Abstract

We analyze the performance of high dynamic range liquid crystal displays (LCDs) using a two-dimensional local dimming mini-LED backlight. The halo effect of such a HDR display system is investigated by both numerical simulation and human visual perception experiment. The halo effect is mainly governed by two factors: intrinsic LCD contrast ratio (CR) and dimming zone number. Based on our results, to suppress the halo effect to indistinguishable level, a LCD with CR≈5000:1 requires about 200 local dimming zones, while for a LCD with CR≈2000:1 the required dimming zone number is over 3000. Our model provides useful guidelines to optimize the mini-LED backlit LCDs for achieving dynamic contrast ratio comparable to organic LED displays.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hoffman, N. N. Stepien, and W. Xiong, “The importance of native panel contrast and local dimming density on perceived image quality of high dynamic range displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 216–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Cha, T. Choi, H. Lee, and S. Sull, “An optimized backlight local dimming algorithm for edge-lit LED backlight LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 378–385 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. Yu, T. M. Chen, H. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32504–32515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Korhonen, N. Burini, S. Forchhammer, and J. M. Pedersen, “Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7866, 843607 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(3), 03B001 (2009).

2008 (2)

C. C. Lai and C. C. Tsai, “Backlight power reduction and image contrast enhancement using adaptive dimming for global backlight applications,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 54(2), 669–674 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

An, J. Y.

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Burini, N.

N. Burini, E. Nadernejad, J. Korhonen, S. Forchhammer, and X. Wu, “Modeling power-constrained optimal backlight dimming for color displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(8), 656–665 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Korhonen, N. Burini, S. Forchhammer, and J. M. Pedersen, “Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7866, 843607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cha, S.

S. Cha, T. Choi, H. Lee, and S. Sull, “An optimized backlight local dimming algorithm for edge-lit LED backlight LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 378–385 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, R. Zhu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Pixel-by-pixel local dimming for high-dynamic-range liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1973–1984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “Ambient contrast ratio of LCDs and OLED displays,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33643–33656 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, S.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

Chen, Y.

Choi, T.

S. Cha, T. Choi, H. Lee, and S. Sull, “An optimized backlight local dimming algorithm for edge-lit LED backlight LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 378–385 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chong, W. C.

Dong, D.

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forchhammer, S.

N. Burini, E. Nadernejad, J. Korhonen, S. Forchhammer, and X. Wu, “Modeling power-constrained optimal backlight dimming for color displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(8), 656–665 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Korhonen, N. Burini, S. Forchhammer, and J. M. Pedersen, “Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7866, 843607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ha, T. H.

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, B. H.

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, H. V.

Han, J. H.

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, N. N. Stepien, and W. Xiong, “The importance of native panel contrast and local dimming density on perceived image quality of high dynamic range displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 216–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, J. J.

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. P.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond-a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. G.

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. R.

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. E.

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Korhonen, J.

N. Burini, E. Nadernejad, J. Korhonen, S. Forchhammer, and X. Wu, “Modeling power-constrained optimal backlight dimming for color displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(8), 656–665 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Korhonen, N. Burini, S. Forchhammer, and J. M. Pedersen, “Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7866, 843607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lai, C. C.

C. C. Lai and C. C. Tsai, “Backlight power reduction and image contrast enhancement using adaptive dimming for global backlight applications,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 54(2), 669–674 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

Lee, H.

S. Cha, T. Choi, H. Lee, and S. Sull, “An optimized backlight local dimming algorithm for edge-lit LED backlight LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 378–385 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. C.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

Lee, T. W.

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. Z.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, J. R.

Li, M. C.

Liao, C. Y.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liao, L. Y.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, B. Y.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

Lin, F. C.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

Lin, J. Y.

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond-a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadernejad, E.

N. Burini, E. Nadernejad, J. Korhonen, S. Forchhammer, and X. Wu, “Modeling power-constrained optimal backlight dimming for color displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(8), 656–665 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, J. M.

J. Korhonen, N. Burini, S. Forchhammer, and J. M. Pedersen, “Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7866, 843607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(3), 03B001 (2009).

Seetzen, H.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P. D.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, W. J.

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stepien, N. N.

D. M. Hoffman, N. N. Stepien, and W. Xiong, “The importance of native panel contrast and local dimming density on perceived image quality of high dynamic range displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 216–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stuerzlinger, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sull, S.

S. Cha, T. Choi, H. Lee, and S. Sull, “An optimized backlight local dimming algorithm for edge-lit LED backlight LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 378–385 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sung, J. H.

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

H. Chen, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “Ambient contrast ratio of LCDs and OLED displays,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33643–33656 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Trentacoste, M.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. C.

C. C. Lai and C. C. Tsai, “Backlight power reduction and image contrast enhancement using adaptive dimming for global backlight applications,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 54(2), 669–674 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. S.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Vorozcovs, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. M.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ward, G.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, L.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. M.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. X.

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, R. Zhu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Pixel-by-pixel local dimming for high-dynamic-range liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1973–1984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “Ambient contrast ratio of LCDs and OLED displays,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33643–33656 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

N. Burini, E. Nadernejad, J. Korhonen, S. Forchhammer, and X. Wu, “Modeling power-constrained optimal backlight dimming for color displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(8), 656–665 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiong, W.

D. M. Hoffman, N. N. Stepien, and W. Xiong, “The importance of native panel contrast and local dimming density on perceived image quality of high dynamic range displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 216–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yeh, S. C.

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Zhang, X. B.

