Abstract

The specifications and performance of a ground-based differential absorption LIDAR (light detection and ranging) system (DIAL) using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) are presented. The OPO is injection-seeded with the output of a confocal filter cavity at frequencies generated by an electro-optic phase modulator (EOM) from a fixed-frequency external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The number of seed frequencies, frequency spacings, and duration is controlled with an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) driving the EOM. Range resolved data are acquired using both photon current and photon counts from a hybrid detection system. The DIAL measurements are performed using a repeating sequence of 10 frequencies spanning a range of 37.5 GHz near 1602.2 nm to sequentially sample CO2 and H2O at 10 Hz. Dry air mixing ratios of CO2 and H2O with a resolution of 250 m and an averaging time of 10 min resulted in uncertainties as low as 6 µmol/mol (ppm) and 0.44 g/kg, respectively. Simultaneous measurements using an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR system and in situ point sensor calibrated to WMO (World Meteorological Organization) gas standards are conducted over two 10 hr nighttime periods to support traceability of the DIAL results. The column averaged DIAL mixing ratios agree with the IPDA LIDAR results to within the measured uncertainties for much of two measurement periods. Some of the discrepancies with the in situ point sensor results are revealed through trends observed in the gradients of the range resolved DIAL data.

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References

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2018 (1)

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, K. J. Davis, S. R. Kawa, R. T. Menzies, and M. Petros, “Feasibility study of a space-based high pulse energy 2 μm CO2 IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 56(23), 6531–6547 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, and M. Abo, “Development of 1.6 μm DIAL using an OPG/OPA transmitter for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 1194–1201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Han, H. Xu, W. Gong, X. Ma, and A. Liang, “Simulations of a multi-wavelength differential absorption lidar method for CO2 measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(30), 8532–8540 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cadiou, D. Mammez, J.-B. Dherbecourt, G. Gorju, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Raybaut, “Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4044–4047 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. B. Abshire, J. D. Beck, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, and G. Yang, “HgCdTe avalanche photodiode detectors for airborne and spaceborne lidar at infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16589–16602 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dumas, J. Rothman, F. Gibert, D. Édouart, G. Lasfargues, C. Cénac, F. L. Mounier, J. Pellegrino, J. P. Zanatta, A. Bardoux, F. Tinto, and P. Flamant, “Evaluation of a HgCdTe e-APD based detector for 2 μm CO2 DIAL application,” Appl. Opt. 56(27), 7577–7585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2013 (3)

2011 (4)

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50(7), 1047–1056 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, T. Nagai, and M. Tsukamoto, “Direct detection 1.6 μm DIAL for measurements of CO2 concentration profiles in the troposphere,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820G (2011).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, R. D. van Zee, D. V. Samarov, and J. R. Whetstone, “Construction of a high power OPO laser system for differential absorption LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, “150-mJ 1550-nm KTA OPO with good beam quality and high efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 71–80 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. H. Lenschow, V. Wulfmeyer, and C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(10), 1330–1347 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, A. Giez, K. J. Davis, D. H. Lenschow, and S. P. Oncley, “Estimation of boundary layer humidity fluxes and statistics from airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D24), 29189–29203 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abo, M.

Abshire, J.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

Agusti-Panareda, A.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alford, W. J.

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4446–4461 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alpers, M.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amediek, A.

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, D. J.

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, “150-mJ 1550-nm KTA OPO with good beam quality and high efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 71–80 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. V. Smith and D. J. Armstrong, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator with 90° image rotation: design and performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(8), 1801–1814 (2002).
[Crossref]

Auwera, J. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bardoux, A.

Beck, J. D.

Bernath, P. F.

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Gibert, F.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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F. Gibert, D. Edouart, C. Cénac, F. Le Mounier, and A. Dumas, “2-μm Ho emitter-based coherent DIAL for CO2 profiling in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3093–3096 (2015).
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Giez, A.

C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, A. Giez, K. J. Davis, D. H. Lenschow, and S. P. Oncley, “Estimation of boundary layer humidity fluxes and statistics from airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D24), 29189–29203 (1997).
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Godard, A.

Gong, W.

Gordon, I. E.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Gorju, G.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Han, G.

Harrison, J. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4446–4461 (2013).
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Hayman, M.

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Heim, B.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Heimann, M.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Hill, C.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Hodges, J. T.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2696–2703 (2013).
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K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, R. D. van Zee, D. V. Samarov, and J. R. Whetstone, “Construction of a high power OPO laser system for differential absorption LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 1–9 (2011).
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Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Hubberten, H.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Ismail, S.

Jacquemart, D.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Jöckel, P.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Johnson, T. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Jolly, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Karman, T.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Kavaya, M. J.

Kawa, S. R.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
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U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, K. J. Davis, S. R. Kawa, R. T. Menzies, and M. Petros, “Feasibility study of a space-based high pulse energy 2 μm CO2 IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 56(23), 6531–6547 (2017).
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Kiemle, C.

