Abstract

We have developed a low-cost optical cavity-based biosensor with a differential detection method for point-of-care medical diagnostics. To experimentally demonstrate its label-free real-time biosensing capability, we performed the detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). Streptavidin is introduced into the optical cavity structure and immobilized on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) coated surface. After rinsing out unbound streptavidin with DI water, biotinylated BSA without any labeling is introduced. A CMOS camera captures the transmitted light of two different wavelengths passing through the optical cavity sensing area in real-time. Then, the differential values are calculated to enhance the responsivity. We successfully demonstrated the label-free real-time detection of biotinylated BSA, and the measurement results matched well with the simulation results. The limit of detection of the optical cavity-based biosensor for the biotinylated BSA detection with the sensing area of 180 μm × 180 μm is estimated to be 2.82 pM, which could be reduced further for a smaller sensing area with the tradeoff of a longer sensing time.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

D. Rho and S. Kim, “Low-cost optical cavity based sensor with a large dynamic range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11244–11253 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

F. Liu, J. Z. Zhang, and Y. Mei, “The origin of the cooperativity in the streptavidin-biotin system: A computational investigation through molecular dynamics simulations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Thiha and F. Ibrahim, “A colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection platform for a point-of-care dengue detection system on a lab-on-compact-disc,” Sensors (Basel) 15(5), 11431–11441 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

R. W. Peeling, K. K. Holmes, D. Mabey, and A. Ronald, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward,” Sex. Transm. Infect. 82(Suppl 5), v1–v6 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Satyanarayana, R. N. Karnik, and A. Majumdar, “Stamp-and-stick room-temperature bonding technique for microdevices,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 392–399 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bassett, I. V.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishai, W. R.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boser, B.

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brake, J. H.

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

Brown, K.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bujana, A.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carrilho, E.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, J.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. M.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cowles, P.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drain, P. K.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellington, A.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

Frazier, B.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freedberg, K. A.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, S. D.

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Manero, G.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gau, V.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, J.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goryll, M.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Green, N. G.

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruhl, F. J.

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutman, S. I.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayes, D. F.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmes, K. K.

R. W. Peeling, K. K. Holmes, D. Mabey, and A. Ronald, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward,” Sex. Transm. Infect. 82(Suppl 5), v1–v6 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyle, E. P.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, F.

A. Thiha and F. Ibrahim, “A colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection platform for a point-of-care dengue detection system on a lab-on-compact-disc,” Sensors (Basel) 15(5), 11431–11441 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, E. C.

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joy, C.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

Karnik, R. N.

S. Satyanarayana, R. N. Karnik, and A. Majumdar, “Stamp-and-stick room-temperature bonding technique for microdevices,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 392–399 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

D. Rho and S. Kim, “Low-cost optical cavity based sensor with a large dynamic range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11244–11253 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Rho and S. Kim, “Large dynamic range optical cavity based sensor using a low cost three-laser system,” in 2017 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2017), pp. 1393–1396.
[Crossref]

Korte, B.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landers, J. L.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Länge, K.

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, D.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ligler, F.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, J. Z. Zhang, and Y. Mei, “The origin of the cooperativity in the streptavidin-biotin system: A computational investigation through molecular dynamics simulations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowe, B. M.

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mabey, D.

R. W. Peeling, K. K. Holmes, D. Mabey, and A. Ronald, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward,” Sex. Transm. Infect. 82(Suppl 5), v1–v6 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mace, C. R.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumdar, A.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Satyanarayana, R. N. Karnik, and A. Majumdar, “Stamp-and-stick room-temperature bonding technique for microdevices,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 392–399 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A. W.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mascini, M.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathies, R. A.

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Megens, M.

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, Y.

F. Liu, J. Z. Zhang, and Y. Mei, “The origin of the cooperativity in the streptavidin-biotin system: A computational investigation through molecular dynamics simulations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirica, K. A.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, D.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noubary, F.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, K. R.

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeling, R. W.

R. W. Peeling, K. K. Holmes, D. Mabey, and A. Ronald, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward,” Sex. Transm. Infect. 82(Suppl 5), v1–v6 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, S. T.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rapp, B. E.

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, D.