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

H. Chen, R. Zhu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Pixel-by-pixel local dimming for high-dynamic-range liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1973–1984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

C. C. Lai and C. C. Tsai, “Backlight power reduction and image contrast enhancement using adaptive dimming for global backlight applications,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 54(2), 669–674 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (4)

S. Cha, T. Choi, H. Lee, and S. Sull, “An optimized backlight local dimming algorithm for edge-lit LED backlight LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 378–385 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. Y. Liao, H. P. D. Shieh, T. M. Wang, and S. C. Yeh, “Dynamic backlight gamma on high dynamic range LCD TVs,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(2), 139–146 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. B. Zhang, R. Wang, D. Dong, J. H. Han, and H. X. Wu, “Dynamic backlight adaptation based on the details of image for liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 108–111 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Burini, E. Nadernejad, J. Korhonen, S. Forchhammer, and X. Wu, “Modeling power-constrained optimal backlight dimming for color displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(8), 656–665 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y. S. Tsai, K. C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y. Z. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (3)

S. E. Kim, J. Y. An, J. J. Hong, T. W. Lee, C. G. Kim, and W. J. Song, “How to reduce light leakage and clipping in local-dimming liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(12), 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hoffman, N. N. Stepien, and W. Xiong, “The importance of native panel contrast and local dimming density on perceived image quality of high dynamic range displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 216–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(3), 03B001 (2009).

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Korhonen, N. Burini, S. Forchhammer, and J. M. Pedersen, “Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7866, 843607 (2011).
[Crossref]

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C. H. Oh, H. J. Shin, W. J. Nam, B. C. Ahn, S. Y. Cha, and S. D. Yeo, “Technological progress and commercialization of OLED TV,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 44(1), 239–242 (2013).

S. Kobayashi, S. Mikoshiba, and S. Lim, LCD Backlights (John Wiley & Sons, 2009).

P. de Greef and H. G. Hulze, “Adaptive dimming and boosting backlight for LCD-TV Systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 38(1), 1332–1335 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Sung, T. Ha, and Y. Park, “Locally pixel-compensated backlight dimming for improving static contrast on LED backlit LCDs,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 38(1), 1339–1342 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Seetzen, L. A. Whitehead, and G. Ward, “A high dynamic range display using low and high resolution modulators,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 34(1), 1450–1453 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Daly, T. Kunkel, X. Sun, S. Farrell, and P. Crum, “Viewer preferences for shadow, diffuse, specular, and emissive luminance limits of high dynamic range displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 44(1), 563–566 (2013).

R. Zhu, A. Sarkar, N. Emerton, and T. Large, “Reproducing high dynamic range contents adaptively based on display specifications,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 48(1), 1188–1191 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Shirai, S. Shimizukawa, T. Shiga, S. Mikoshiba, and K. Käläntär, “RGB-LED backlights for LCD-TVs with 0D, 1D, and 2D adaptive dimming,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 37(1), 1520–1523 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. G. Hulze and P. de Greef, “Power savings by local dimming on a LCD panel with side lit backlight,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 40(1), 749–752 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the LCD display with a mini-LED backlight.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mini-LED backlight local dimming modulation with (a) pattern I, (b) pattern II, (c) pattern III, and (d) pattern IV. Simulated displayed images: (e) pattern I, (f) pattern II, (g) pattern III, and (h) pattern IV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Displayed image simulation: (a) Mini-LED backlight modulation; (b) luminance distribution of the light incident on LC layer, and (c) displayed image after LCD modulation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The L*a*b* color difference ΔE between target and displayed images with different local dimming zone numbers: a) 18; b) 288; c) 1152 and d) 10368.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The L*a*b* color difference ΔE between target and displayed images with LCD contrast ratios: a) 1500:1; b) 2500:1; c) 3500:1 and d) 4500:1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 HDR target pictures used in the subjective experiment: a) Beach, b) City light, c) Christmas, d) Firework, e) Tower, f) Stars, g) Sunset, h) Waffle house, i) Lamp, and j) Candle.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated LabPSNR with various local dimming zone numbers and LC contrast ratios for 10 images: a) Beach, b) City light, c) Christmas, d) Firework, e) Tower, f) Stars, g) Sunset, h) Waffle house, i) Lamp, and j) Candle.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Subjective experiment results of perceived image difference versus LabPSNR of the images.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated LabPSNR for different HDR display systems with various local dimming zone numbers and LC contrast ratios.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Conceptual diagram of scaling up display size based on same angular size.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Simulated and measured [30] dynamic contrast ratios of four test patterns.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Required local dimming zone numbers for large size TVs.

Equations (7)

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I d (x,y)=exp[ (x x 0 ) 2 + (y y 0 ) 2 2 ρ 2 ],
L*=116f( Y/ Y n )16 a*=500[ f( X/ X n )f( Y/ Y n ) ], b*=200[ f( Y/ Y n )f( Z/ Z n ) ]
f(t)={ t 3 ,ift> ( 6/ 29 ) 3 t 3× ( 6/ 29 ) 2 + 4 29 ,otherwise .
ΔE= ΔL * 2 +Δa * 2 +Δb * 2 ,
LabPSNR=10× log 10 [ ( Δ E max ) 2 1 mn i=1 n j=1 m ΔE ( i,j ) 2 ],
f( LabPSN R cri )= 1 σ 2π e ( LabPSN R cri μ ) 2 2 σ 2 ,
F( LabPSNR )=Prob[ LabPSN R cri LabPSNR ] = LabPSNR f( LabPSN R cri ) dLabPSN R cri .