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
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C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, A. Giez, K. J. Davis, D. H. Lenschow, and S. P. Oncley, “Estimation of boundary layer humidity fluxes and statistics from airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D24), 29189–29203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kleiner, I.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Kochanov, R. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Krainak, M. A.

Kyuberis, A. A.

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Linné, H.

Long, D. A.

Loos, J.

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G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Mao, J.

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Marshall, J.

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Mikhailenko, S. N.

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Morley, B.

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Müller, H. S. P.

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S. M. Spuler, K. S. Repasky, B. Morley, D. Moen, M. Hayman, and A. R. Nehrir, “Field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for profiling water vapor,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8(3), 1073–1087 (2015).
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Nesbitt, D. J.

Newsom, R. K.

Nikitin, A. V.

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Oncley, S. P.

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Payan, S.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
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Pellegrino, J.

Pelon, J.

Perevalov, V. I.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Perrin, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Petros, M.

Pierangelo, C.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Plusquellic, D. F.

Polyansky, O. L.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Tsukamoto, M.

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Turner, D. D.

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[Crossref]

van Zee, R. D.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2696–2703 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, R. D. van Zee, D. V. Samarov, and J. R. Whetstone, “Construction of a high power OPO laser system for differential absorption LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Votava, O.

Wagner, G.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G. A.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Wcislo, P.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weaver, C. J.

Whetstone, J. R.

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2696–2703 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, R. D. van Zee, D. V. Samarov, and J. R. Whetstone, “Construction of a high power OPO laser system for differential absorption LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilzewski, J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wulfmeyer, V.

D. H. Lenschow, V. Wulfmeyer, and C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(10), 1330–1347 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Yang, G.

Yang, M. Y. M.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zak, E. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zanatta, J. P.

Appl. Opt. (12)

T. F. Refaat, U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, S. Ismail, M. J. Kavaya, and K. J. Davis, “Evaluation of an airborne triple-pulsed 2 μm IPDA lidar for simultaneous and independent atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 54(6), 1387–1398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Han, H. Xu, W. Gong, X. Ma, and A. Liang, “Simulations of a multi-wavelength differential absorption lidar method for CO2 measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(30), 8532–8540 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4446–4461 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, K. J. Davis, S. R. Kawa, R. T. Menzies, and M. Petros, “Feasibility study of a space-based high pulse energy 2 μm CO2 IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 56(23), 6531–6547 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, and M. Abo, “Development of 1.6 μm DIAL using an OPG/OPA transmitter for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 1194–1201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wagner and D. F. Plusquellic, “Ground-based, integrated path differential absorption LIDAR measurement of CO2, CH4, and H2O near 1.6 µm,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6292–6310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ertel, H. Linné, and J. Bösenberg, “Injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with novel stabilization scheme and capability of dual-wavelength operation,” Appl. Opt. 44(24), 5120–5126 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50(7), 1047–1056 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, B. Mielke, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, and C. Sivaraman, “Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3903–3914 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 35(9), 1464–1472 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 µm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), 748–757 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dumas, J. Rothman, F. Gibert, D. Édouart, G. Lasfargues, C. Cénac, F. L. Mounier, J. Pellegrino, J. P. Zanatta, A. Bardoux, F. Tinto, and P. Flamant, “Evaluation of a HgCdTe e-APD based detector for 2 μm CO2 DIAL application,” Appl. Opt. 56(27), 7577–7585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (2)

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spuler, K. S. Repasky, B. Morley, D. Moen, M. Hayman, and A. R. Nehrir, “Field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for profiling water vapor,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8(3), 1073–1087 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

D. H. Lenschow, V. Wulfmeyer, and C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(10), 1330–1347 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, A. Giez, K. J. Davis, D. H. Lenschow, and S. P. Oncley, “Estimation of boundary layer humidity fluxes and statistics from airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D24), 29189–29203 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (4)

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, T. Nagai, and M. Tsukamoto, “Direct detection 1.6 μm DIAL for measurements of CO2 concentration profiles in the troposphere,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820G (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, “150-mJ 1550-nm KTA OPO with good beam quality and high efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 71–80 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, R. D. van Zee, D. V. Samarov, and J. R. Whetstone, “Construction of a high power OPO laser system for differential absorption LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. (1)

G. Ehret, P. Bousquet, C. Pierangelo, M. Alpers, B. Millet, J. Abshire, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, C. Crevoisier, A. Fix, P. Flamant, C. Frankenberg, F. Gibert, B. Heim, M. Heimann, S. Houweling, H. Hubberten, P. Jöckel, K. Law, A. Löw, J. Marshall, A. Agusti-Panareda, S. Payan, C. Prigent, P. Rairoux, T. Sachs, M. Scholze, and M. Wirth, “MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane,” Remote Sens. 9(10), 1052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

Mission Experts Division, “WALES – Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space,” in ESA SP-1279(3) Reports for Mission Selection, B. Battrick, ed. (ESA Publication Division, 2004).

