Abstract

This paper presents the hardware architecture of an OFDM receiver suitable for optical communications. The receiver has been implemented in an FPGA device and used to demonstrate experimentally an optical OFDM transmission in a passive optical link with a directly modulated DFB laser and DAC/ADC at 5 GS/s. A bit rate of 20.37 Gb/s is achieved using an OFDM signal with subcarrier modulation format up to 512-QAM, it has been successfully transmitted over 10 km SSMF with a spectral efficiency of 8.38 bit/s/Hz.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

2016 (3)

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

2015 (4)

J. S. Bruno, V. Almenar, J. Valls, and J. L. Corral, “Low-Complexity Time Synchronization Algorithm for Optical OFDM PON System Using a Directly Modulated DFB Laser,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7, 1025–1033 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-Time Demonstration of 1024-QAM OFDM Transmitter in Short-Reach IMDD Systems,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 824–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-time optical OFDM long-reach PON system over 100 km SSMF using a directly modulated DFB laser,” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 6, 18–25 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, and L. Chen, “Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems,”Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 268–273 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Jin and J. Tang, “Optical OFDM Synchronization With Symbol Timing Offset and Sampling Clock Offset Compensation in Real-Time IMDD Systems,” Photonics Journal, IEEE 3, 187–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

X. Jin, R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. Tang, “Real-time demonstration of 128-QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission with a 5.25bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in simple IMDD systems utilizing directly modulated DFB lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 20484–20493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,”Light. Technol. J. 27, 189–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “OFDM Optical: A promising high-speed optical transport technology,”Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Singer, N. Shanbhag, and H.-M. Bae, “Electronic dispersion compensation,”Signal Process. Mag. IEEE 25, 110–130 (2008).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

E. Swartzlander, W. Young, and S. Joseph, “A radix 4 delay commutator for fast Fourier transform processor implementation,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE J. 19, 702–709 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. A. Johnston, “Parallel pipeline fast Fourier transformer,”Commun. Radar Signal Process. IEE Proc. F 130, 564–572 (1983).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication SystemsWiley, 2010), 4 ed.
[Crossref]

Almenar, V.

Armstrong, J.

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,”Light. Technol. J. 27, 189–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bae, H.-M.

A. Singer, N. Shanbhag, and H.-M. Bae, “Electronic dispersion compensation,”Signal Process. Mag. IEEE 25, 110–130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bruno, J. S.

Buchali, F.

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “OFDM Optical: A promising high-speed optical transport technology,”Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-K.

Chen, J.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

Chen, L.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-Time Demonstration of 1024-QAM OFDM Transmitter in Short-Reach IMDD Systems,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 824–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, and L. Chen, “Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems,”Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 268–273 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-time optical OFDM long-reach PON system over 100 km SSMF using a directly modulated DFB laser,” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 6, 18–25 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-Time Demonstration of 1024-QAM OFDM Transmitter in Short-Reach IMDD Systems,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 824–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, and L. Chen, “Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems,”Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 268–273 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-time optical OFDM long-reach PON system over 100 km SSMF using a directly modulated DFB laser,” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 6, 18–25 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, (2010), pp. 472–473.

Chen, Y.

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

Chen, Y.-k.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Corral, J. L.

D’Alberto, P.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Deng, R.

R. Deng, J. He, J. Yu, Y. Wei, X. Xiao, K. Lv, X. Xin, and G.-K. Chang, “Increasing data rate of an optical IMDD system using a cost-efficient dual-band transmission scheme based on RTZ DAC and sub-Nyquist sampling ADC,”Opt. Express 26, 11599–11607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dischler, R.

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “OFDM Optical: A promising high-speed optical transport technology,”Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Xiao, X. Li, and Z. Dong, “Real-time demonstration of DMT-based DDO-OFDM transmission and reception at 50 Gb/s,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

Dun, H.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Fan, Q.

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

Franchetti, F.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Ge, C.

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

Giacoumidis, E.

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18, 5541–5555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giddings, R.

Giddings, R. P.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18, 5541–5555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,”Opt. Express 18, 21100–21110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “30Gb/s real-time triple sub-band OFDM transceivers for future PONs beyond 10Gb/s/λ;,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

He, J.

