Abstract

In this paper, we propose an asymmetric split-loop resonator with an outer square loop (ASLR-OSL) based on vanadium dioxide (VO2) which can actively control the transmission characteristics of a terahertz wave while maintaining a high quality factor of the asymmetric split-loop resonator (ASLR) by adding an outer square loop. The proposed ASLR-OSL demonstrated transmission characteristics similar to those of ASLR, and the transmission characteristics of ASLR-OSL were successfully controlled by directly applying a bias voltage. These results show a simple method for imposing active properties on a common metamaterial having a high quality factor by adding a loop structure.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. H. Chen, J. Liu, and Z. Hong, “Guided mode resonance with extremely high Q-factors in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 383, 508–512 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Sakano, T. Tsuchiya, M. Suzuki, S. Kitajima, and N. Chinone, “Tunable DFB laser with a striped thin-film heater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(4), 321–323 (1992).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (3)

S. Yang, C. Tang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, L. Wang, and C. Gu, “Simultaneous excitation of extremely high-Q-factor trapped and octupolar modes in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15938–15946 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Liu, and Z. Hong, “Guided mode resonance with extremely high Q-factors in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 383, 508–512 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonator and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

J.-H. Shin, K. H. Park, and H.-C. Ryu, “Electrically controllable terahertz square-loop metamaterial based on VO2 thin film,” Nanotechnology 27(19), 195202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Zhang, S. Qiao, L. Sun, Q. W. Shi, W. Huang, L. Li, and Z. Yang, “Photoinduced active terahertz metamaterials with nanostructured vanadium dioxide film deposited by sol-gel method,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11070–11078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. C. Ryu, “Electrically controllable terahertz wave modulator based on a metamaterial and VO2 thin film,” K. J. Opt. Phot. 25(5), 279–285 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21211–21215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging: Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1992 (1)

S. Sakano, T. Tsuchiya, M. Suzuki, S. Kitajima, and N. Chinone, “Tunable DFB laser with a striped thin-film heater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(4), 321–323 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

Ahn, Y. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, A. I.

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Jansen, A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I. A.

Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernien, H.

Y. G. Jeong, H. Bernien, J. S. Kyoung, H. R. Park, H. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21211–21215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Born, N.

C. Jansen, A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y. P.

Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carsten, O.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. Liu, and Z. Hong, “Guided mode resonance with extremely high Q-factors in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 383, 508–512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. D.

Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chinone, N.

S. Sakano, T. Tsuchiya, M. Suzuki, S. Kitajima, and N. Chinone, “Tunable DFB laser with a striped thin-film heater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(4), 321–323 (1992).
[Crossref]

Choe, J. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

Choi, M.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cong, W.

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging: Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debus, C.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dibakar, C.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dolling, G.

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Singh, R.

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, S.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sternbach, A. J.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

Suzuki, M.

S. Sakano, T. Tsuchiya, M. Suzuki, S. Kitajima, and N. Chinone, “Tunable DFB laser with a striped thin-film heater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(4), 321–323 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tahy, K.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, C.

S. Yang, C. Tang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, L. Wang, and C. Gu, “Simultaneous excitation of extremely high-Q-factor trapped and octupolar modes in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15938–15946 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, T.

S. Sakano, T. Tsuchiya, M. Suzuki, S. Kitajima, and N. Chinone, “Tunable DFB laser with a striped thin-film heater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(4), 321–323 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tsuneyuki, M.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Wang, C.

S. Yang, C. Tang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, L. Wang, and C. Gu, “Simultaneous excitation of extremely high-Q-factor trapped and octupolar modes in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15938–15946 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, S.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonator and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Y.

Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, R.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Werner, D. H.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonator and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, K. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withayachumnankul,

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, X.

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, L. J.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W. D.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, C. Tang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, L. Wang, and C. Gu, “Simultaneous excitation of extremely high-Q-factor trapped and octupolar modes in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15938–15946 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. P.

Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Ye, Z. Z.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ying, Y. B.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yiwen, E.

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuping, R. C.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. He, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Low-loss ultra-high-Q dark mode plasmonic Fano metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3366–3368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z. W.

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. F.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: Mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Jansen, A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, A. I. Al-Naib, L. Ibraheem, W. Cong, Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Singh, A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Ibraheem, R. C. Yuping, C. Dibakar, R. Wei, O. Carsten, M. Tsuneyuki, Roberto, and Z. W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Sakano, T. Tsuchiya, M. Suzuki, S. Kitajima, and N. Chinone, “Tunable DFB laser with a striped thin-film heater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(4), 321–323 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. P. Cao, Y. Y. Wang, Z. X. Geng, J. Liu, Y. P. Yang, and H. D. Chen, “Tuning of Fano resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

K. J. Opt. Phot. (1)

H. C. Ryu, “Electrically controllable terahertz wave modulator based on a metamaterial and VO2 thin film,” K. J. Opt. Phot. 25(5), 279–285 (2014).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging: Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
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Nano Lett. (2)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J.-H. Shin, K. H. Park, and H.-C. Ryu, “Electrically controllable terahertz square-loop metamaterial based on VO2 thin film,” Nanotechnology 27(19), 195202 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 22(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Chen, J. Liu, and Z. Hong, “Guided mode resonance with extremely high Q-factors in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 383, 508–512 (2017).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Xia, E. Yiwen, C. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Li, “Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(23), 235407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonator and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of asymmetric split-loop resonator with outer square loop (ASLR-OSL) based on VO2, and (b) photographs of fabricated ASLR-OSL.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of THz transmittance of ASLR-OSL and ASLR operating in mode 1 according to variation in offset length: (a) simulated results of ASLR-OSL, (b) measured results of ASLR-OSL, (c) simulated results of ASLR, and (b) measured results of ASLR.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of terahertz transmittance of ASLR-OSL and ASLR operating in mode 2 according to variation of offset length: (a) simulated results of ASLR-OSL, (b) measured results of ASLR-OSL, (c) simulated results of ASLR, and (b) measured results of ASLR.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of quality factor of ASLR and ASLR-OSL with offset length variation operating in (a) mode 1 and (b) mode 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Surface current density of ASLR and ASLR-OSL at each resonance operated in (a) mode 1 and (b) mode 2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Photograph of the experimental setup and (b) configuration of a bias engagement for the electrical active-control of the ASLR-OSL
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmittance of ASLR-OSL at offset length of 12.5 μm operated (a) in mode 1 by increasing bias voltage, (b) in mode 1 by decreasing bias voltage, (c) in mode 2 by increasing bias voltage, and (d) in mode 2 by decreasing bias voltage.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Hysteresis of THz transmittance of ASLR-OSL operating in modes 1 and 2 at passband according to variation in applied voltage. Inset: An enlargement of the phase transition range of the transmittance.

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