G. G. Gimmestad, “Differential-Absorption Lidar for Ozone and Industrial Emissions,” Ch. 7 in LIDAR: range-resolved optical remote sensing of the atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 187–212.

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, “Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy,” ACS Symposium Series720 (1999).

NOAA, NASA, and USAF, “U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” (1976).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic sketch (not to scale) of the CO2-H2O-DIAL system (right side) and overall measurement setup including the IPDA LIDAR, cavity ring-down instrument (CRD), and weather transmitter (Weather TX) (left side). Right side: OPO DIAL transmitter telescope with near-field and far-field receiver telescopes with fiber-coupled (FCP) photomultiplier tube detectors (PMT A, PMT B) in temperature-stabilized box. 2 channel (CH1, CH2) data acquisition (PC DAQ) with 8 bits resolution for photon current and photon counting at a sampling rate of 2 GS/s. QE: quantum efficiency, BP: bandpass, I AMP: transimpedance amplifier (5,000 V/A gain). See Table 1 for detailed CO2-H2O-DIAL specifications. Left side: IPDA LIDAR transmitter-receiver telescope with detector (PMT C), amplifier-discriminator module (AMP DISC), and data acquisition (DAQ IPDA LIDAR). The cavity ring-down instrument is located in the laboratory and samples ambient air through a tube with the inlet next to the weather transmitter mounted on the laboratory roof top.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Filter cavity seed system (top) and RISTRA OPO (bottom) [20,21]. The external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is fiber coupled (FCP), isolated (ISO) and split in fiber (FS1) into two legs. The 90% leg is amplified and passed through an electro-optic modulator (EOM2), free-space coupled through a polarizing beam cube (PBS), mode matched to a pressure sealed confocal filter cavity made of Invar (0.5 m long, 99% mirror reflectivity, finesse ≈600, linewidth 0.5 MHz, time constant ≈260 ns) with lens (L1), and coupled back into a PM fiber. EOM2 is driven with the amplified output (AMP) of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG, 20 GHz, Keysight M8195A). After amplification (BOA2), 240 MHz sidebands (RF2) are added with EOM3 for OPO cavity locking before being free-space coupled into the two crystal Potassium Titanyl Arsenate (KTA) RISTRA OPO pumped with a Nd:YAG laser (Coherent Infinity 40-100, PRF: 100 Hz). The idler, pump and other parasitic conversion are spatially removed using a folded prism beam separator (PS) and the signal wave is converted to a ring mode using an axicon pair (AX) for efficient coupling through the transmitter. The second 10% leg is used for frequency locking the ECDL to the filter cavity and is first coupled through EOM1, shifted by 50 MHz in an acoustic optic modulator (AOM), passed through a circulator (CIR) and free-space combined on PBS. The reflected light is detected on a photodiode (DET-PDH) and fed back (PID) to the ECDL after mixing (MIX) the electrical signal with the local oscillator (RF1: 3 MHz) and conditioning the error signal using proportional-integral-differential electronics (PID lock).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sample line shape fit using HITRAN2016 [23] to the sampled points, ν1 ... ν10, of the CO2-H2O-DIAL system. The optical depth is shown for a 10 min average and 500 m path length (250 m range bin) at 1 km range. The peak optical depth of 0.04 corresponds to a fractional absorption of ≈4%.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Allan deviations (ADEV) of CO2 DIAL data obtained at 250 m resolution and at 10 s measurement intervals, (b) autocovariance function (ACF) of CO2 mixing ratio at 1 km range with dashed lines showing the 3-point linear fits for extrapolation to zero lag to estimate uncorrelated and signal variance, (c) the root mean square (RMS) of the 10 min fit standard deviations of CO2 and H2O.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 DIAL measurements on 11/29/2017 consisting of the (a) range resolved CO2, (b) range resolved H2O dry air mixing ratios, and (e) range and background corrected offline (ν1) backscatter signals. Comparisons of the IPDA LIDAR and point sensor data (Picarro G2301 and Vaisala WXT520) are made with the column averaged DIAL data (0.5 km to 1.75 km) for (c) CO2 and (d) H2O, respectively. DIAL surfaces are shown for an effective time resolution of 10 min and for increasing range bin size (see text for details). Dashed vertical line indicates a small gap in data. Time on abscissa is UTC (local time −7 hrs).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Multi-platform measurements on 11/30/2017. A description follows that of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Mean CO2 profile for DIAL measurements of 11/29/2017 (Fig. 5(a)) and 11/30/2017 (Fig. 6(a)). Uncertainties for measurement of 11/29/2017 determined from the Allan deviations for 10 min intervals and 250 m range resolution are shown with horizontal bars.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of CO2-H2O-DIALa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Key specifications of IPDA LIDAR systema. See [11] for details.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Statistic and systematic error budget of CO2-H2O-DIAL

Equations (2)

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A( R, ν i )=ln[ N i ( R 1 ) N b ( R 2 ) N b ( R 1 ) N i ( R 2 ) ],
V( R, ν i )=2ΔR m σ m ( R, ν i ) ,

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