Abstract

A phase-stable dual-comb interferometer measures materials’ broadband optical response functions, including amplitude, frequency, and phase, making it a powerful tool for optical metrology. Normally, the phase-stable dual-comb interferometer is realized via tight phase-locking methods. This paper presents a post-correction algorithm that can compensate for carrier wave phase noise and interferogram timing jitter. The compensating signal is a beat between two combs using a free-running continuous wave laser as an optical intermediary. In our experiment, sub-hertz relative linewidth, ~1 ns relative timing jitter, and 0.2 rad precision in the carrier phase is demonstrated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

2017 (6)

2016 (9)

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, and Q. Hu, “Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, T. Nakamura, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Goda, “Kerr-lens mode-locked bidirectional dual-comb ring laser for broadband dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(7), 748–753 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Durán, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Electro-optic dual-comb interferometry over 40 nm bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4190–4193 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, G. Hu, B. Zhao, C. Li, Y. Pan, Y. Liu, T. Yasui, and Z. Zheng, “Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21833–21845 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Asahara, A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, K. I. Kondo, Y. Nakajima, and K. Minoshima, “Dual-comb spectroscopy for rapid characterization of complex optical properties of solids,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4971–4974 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, Y. Nakajima, H. Sasada, K. Nakagawa, A. Onae, and K. Minoshima, “Doppler-free dual-comb spectroscopy of Rb using optical-optical double resonance technique,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25894–25904 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Von Bandel, M. Myara, M. Sellahi, T. Souici, R. Dardaillon, and P. Signoret, “Time-dependent laser linewidth: beat-note digital acquisition and numerical analysis,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27961–27978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

I. Znakovskaya, E. Fill, N. Forget, P. Tournois, M. Seidel, O. Pronin, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Dual frequency comb spectroscopy with a single laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5471–5474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375–3382 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent linear optical sampling at 15 bits of resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2153–2155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alden, C. B.

Andrekson, P. A.

Apolonski, A.

Asahara, A.

Baumann, E.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Coburn, C. B. Alden, R. Wright, K. Cossel, E. Baumann, G.-W. Truong, F. Giorgetta, C. Sweeney, N. R. Newbury, K. Prasad, I. Coddington, and G. B. Rieker, “Regional trace-gas source attribution using a field-deployed dual frequency comb spectrometer,” Optica 5(4), 320–327 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bendahmane, A.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bergeron, H.

Boudreau, S.

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, and Q. Hu, “Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassinerio, M.

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cermak, M.

Chen, G. Y.

Coburn, S.

Coddington, I.

S. Coburn, C. B. Alden, R. Wright, K. Cossel, E. Baumann, G.-W. Truong, F. Giorgetta, C. Sweeney, N. R. Newbury, K. Prasad, I. Coddington, and G. B. Rieker, “Regional trace-gas source attribution using a field-deployed dual frequency comb spectrometer,” Optica 5(4), 320–327 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 3535–3537 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular free-induction decay in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1395–1397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent linear optical sampling at 15 bits of resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2153–2155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coddington, I. R.

Coluccelli, N.

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cossel, K.

Cossel, K. C.

Dardaillon, R.

Deschênes, J.-D.

Diddams, S. A.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Durán, V.

Fill, E.

Forget, N.

Galzerano, G.

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gambetta, A.

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Genest, J.

Giaccarri, P.

Giorgetta, F.

Giorgetta, F. R.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4(7), 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

Gohle, C.

Guelachvili, G.

Haensch, T. W.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Meek, A. Hipke, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 43(1), 162–165 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375–3382 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy in the green region,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4847–4849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hase, E.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hébert, N. B.

Herman, D.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hesselius, D.

Hipke, A.

Holzwarth, R.

Hovhannisyan, T.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y.-D.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, G.

Hu, Q.

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, and Q. Hu, “Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ideguchi, T.

Inaba, H.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwata, T.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneoka, Y.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

Keller, U.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khurmi, C.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kondo, K. I.

Krausz, F.

Kuse, N.

Lancaster, D. G.

Laporta, P.

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levasseur, S.

Li, C.

Li, Y.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Link, S. M.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Maas, D. J. H. C.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meek, S. A.

Millot, G.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Minamikawa, T.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minoshima, K.

Mizutani, Y.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myara, M.

Nakagawa, K.

Nakajima, Y.

