.

Wu, D.-R.

Xu, H.

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. H. C. Braga, D. Stoppa, and L. Pancheri, “Characterization of single-photon avalanche diode arrays in 150nm CMOS technology,” XVIII AISEM Annual Conference (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Younger, R. D.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[Crossref]

Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III (1)

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analysis of integrated geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays,” Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Applications of Photonic Technology (1)

A. Rochas, G. Ribordy, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, “First passively-quenched single photon counting avalanche photodiode element integrated in a conventional CMOS process with 32ns dead time,” Applications of Photonic Technology 5(4833), 107–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Crosstalk-free single photon avalanche photodiodes located in a shared well,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(1), 99–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(9–10), 1267–1288 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (3)

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, L. Kral, and J. Blazej, “Silicon photon counting detector optical cross-talk effect,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 618001 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Vilà, E. Vilella, A. Montiel, O. Alonso, and A. Dieguez, “Active gating as a method to inhibit the crosstalk of single photon avalanche diodes in a shared well,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470S (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6771, 677111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Procedia Eng. (1)

H. Xu, L. Pancheri, L. H. C. Braga, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and D. Stoppa, “Crosstalk characterization of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays in CMOS 150nm technology,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1270–1273 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor high-voltage technology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(7), 3263–3270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

H. Xu, L. H. C. Braga, D. Stoppa, and L. Pancheri, “Characterization of single-photon avalanche diode arrays in 150nm CMOS technology,” XVIII AISEM Annual Conference (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

A. Ficorella, L. Pancheri, G.-F. Dalla Betta, P. Brogi, G. Collazuol, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, L. Ratti, and A. Savoy-Navarro, “Crosstalk mapping in CMOS SPAD arrays,” 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2016), pp. 101–104.
[Crossref]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Holma, and J. Kostamovaara, “Cross talk measurements of a time-gated 4×128 SPAD array for pulsed Raman spectroscopy,” inProceedings of IEEE NORCHIP (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

L. Pancheri and D. Stoppa, “Low-noise CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes with 32 ns dead time,” inProceedings of IEEE Solid State Device Research Conference ESSDERC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 362–365.
[Crossref]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128× 128 single-photon imager with on-chip column-level 10b time-to-digital converter array capable of 97ps resolution,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2008), pp. 44–594.
[Crossref]

W. J. Kindt, H. W. van Zeijl, and S. Middelhoek, “Optical cross talk in geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays: modeling, prevention and measurement,” inProceedings of IEEE 28th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 192–195.

P. Seitz and A. J. P. Theuwissen, Single-Photon Imaging (Springer Science & Business Media, 2011).

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and J. Kostamovaara, “A single chip laser radar receiver with a 9×9 SPAD detector array and a 10-channel TDC,” inProceedings of 41st European Solid-State Circuits Conference ESSCIRC, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 364–367.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 2D representation of direct (1) and indirect (2) optical crosstalk, as well as electrical crosstalk (3) mechanisms and their combination (4).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3D structure of the SPAD array (three adjacent SPADs act as the emitter and first and second detector of crosstalk-related photons/carriers) and (b) schematic of the electronics of an SPAD.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured crosstalk distributions over time for (a) D1 and (b) D2 (with respect to the emitter breakdown) (c) normalized crosstalk distributions over time for D1 and D2 (with respect to the emitter breakdown) and (d) timing distributions of the crosstalk for D2 caused by D1 triggering.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the measurement system, with active illumination triggering the emitter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized histograms of counts for the emitter and the first detector (with respect to the onset of the lase pulse) and (b) the correlated noise distribution over time for D1 (with respect to the emitter breakdown).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized correlated noise distribution for D1 for different incident illumination wavelengths.

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