D. Rho and S. Kim, “Low-cost optical cavity based sensor with a large dynamic range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11244–11253 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Rho and S. Kim, “Large dynamic range optical cavity based sensor using a low cost three-laser system,” in 2017 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2017), pp. 1393–1396.
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, W.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronald, A.

R. W. Peeling, K. K. Holmes, D. Mabey, and A. Ronald, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward,” Sex. Transm. Infect. 82(Suppl 5), v1–v6 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, Z.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satyanarayana, S.

S. Satyanarayana, R. N. Karnik, and A. Majumdar, “Stamp-and-stick room-temperature bonding technique for microdevices,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 392–399 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sin, L. Y. M.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skylaris, C. K.

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soper, S. A.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, K.

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiha, A.

A. Thiha and F. Ibrahim, “A colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection platform for a point-of-care dengue detection system on a lab-on-compact-disc,” Sensors (Basel) 15(5), 11431–11441 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

Whitesides, G. M.

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D.

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, P. K.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeimpekis, I.

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. Z.

F. Liu, J. Z. Zhang, and Y. Mei, “The origin of the cooperativity in the streptavidin-biotin system: A computational investigation through molecular dynamics simulations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. (1)

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, K. A. Mirica, and G. M. Whitesides, “Paper-based ELISA,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(28), 4771–4774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

S. Satyanarayana, R. N. Karnik, and A. Majumdar, “Stamp-and-stick room-temperature bonding technique for microdevices,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 392–399 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

J. Kim, E. C. Jensen, M. Megens, B. Boser, and R. A. Mathies, “Integrated microfluidic bioprocessor for solid phase capture immunoassays,” Lab Chip 11(18), 3106–3112 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet Infect. Dis. (1)

P. K. Drain, E. P. Hyle, F. Noubary, K. A. Freedberg, D. Wilson, W. R. Bishai, W. Rodriguez, and I. V. Bassett, “Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(3), 239–249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluidics (1)

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Liu, J. Z. Zhang, and Y. Mei, “The origin of the cooperativity in the streptavidin-biotin system: A computational investigation through molecular dynamics simulations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

A. Thiha and F. Ibrahim, “A colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection platform for a point-of-care dengue detection system on a lab-on-compact-disc,” Sensors (Basel) 15(5), 11431–11441 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sex. Transm. Infect. (1)

R. W. Peeling, K. K. Holmes, D. Mabey, and A. Ronald, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward,” Sex. Transm. Infect. 82(Suppl 5), v1–v6 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

D. Rho, S. Cho, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Demonstration of an optical cavity sensor with a differential detection method by refractive index measurements,” in Proceedings of Wireless and Microwave Circuits and Systems (Texas Symposium, 2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

N. Howlader, A. Noone, M. Krapcho, D. Miller, K. Bishop, C. Kosary, M. Yu, J. Ruhl, Z. Tatalovich, A. Mariotto, D. Lewis, H. Chen, E. Feuer, and K. Cronin, “2017. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2014,” Natl. Cancer Institute: Bethesda, MD https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2014/

American Cancer Society, “Cancer Facts & Figures 2017,” (American Cancer Society, 2017) https://www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/all-cancer-facts-figures/cancer-facts-figures-2017.html

D. Rho and S. Kim, “Large dynamic range optical cavity based sensor using a low cost three-laser system,” in 2017 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2017), pp. 1393–1396.
[Crossref]

X. Fan, Advanced photonic structures for biological and chemical detection, (New York: Springer, 2009).

D. A. Bergstein, Resonant cavity enhanced multi-analyte sensing (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University) (2007).

M. Olivo and U. S. Dinish, Frontiers in Biophotonics for Translational Medicine, (Springer, 2016).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the proposed biosensor [14]. (b) The optical cavity structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Efficiencies of 780 nm (red) and 850 nm (blue) and differential value (green) vs. the sensing layer thickness.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication process of the optical cavity-based biosensor structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Test setup for biosensing with the optical cavity-based biosensor.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured average intensities for 780 nm (red) and 850 nm (blue) and corresponding differential values (green).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The intensity changes in the sensing area for the differential value at 0, 17, 30, and 50 minutes.

Equations (1)

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η= I 1 I 1o I 1o I 2 I 2o I 2o