Nakamura, T.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N.

Newbury, N. R.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Coburn, C. B. Alden, R. Wright, K. Cossel, E. Baumann, G.-W. Truong, F. Giorgetta, C. Sweeney, N. R. Newbury, K. Prasad, I. Coddington, and G. B. Rieker, “Regional trace-gas source attribution using a field-deployed dual frequency comb spectrometer,” Optica 5(4), 320–327 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4(7), 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 3535–3537 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular free-induction decay in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1395–1397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent linear optical sampling at 15 bits of resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2153–2155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, K.

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(4), 045007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Synthetic-wavelength-based dual-comb interferometry for fast and precise absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5747–5757 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, A.

Okubo, S.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onae, A.

Ozawa, A.

Pan, Y.

Perilla, C.

Picque, N.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

Pitois, S.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poisson, A.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375–3382 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy in the green region,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4847–4849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potvin, S.

Prasad, K.

Pronin, O.

Rieker, G. B.

Roy, J.

Roy, S.

Ruben, S.

Sasada, H.

Seidel, M.

Sellahi, M.

Shen, L.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shibuya, K.

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Signoret, P.

Souici, T.

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4(7), 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 3535–3537 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular free-induction decay in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1395–1397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent linear optical sampling at 15 bits of resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2153–2155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweeney, C.

Teleanu, E. L.

Torres-Company, V.

Tournois, P.

Truong, G.-W.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Von Bandel, N.

Waldburger, D.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waxman, E. M.

Wright, R.

Wu, G.

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Synthetic-wavelength-based dual-comb interferometry for fast and precise absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5747–5757 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(4), 045007 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(4), 045007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Synthetic-wavelength-based dual-comb interferometry for fast and precise absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5747–5757 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, H.

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, and Q. Hu, “Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

Ycas, G.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, S.

Zeng, X.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

Zhao, X.

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, Q.

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(4), 045007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Synthetic-wavelength-based dual-comb interferometry for fast and precise absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5747–5757 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(4), 045007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Synthetic-wavelength-based dual-comb interferometry for fast and precise absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5747–5757 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Znakovskaya, I.

Zolot, A. M.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, “Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 233–262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Improving the accuracy of a dual-comb interferometer by suppressing the relative linewidth,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(4), 045007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375–3382 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610–617 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Haensch, and N. Picque, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, Y. Nakajima, H. Sasada, K. Nakagawa, A. Onae, and K. Minoshima, “Doppler-free dual-comb spectroscopy of Rb using optical-optical double resonance technique,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25894–25904 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Roy, J.-D. Deschênes, S. Potvin, and J. Genest, “Continuous real-time correction and averaging for frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(20), 21932–21939 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Boudreau, S. Levasseur, C. Perilla, S. Roy, and J. Genest, “Chemical detection with hyperspectral lidar using dual frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7411–7418 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Teleanu, V. Durán, and V. Torres-Company, “Electro-optic dual-comb interferometer for high-speed vibrometry,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16427–16436 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kuse, A. Ozawa, and Y. Kobayashi, “Static FBG strain sensor with high resolution and large dynamic range by dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11141–11149 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, G. Xu, K. Ni, Q. Zhou, and G. Wu, “Synthetic-wavelength-based dual-comb interferometry for fast and precise absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5747–5757 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Hébert, J. Genest, J.-D. Deschênes, H. Bergeron, G. Y. Chen, C. Khurmi, and D. G. Lancaster, “Self-corrected chip-based dual-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8168–8179 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, G. Hu, B. Zhao, C. Li, Y. Pan, Y. Liu, T. Yasui, and Z. Zheng, “Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21833–21845 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Von Bandel, M. Myara, M. Sellahi, T. Souici, R. Dardaillon, and P. Signoret, “Time-dependent laser linewidth: beat-note digital acquisition and numerical analysis,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27961–27978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy in the green region,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4847–4849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Durán, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Electro-optic dual-comb interferometry over 40 nm bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4190–4193 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Znakovskaya, E. Fill, N. Forget, P. Tournois, M. Seidel, O. Pronin, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Dual frequency comb spectroscopy with a single laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5471–5474 (2014).
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S. A. Meek, A. Hipke, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 43(1), 162–165 (2018).
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A. Asahara, A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, K. I. Kondo, Y. Nakajima, and K. Minoshima, “Dual-comb spectroscopy for rapid characterization of complex optical properties of solids,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4971–4974 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent linear optical sampling at 15 bits of resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2153–2155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1542–1544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular free-induction decay in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1395–1397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 3535–3537 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane nu(3) band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 14717–14719 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Adv. (1)

