Abstract

Line-of-sight link is widely used in common free-space optical (FSO) laser communications between two fixed locations. While in practical underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC), the environment is relatively complicated. In some scenarios there exist irremovable obstacles, which block the line-of-sight optical link. Fortunately, the air-water interface can function as a natural mirror to enable non-line-of-sight optical link using the total internal reflection. Very recently, twisted light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted researchers’ great attention to improve the transmission capacity in UWOC. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a non-line-of-sight underwater twisted light transmission link utilizing the total internal reflection at the air-water interface. To overcome the beam fluctuation and drift caused by the change of interface states, we develop a proof-of-concept adaptive feedback system to provide a stable output. Moreover, we study the degrading effects of the slight wind effect, the salinity (turbidity) effect, and the vertical thermal gradient-induced turbulence effect. The results show that the water wave caused by the slight wind causes the most beam drift, the thermal gradient causes the most distortions, and the salinity causes the most power loss.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Reflection and transmission of twisted light at phase conjugating interfaces

Anita Thakur and Jamal Berakdar
Opt. Express 20(2) 1301-1307 (2012)

10-m 9.51-Gb/s RGB laser diodes-based WDM underwater wireless optical communication

Meiwei Kong, Weichao Lv, Tariq Ali, Rohail Sarwar, Chuying Yu, Yang Qiu, Fengzhong Qu, Zhiwei Xu, Jun Han, and Jing Xu
Opt. Express 25(17) 20829-20834 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. J. Johnson, R. J. Green, and M. S. Leeson, “Underwater optical wireless communications: depth-dependent beam refraction,” Appl. Opt. 53(31), 7273–7277 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. Cox and J. Muth, “Simulating channel losses in an underwater optical communication system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(5), 920–934 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  13. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Wang, “Metasurfaces enabling structured light manipulation: advances and perspectives,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(5), 050006 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. O. Korotkova, N. Farwell, and E. Shchepakina, “Light scintillation in oceanic turbulence,” Waves Random Complex Media 22(2), 260–266 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).
  26. W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).
  27. Y. Zhao, A. Wang, L. Zhu, W. Lv, J. Xu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 42(22), 4699–4702 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Wang, L. Zhu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, W. Lv, J. Xu, and J. Wang, “Adaptive water-air-water data information transfer using orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8669–8678 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. M. V. Jamali, F. Akhoundi, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance characterization of relay-assisted wireless optical CDMA networks in turbulent underwater channel,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 15(6), 4104–4116 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. V. Jamali, A. Chizari, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance analysis of multi-hop underwater wireless optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(5), 462–465 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Celik, N. Saeed, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. WCNC (2018).
  33. G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salinity
  35. S. Li and J. Wang, “Compensation of a distorted N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting link using adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1482–1485 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. Chen, S. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, J. Du, L. Shen, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of 20-Gbit/s high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4680–4683 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

2017 (7)

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Y. Zhao, A. Wang, L. Zhu, W. Lv, J. Xu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 42(22), 4699–4702 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jamali, A. Chizari, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance analysis of multi-hop underwater wireless optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(5), 462–465 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Compensation of a distorted N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting link using adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1482–1485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, S. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, J. Du, L. Shen, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of 20-Gbit/s high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4680–4683 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Jamali, F. Akhoundi, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance characterization of relay-assisted wireless optical CDMA networks in turbulent underwater channel,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 15(6), 4104–4116 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova, N. Farwell, and E. Shchepakina, “Light scintillation in oceanic turbulence,” Waves Random Complex Media 22(2), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ai, J.

Akal, T.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akhoundi, F.

M. V. Jamali, F. Akhoundi, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance characterization of relay-assisted wireless optical CDMA networks in turbulent underwater channel,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 15(6), 4104–4116 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Naffouri, T. Y.

A. Celik, N. Saeed, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. WCNC (2018).

Alouini, M. S.

A. Celik, N. Saeed, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. WCNC (2018).

Arbabi, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

Ashrafi, S.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baghdady, J.

Baker, E. T.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, S.

Bock, R.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butterfield, D. A.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrd, M.

Cao, T.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Cao, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celik, A.

A. Celik, N. Saeed, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. WCNC (2018).

Chadwick, W. W.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chitre, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chizari, A.

M. V. Jamali, A. Chizari, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance analysis of multi-hop underwater wireless optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(5), 462–465 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).

Cochenour, B. M.

Courtial, J.

Cox, W.

Davis, R. E.

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Ronde, C. E. J.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickey, T. D.

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

Du, J.

Embley, R. W.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farwell, N.

O. Korotkova, N. Farwell, and E. Shchepakina, “Light scintillation in oceanic turbulence,” Waves Random Complex Media 22(2), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Fratantoni, D. M.

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

Freitag, L.

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Green, R. J.

Guo, L.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Heidemann, J.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hein, J. R.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodgkiss, W. S.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jamali, M. V.

M. V. Jamali, A. Chizari, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance analysis of multi-hop underwater wireless optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(5), 462–465 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jamali, F. Akhoundi, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance characterization of relay-assisted wireless optical CDMA networks in turbulent underwater channel,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 15(6), 4104–4116 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).

Jian, P.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, E. G.

Johnson, L. J.

Johnson, M.

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
[Crossref]

Juniper, S. K.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamali, S. M.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khorramshahi, P.