R. Deng, J. He, J. Yu, Y. Wei, X. Xiao, K. Lv, X. Xin, and G.-K. Chang, “Increasing data rate of an optical IMDD system using a cost-efficient dual-band transmission scheme based on RTZ DAC and sub-Nyquist sampling ADC,”Opt. Express 26, 11599–11607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-Time Demonstration of 1024-QAM OFDM Transmitter in Short-Reach IMDD Systems,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 824–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, and L. Chen, “Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems,”Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 268–273 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-time optical OFDM long-reach PON system over 100 km SSMF using a directly modulated DFB laser,” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 6, 18–25 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heiskala, J.

J. Heiskala and J. Terry, OFDM Wireless LANs: A Theoretical and Practical Guide (Sams Publishing, 2001), 1 ed.

Hoe, J. C.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Huang, Z. R.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hugues-Salas, E.

Isaac, R.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.

Jin, X. Q.

Johnson, J. R.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Johnston, J. A.

J. A. Johnston, “Parallel pipeline fast Fourier transformer,”Commun. Radar Signal Process. IEE Proc. F 130, 564–572 (1983).
[Crossref]

Joseph, S.

E. Swartzlander, W. Young, and S. Joseph, “A radix 4 delay commutator for fast Fourier transform processor implementation,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE J. 19, 702–709 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kaneda, N.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kavatzikidis, A.

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krongold, B. S.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1250–1252 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Xiao, X. Li, and Z. Dong, “Real-time demonstration of DMT-based DDO-OFDM transmission and reception at 50 Gb/s,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, and J. Yu, “Realization of real-time 100G 16QAM OFDM signal detection,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 9388 (2015), pp. 9388

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Real-time direct-detection of quad-carrier 200Gbps 16QAM-DMT with directly modulated laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2015), pp. 1–3.

Li, X.

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Xiao, X. Li, and Z. Dong, “Real-time demonstration of DMT-based DDO-OFDM transmission and reception at 50 Gb/s,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Real-time direct-detection of quad-carrier 200Gbps 16QAM-DMT with directly modulated laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2015), pp. 1–3.

Li, Y.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

Liu, M.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Liu, X.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “OFDM Optical: A promising high-speed optical transport technology,”Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lv, K.

Mikkelsen, B.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milder, P. A.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Moeneclaey, M.

T. Pollet, P. Spruyt, and M. Moeneclaey, “The BER performance of OFDM systems using non-synchronized sampling,” in 1994 IEEE GLOBECOM. Communications: The Global Bridge, (1994), pp. 253–257 vol.1.

Moura, J. M. F.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Nelson, L.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pendock, G.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pollet, T.

T. Pollet, P. Spruyt, and M. Moeneclaey, “The BER performance of OFDM systems using non-synchronized sampling,” in 1994 IEEE GLOBECOM. Communications: The Global Bridge, (1994), pp. 253–257 vol.1.

Puschel, M.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Quinlan, T.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, C.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sandryhaila, A.

P. D’Alberto, P. A. Milder, A. Sandryhaila, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, J. M. F. Moura, M. Puschel, and J. R. Johnson, “Generating FPGA-Accelerated DFT Libraries,” in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2007),(2007), pp. 173–184.

Seo, H.

H. G. Yeh and H. Seo, “Low complexity demodulator for M-ary QAM,” in 2007 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, (2007), pp. 1–6.

Shanbhag, N.

A. Singer, N. Shanbhag, and H.-M. Bae, “Electronic dispersion compensation,”Signal Process. Mag. IEEE 25, 110–130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

Shieh, W.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1250–1252 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, (2010), pp. 472–473.

Singer, A.

A. Singer, N. Shanbhag, and H.-M. Bae, “Electronic dispersion compensation,”Signal Process. Mag. IEEE 25, 110–130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, C.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

Spruyt, P.

T. Pollet, P. Spruyt, and M. Moeneclaey, “The BER performance of OFDM systems using non-synchronized sampling,” in 1994 IEEE GLOBECOM. Communications: The Global Bridge, (1994), pp. 253–257 vol.1.

