Abstract

A new integral-imaging-based light field augmented-reality display is proposed and implemented for the first time, to our best knowledge, to achieve a wide see-through view and high image quality over a large depth range. By using custom-designed freeform optics and incorporating a tunable lens and an aperture array, we demonstrated a compact design of a light field head-mounted-display that offers a true 3D display view of 30° by 18°, maintains a spatial resolution of 3 arc minutes across a depth range of over 3 diopters, and provides a see-through field of view of 65° by 40°.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display

Hong Hua and Bahram Javidi
Opt. Express 22(11) 13484-13491 (2014)

References

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  1. S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
  8. S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Huang and H. Hua, “Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18508–18525 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Hughes, A. Dam, M. McGuire, D. Sklar, J. Foley, S. Feiner, and K. Akeley, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, 2013).
  24. S. Liu, D. Cheng, and H. Hua, “An Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display with Addressable Focal Planes”, Proc. IEEE/ACM Int’l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR ’08), 33–42 (2008).

2017 (2)

H. Huang and H. Hua, “An integral-imaging-based head-mounted light field display using a tunable lens and aperture array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(3), 200–207 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18508–18525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13484–13491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Y. Wang, D. Cheng, and Y. Liu, “Light field head-mounted display with correct focus cue using micro structure array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060010 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Hu and H. Hua, “Design and Assessment of a Depth-Fused Multi-Focal-Plane Display Prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, “Near-eye light field displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. Geng, M. Zhang, and H. Dong, “An Interactive Multiview 3D Display System,” Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180P (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Taguchi, T. Koike, K. Takahashi, and T. Naemura, “TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(5), 841–852 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

2005 (1)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akeley, K.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

Banks, M. S.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

Cheng, D.

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

Dong, H.

Z. Zhang, Z. Geng, M. Zhang, and H. Dong, “An Interactive Multiview 3D Display System,” Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180P (2013).
[Crossref]

Dorval, R. K.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ernst, M. O.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geng, Z.

Z. Zhang, Z. Geng, M. Zhang, and H. Dong, “An Interactive Multiview 3D Display System,” Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180P (2013).
[Crossref]

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goon, A.

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Hu, X.

X. Hu and H. Hua, “Design and Assessment of a Depth-Fused Multi-Focal-Plane Display Prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hua, H.

H. Huang and H. Hua, “An integral-imaging-based head-mounted light field display using a tunable lens and aperture array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(3), 200–207 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18508–18525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13484–13491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hu and H. Hua, “Design and Assessment of a Depth-Fused Multi-Focal-Plane Display Prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, D. Cheng, and H. Hua, “An Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display with Addressable Focal Planes”, Proc. IEEE/ACM Int’l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR ’08), 33–42 (2008).

Huang, H.

H. Huang and H. Hua, “An integral-imaging-based head-mounted light field display using a tunable lens and aperture array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(3), 200–207 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18508–18525 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

Keller, K.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koike, T.

Y. Taguchi, T. Koike, K. Takahashi, and T. Naemura, “TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(5), 841–852 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krueger, M. W.

Lanman, D.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, “Near-eye light field displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, D. Cheng, and H. Hua, “An Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display with Addressable Focal Planes”, Proc. IEEE/ACM Int’l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR ’08), 33–42 (2008).

Liu, Y.

Luebke, D.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, “Near-eye light field displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maimone, A.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

Min, S. W.

Mon-Williams, M.

J. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naemura, T.

Y. Taguchi, T. Koike, K. Takahashi, and T. Naemura, “TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(5), 841–852 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rathinavel, K.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rolland, J. P.

Rushton, S.

J. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, W.

Taguchi, Y.

Y. Taguchi, T. Koike, K. Takahashi, and T. Naemura, “TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(5), 841–852 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

Y. Taguchi, T. Koike, K. Takahashi, and T. Naemura, “TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(5), 841–852 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talha, M. M.

Wang, Y.

Wann, J.

J. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watt, S. J.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

Yao, X.

Zhang, M.

Z. Zhang, Z. Geng, M. Zhang, and H. Dong, “An Interactive Multiview 3D Display System,” Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180P (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Z. Geng, M. Zhang, and H. Dong, “An Interactive Multiview 3D Display System,” Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180P (2013).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (4)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, “Near-eye light field displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 220 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, “Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

Y. Taguchi, T. Koike, K. Takahashi, and T. Naemura, “TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(5), 841–852 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

X. Hu and H. Hua, “Design and Assessment of a Depth-Fused Multi-Focal-Plane Display Prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

H. Huang and H. Hua, “An integral-imaging-based head-mounted light field display using a tunable lens and aperture array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(3), 200–207 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 7 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

Z. Zhang, Z. Geng, M. Zhang, and H. Dong, “An Interactive Multiview 3D Display System,” Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180P (2013).
[Crossref]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

J. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” ACM SIGGRAPH emerging technologies 13, (2007).

J. Hughes, A. Dam, M. McGuire, D. Sklar, J. Foley, S. Feiner, and K. Akeley, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (Addison-Wesley, 2013).

S. Liu, D. Cheng, and H. Hua, “An Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display with Addressable Focal Planes”, Proc. IEEE/ACM Int’l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR ’08), 33–42 (2008).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This video demonstrates different modes of rendering 3D light field displays.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The optical layout of (a) the display path, (b) the see-through path of the proposed design, (c) unfolded display path with parameters labeled and (d) micro-InI unit with parameters labeled.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The image of bench-top prototype with a quarter coin; (b) the 3D model of the binocular system worn on human head; and (c) the photograph of an integrated binocular prototype.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Array of the EIs on microdisplay and captured image of both real and virtual targets with the camera focusing on (b) 1 diopter, (c) 0.5diopters and (d) 3 diopters, respectively (see Visualization 1 for video demonstration).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Captured images of both real and virtual targets in vari-depth mode with the CDP set at 3 diopters while the camera focusing on (a) 3 diopters and (b) 0.5 diopters, respectively (see Visualization 1 for video demonstration).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Captured images of both real and virtual targets in multi-depth mode with the camera focusing on (a) 3 diopters and (b) 0.5 diopters (see Visualization 1 for video demonstration).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Captured images of the see-through view by (a) short focal length lens and (b) long focal length lens.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications of the System

Equations (7)

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d= f ep ( M MLA +1) F # MLA M rg ,
σ view = 4 π d 2 .
D=Nd= M MLA d,
α= tan 1 [ h MD M rg f ep ],
η= tan 1 [ p MD M MLA M rg f ep ],
g a g amax = g p EI p EI + p MLA ,
p a p amax = ( g amax g a ) p EI g amax ,

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