M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).

Korotkova, O.

O. Korotkova, N. Farwell, and E. Shchepakina, “Light scintillation in oceanic turbulence,” Waves Random Complex Media 22(2), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuperman, W. A.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

Labroille, G.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavery, M. P. J.

Lebon, G. T.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leeson, M. S.

Lekien, F.

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leonard, N. E.

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liao, P.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Lupton, J. E.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lv, W.

Lynn, B.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merle, S. G.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, K.

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

Morgan, K.

Muth, J.

Nakamura, K.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osler, S.

Padgett, M.

Paley, D. A.

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pang, K.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pas’ko, V.

Preisig, J.

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ragusa, R.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Resing, J. A.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roux, P.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rubin, K. H.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saeed, N.

A. Celik, N. Saeed, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. WCNC (2018).

Salehi, J. A.

M. V. Jamali, A. Chizari, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance analysis of multi-hop underwater wireless optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(5), 462–465 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jamali, F. Akhoundi, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance characterization of relay-assisted wireless optical CDMA networks in turbulent underwater channel,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 15(6), 4104–4116 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sepulchre, R.

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shahabudeen, S.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shahsavari, S.

M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).

Shchepakina, E.

O. Korotkova, N. Farwell, and E. Shchepakina, “Light scintillation in oceanic turbulence,” Waves Random Complex Media 22(2), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

Singh, S.

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, H. C.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

Starodubov, D.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stern, R. J.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevenson, M.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, M.

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
[Crossref]

Syed, A.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tamura, Y.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tashakori, A.

M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).

Tian, H.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Tunnicliffe, V.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tur, M.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Wang, A.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, W. Lv, J. Xu, and J. Wang, “Adaptive water-air-water data information transfer using orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8669–8678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, A. Wang, L. Zhu, W. Lv, J. Xu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 42(22), 4699–4702 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, S. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, J. Du, L. Shen, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of 20-Gbit/s high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4680–4683 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, W. Lv, J. Xu, and J. Wang, “Adaptive water-air-water data information transfer using orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8669–8678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Metasurfaces enabling structured light manipulation: advances and perspectives,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(5), 050006 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, A. Wang, L. Zhu, W. Lv, J. Xu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 42(22), 4699–4702 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, S. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, J. Du, L. Shen, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of 20-Gbit/s high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4680–4683 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Compensation of a distorted N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting link using adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1482–1485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, P.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Wang, W.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Wang, Z.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiens, D. A.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. J.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wills, J.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Yan, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, W.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Z.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum–multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, W. Lv, J. Xu, and J. Wang, “Adaptive water-air-water data information transfer using orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8669–8678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, A. Wang, L. Zhu, W. Lv, J. Xu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 42(22), 4699–4702 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, S. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, J. Du, L. Shen, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of 20-Gbit/s high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4680–4683 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (2)

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communication,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input-multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow-water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. V. Jamali, A. Chizari, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance analysis of multi-hop underwater wireless optical communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(5), 462–465 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (1)

M. V. Jamali, F. Akhoundi, and J. A. Salehi, “Performance characterization of relay-assisted wireless optical CDMA networks in turbulent underwater channel,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 15(6), 4104–4116 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mar. Syst. (1)

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mar. Technol. Soc. (1)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, M. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, W. Lv, J. Xu, and J. Wang, “Adaptive water-air-water data information transfer using orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8669–8678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. E. Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and R. E. Davis, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95(1), 48–74 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital-angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waves Random Complex Media (1)

O. Korotkova, N. Farwell, and E. Shchepakina, “Light scintillation in oceanic turbulence,” Waves Random Complex Media 22(2), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

M. V. Jamali, P. Khorramshahi, A. Tashakori, A. Chizari, and S. Shahsavari, S. AbdollahRamezani, M. Fazelian, S. Bahrani, and J. A. Salehi, “Statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations for underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles,” in Proc. IWCIT (2016).

Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salinity

A. Celik, N. Saeed, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks,” In Proc. WCNC (2018).

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” In Proc. WCNC1, pp. 228–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of non-line-of-sight underwater optical link employing OAM mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for non-line-of-sight underwater wireless optical link employing twisted light based on total internal reflection. Col.: collimator; HWP: half-wave plate; SLM: spatial light modulation; BS: beam splitter; NDF: neutral density filter; X-Pol.: x-axis polarized direction; Y-Pol.: y-axis polarized direction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured intensity profiles for OAM+5 and OAM-5 at the transmitter side (Tx), receiver side (Rx) captured by Camera-1, and after demodulation by l = ±5 patterns captured by Camera-2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schemes for the relationship between the patterns loaded on SLM and the light-beam position on camera.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured lateral displacement for Y-axis and X-axis at the Camera-1 resulted from the slight wind.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The proposed adaptive feedback system divided into feedback 1 (FB-1) process and feedback 2 (FB-2) process. (b) Measured results for transmitting multiple OAM modes (OAM+5 + OAM-5) through the adaptive feedback system.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured lateral displacement and beam distortion at the Camera-1 resulting from (a) the vertical thermal gradient-induced turbulence, (b) the 0.5 ‰ salinity, and (c) the both influences of (a) and (b). (d) The measured relationship between the power loss and the salinity.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d x,y =λsin( θ x,y )

Metrics