Swartzlander, E.

E. Swartzlander, W. Young, and S. Joseph, “A radix 4 delay commutator for fast Fourier transform processor implementation,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE J. 19, 702–709 (1984).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, and L. Chen, “Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems,”Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 268–273 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jin and J. Tang, “Optical OFDM Synchronization With Symbol Timing Offset and Sampling Clock Offset Compensation in Real-Time IMDD Systems,” Photonics Journal, IEEE 3, 187–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Jin, R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. Tang, “Real-time demonstration of 128-QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission with a 5.25bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in simple IMDD systems utilizing directly modulated DFB lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 20484–20493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J. M.

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18, 5541–5555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,”Opt. Express 18, 21100–21110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “30Gb/s real-time triple sub-band OFDM transceivers for future PONs beyond 10Gb/s/λ;,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1250–1252 (2010).
[Crossref]

Terry, J.

J. Heiskala and J. Terry, OFDM Wireless LANs: A Theoretical and Practical Guide (Sams Publishing, 2001), 1 ed.

Tomkos, I.

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsokanos, A.

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

Valls, J.

Walker, S.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Wei, J. L.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18, 5541–5555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Y.

Wu, X.

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
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F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

Xiao, X.

R. Deng, J. He, J. Yu, Y. Wei, X. Xiao, K. Lv, X. Xin, and G.-K. Chang, “Increasing data rate of an optical IMDD system using a cost-efficient dual-band transmission scheme based on RTZ DAC and sub-Nyquist sampling ADC,”Opt. Express 26, 11599–11607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, and J. Yu, “Realization of real-time 100G 16QAM OFDM signal detection,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 9388 (2015), pp. 9388

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Real-time direct-detection of quad-carrier 200Gbps 16QAM-DMT with directly modulated laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2015), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, X. Li, and Z. Dong, “Real-time demonstration of DMT-based DDO-OFDM transmission and reception at 50 Gb/s,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

Xin, X.

Yang, Q.

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, (2010), pp. 472–473.

Yeh, H. G.

H. G. Yeh and H. Seo, “Low complexity demodulator for M-ary QAM,” in 2007 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, (2007), pp. 1–6.

Young, W.

E. Swartzlander, W. Young, and S. Joseph, “A radix 4 delay commutator for fast Fourier transform processor implementation,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE J. 19, 702–709 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

R. Deng, J. He, J. Yu, Y. Wei, X. Xiao, K. Lv, X. Xin, and G.-K. Chang, “Increasing data rate of an optical IMDD system using a cost-efficient dual-band transmission scheme based on RTZ DAC and sub-Nyquist sampling ADC,”Opt. Express 26, 11599–11607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Real-time direct-detection of quad-carrier 200Gbps 16QAM-DMT with directly modulated laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2015), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, and J. Yu, “Realization of real-time 100G 16QAM OFDM signal detection,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 9388 (2015), pp. 9388

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

Zhang, G.

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Real-time direct-detection of quad-carrier 200Gbps 16QAM-DMT with directly modulated laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2015), pp. 1–3.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

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X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental Demonstrations and Extensive Comparisons of End-to-End Real-Time Optical OFDM Transceivers With Adaptive Bit and/or Power Loading,”IEEE Photonics J. 3, 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, J. He, R. Deng, M. Chen, and L. Chen, “FFT-Size Efficient 4096-QAM OFDM for Low-Cost DML-Based IMDD System,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–10 (2016).

Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “A Single Pilot Subcarrier-Based Sampling Frequency Offset Estimation and Compensation Algorithm for Optical IMDD OFDM Systems,”IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1–9 (2016).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1250–1252 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Ge, and Y. Chen, “High-Level QAM OFDM System Using DML for Low-Cost Short Reach Optical Communications,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-Time Demonstration of 1024-QAM OFDM Transmitter in Short-Reach IMDD Systems,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 824–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, Y. Liu, and L. Chen, “Real-Time LR-DDO-OFDM Transmission System Using EML With 1024-Point FFT,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1841–1844 (2015).
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IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw (1)

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, and I. Tomkos, “Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.  4, 769–778 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (2)

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of an IFFT/FFT Size Efficient DFT-Spread OFDM for Short Reach Optical Transmission Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 34, 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental Demonstration of Real-Time High-Level QAM-Encoded Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Systems,”J. Light. Technol. 33, 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

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N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-k. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s Coherent Optical Receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” Light. Technol. J. 28, 494–501 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,”Light. Technol. J. 27, 189–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Q. Zhang, M. Liu, J. Chen, H. Dun, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Song, and M. Wang, “Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93bit/s/Hz over 50km SSMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Commun. 387, 12–17 (2017).