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, and Q. Hu, “Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Z. Chen, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “A phase-stable dual-comb interferometer,” arXiv:1705.04214 (2017).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The experimental setup, an optical filter with 1550 nm center wavelength and 3 nm bandwidth. Two erbium-doped fiber combs (Comb 1 and Comb 2) were fully stabilized to RF standards; fceo1 = fceo2 = 10.56MHz, frep1 = 56.090 MHz, frep2 = 56.092 MHz. The clock rate of ADC is equal to frep2 (b) The generation principle of two relative beat signals. Two CW lasers own ~kHz linewidth with respective frequencies of fCW1 = 191.5003543THz and fCW2 = 193.3419708THz measured by a wavemeter. The beat signal frequency between the two combs and two CW lasers are fCW1_1 = fCW1f1, fCW1_3 = fCW1f3, fCW2_2 = fCW2f2, and fCW2_4 = fCW2f4. The frequency of the relative beat signals between the two combs are fb1 = fCW1_1fCW1_3, and fb2 = fCW2_2fCW2_4. (c) The frequency-domain principle of the dual-comb system in the multiheterodyne version. (d) IGMs are described as the periodic envelopes multiplied by the carrier wave cos(2πfct) in the time domain.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Phase fluctuations. Curve ‘i’ is the phase noise of Beat 1 δφb1(t); curve ‘ii’ is computed from the phase noise of Beat 2 δφb2(t) multiplied by factor fCW1 /fCW2. Figures 2(a)-2(d) show the phase fluctuations at different time scales and regions. About 0.2s-length data are shown in Fig. 2(a); only 20µs-length data are shown in Figs. 2(b)-2(d).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The spectrum of Beat 1 with ~0.4MHz linewidth. (b) The spectrum of compensated Beat 1 with compensating phase is exp[-i δφb2(t)]. (c) The spectrum of compensated Beat 1 with compensating phase is exp[-i δφb2(t) fCW1 /fCW2]. RBW: resolution bandwidth.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Curve ‘i’: the timing jitter of IGMs calculated through the phase-frequency slope of spectrum by Fourier transform. Curve ‘ii’: the timing jitter calculated from the phase noise of Δfrep. (b) The gray curve is the difference between curve ‘i’ and curve ‘ii.’
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Characterizations of IGMs in time and frequency domains. The data length of both IGMs and Beat 1 signal is 1s. Only 20 IGMs are shown in the time domain, and part of each spectrum is shown. (a) Raw IGMs. (b) Phase-timing corrected IGMs. The timing jitter is not the integer multiple of sampling interval 1/fs; thus, the IGMs are resampled by a 100fs sampling rate before timing jitter correction. (c) Phase-aligned IGMs. Fig. (d)-(f) are the normalized spectra between 14.63796MHz and 14.63904MHz of (a)-(c), respectively. The gray lines in Fig. (e) represent the spectrum of phase-corrected IGMs. (g) The comparison of the spectra between raw IGMs and corrected IGMs. The spectrum of raw IGMs is shown on the negative vertical axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Precision of carrier phase and timing jitter versus the averaging time (data length = 4 s). The timing jitter was σjitter ≈1(Tupdate /T)1/2ns, and the phase precision was σphase ≈0.2(Tupdate /T)1/2rad, where T is the averaging time.

Equations (7)

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δ φ c (t)=δ φ b1 (t)+ δ φ b2 (t)δ φ b1 (t) f CW2 f CW1 [ f( n c1 ) f CW1 ],
T jitter (t)= 1 2πΔ f rep δ φ b2 (t)δ φ b1 (t) n 2 n 1 .
δ φ b1 (t)=2π 0 t δ f b1 (τ) dτ.
δ φ c (t)=δ φ b1 (t) f( n c1 ) f CW1 ,
T jitter (t)= 1 Δ f rep δ φ b1 (t) n 1 .
I 1 (t)= I 0 (t)exp[ iδ φ c (t) ],
I 2 (t)= I 1 [ t T jitter (t) ]exp[ i2π f c T jitter (t) ],

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