M. Chen, J. He, Z. Cao, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems,”Opt. Commun. 326, 80–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. (2)

L. Nelson, G. Zhang, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, R. Isaac, Y. Pan, C. Rasmussen, G. Pendock, and B. Mikkelsen, “A robust real-time 100G transceiver With soft-decision forward error correction [Invited],” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 4, B131–B141 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, and L. Chen, “Real-time optical OFDM long-reach PON system over 100 km SSMF using a directly modulated DFB laser,” Opt. Commun. Networking, IEEE/OSA J. 6, 18–25 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links,” Opt. Express 22, 17691–17699 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, J. Yu, Y. Fang, Z. Dong, X. Li, and L. Chen, “Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser,”Opt. Express 22, 8742–8748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,”Opt. Express 18, 21100–21110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18, 5541–5555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jin, R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. Tang, “Real-time demonstration of 128-QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission with a 5.25bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in simple IMDD systems utilizing directly modulated DFB lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 20484–20493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Deng, J. He, J. Yu, Y. Wei, X. Xiao, K. Lv, X. Xin, and G.-K. Chang, “Increasing data rate of an optical IMDD system using a cost-efficient dual-band transmission scheme based on RTZ DAC and sub-Nyquist sampling ADC,”Opt. Express 26, 11599–11607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

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M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, L. Chen, and X. Wu, “Real-Time 10.4-Gb/s Single-Band Optical 256/64/16QAM Receiver for OFDM-PON,” Photonics Technol. Lett. IEEE 26, 2012–2015 (2014).
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S. Chen, Q. Yang, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, (2010), pp. 472–473.

F. Li, X. Xiao, and J. Yu, “Realization of real-time 100G 16QAM OFDM signal detection,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 9388 (2015), pp. 9388

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Real-time direct-detection of quad-carrier 200Gbps 16QAM-DMT with directly modulated laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2015), pp. 1–3.

F. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, S. Shi, C. Ge, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Real-time reception of four channels 50 Gb/s class high-level QAM-DMT signal in short reach,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (2016), pp. 1–3.

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H. G. Yeh and H. Seo, “Low complexity demodulator for M-ary QAM,” in 2007 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, (2007), pp. 1–6.

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R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “30Gb/s real-time triple sub-band OFDM transceivers for future PONs beyond 10Gb/s/λ;,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013), (2013), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of IM/DD optical OFDM PON system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Proposed preamble with 8 SS and 4 LS.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OFDM receiver DSP blocks.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 1024-point PPFFT R4MDC architecture with 4 data path.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Computational element radix-4 decimation-in-frequency. (b) Data patterns through Delay Commutator with X = 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Parallel Channel Estimation block diagram.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup for the Real-Time OOFDM IM/DD system.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Normalized channel estimation (b) Bit Loading profile vs. OFDM subcarrier and (c) EVM vs. OFDM subcarrier for EB2B and OB2B, and after transmission over 10/20/40 km SSMF.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OFDM receiver - FPGA chip resource usage

Tables Icon

Table 2 Proposed System Performance

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical OFDM IMDD System Comparations

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured EVM for different SCFO values

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H ^ [ k ] = L S r m [ k ] L S t [ k ]
R c [ k ] = R [ k ] H ^ [ k ]
1 H ^ [ k ] = L S t [ k ] L S r m [ k ] = 1 | L S r m [ k ] | 2 L S t [ k ] L S r m * [ k ]
ϕ k m = S k m w i t h S = 2 π N t Δ N

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