Abstract

Abstract: In this paper gold nanorings (NRs) are applied as particularly well-suited sensing elements for mapping the radially symmetric electric fields in the high numerical aperture focus of cylindrical vector beams. The optical properties of gold nanorings are analyzed by a combination of extinction and single particle dark field spectroscopy as well as confocal photoluminescence (PL) imaging. The results are compared to numerical calculations. The in-plane components in the focus of the cylindrical vector beams are estimated through the PL intensity distributions of the NRs. The optimum overlap between the structure and excitation is visualized by a narrow centre spot in the far-field PL scan.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective Effects in Second-Harmonic Generation from Plasmonic Oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2571–2580 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

C. K. Chu, Y. C. Tu, J. H. Hsiao, J. H. Yu, C. K. Yu, S. Y. Chen, P. H. Tseng, S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Combination of photothermal and photodynamic inactivation of cancer cells through surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoring,” Nanotechnology 27(11), 115102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. Aiello, P. Banzer, M. Neugebauer, and G. Leuchs, “From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 789–795 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (7)

C. Huber, S. Orlov, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Corrections to the knife-edge based reconstruction scheme of tightly focused light beams,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25069–25076 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Jeong, M. Han, S. M. Choi, J. G. Kim, J.-W. Park, G. Y. Jung, B. K. Cho, and W. B. Kim, “Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10653–10659 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Wu, K.-H. Chang, and P.-T. Lee, “Slab Thickness Dependence of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Behavior in Gold Nanorings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 1011–1016 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Multicolor Microscopy and Spectroscopy Reveals the Physics of the One-Photon Luminescence in Gold Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(34), 17870–17877 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Bauer, S. Orlov, U. Peschel, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Nanointerferometric amplitude and phase reconstruction of tightly focused vector beams,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 23–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

Y. Cai, Y. Li, P. Nordlander, and P. S. Cremer, “Fabrication of Elliptical Nanorings with Highly Tunable and Multiple Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4881–4888 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Near, C. Tabor, J. Duan, R. Pachter, and M. El-Sayed, “Pronounced Effects of Anisotropy on Plasmonic Properties of Nanorings Fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2158–2164 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy nanoprobes,” Nanotechnol. Rev. 1(4), 313–338 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

F. Ruffino, I. Crupi, F. Simone, and M. G. Grimaldi, “Formation and evolution of self-organized Au nanorings on indium-tin-oxide surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 023101 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Lerond, J. Proust, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, D. Gérard, and J. Plain, “Self-assembly of metallic nanoparticles into plasmonic rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 123110 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Chizhik, R. Jäger, A. I. Chizhik, S. Bär, H.-G. Mack, M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, A. Lyubimtsev, M. Hanack, and A. J. Meixner, “Optical imaging of excited-state tautomerization in single molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 1722–1733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Chizhik, A. M. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, S. Bär, and A. J. Meixner, “Excitation Isotropy of Single CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1131–1135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light Microscopy with Doughnut Modes: A Concept to Detect, Characterize, and Manipulate Individual Nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Colloidal Self-Assembly Meets Nanofabrication: from Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Nanostructure Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4249–4269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang and J. Sabarinathan, “Effects of Coherent Interactions on the Sensing Characteristics of Near-Infrared Gold Nanorings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(36), 15243–15250 (2010).
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B. C. Galarreta, E. Harté, N. Marquestaut, P. R. Norton, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, “Plasmonic properties of Fischer’s patterns: polarization effects,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(25), 6810–6816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (13)

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon Coupling of Gold Nanorods at Short Distances and in Different Geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Search for the Ideal Plasmonic Nanoshell: The Effects of Surface Scattering and Alternatives to Gold and Silver,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(8), 3041–3045 (2009).

M. Consonni, J. Hazart, and G. Lérondel, “Fabry–Pérot-type enhancement in plasmonic visible nanosource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Observation of plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding mode in silver nanoring structures,” Nanotechnology 20(46), 465203 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Gong, L. Zhou, X.-R. Su, S. Xiao, S.-D. Liu, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Illuminating Dark Plasmons of Silver Nanoantenna Rings to Enhance Exciton–Plasmon Interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(2), 298–303 (2009).
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L. Zhou, X.-F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and Z.-H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153102 (2009).
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Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
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Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining Standing Waves in Optical Corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Züchner, F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Nanoscale characterization of single Au nanorods by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5391–5395 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Ahn, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, D. S. Kim, and K. G. Lee, “3-dimensional local field polarization vector mapping of a focused radially polarized beam using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2280–2286 (2009).
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S. D. Liu, Z. S. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “High sensitivity and large field enhancement of symmetry broken Au nanorings: effect of multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2906–2917 (2009).
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T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (11)

J. Stadler, C. Stanciu, C. Stupperich, and A. J. Meixner, “Tighter focusing with a parabolic mirror,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 681–683 (2008).
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H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008).
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F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4), 262–266 (2008).
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Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
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D. K. Singh, R. V. Krotkov, H. Xiang, T. Xu, T. P. Russell, and M. T. Tuominen, “Arrays of ultrasmall metal rings,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245305 (2008).
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Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ye, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-H. Yang, C.-F. Chan, Y.-W. Jiang, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmons in Al/Si structure and Ag/SiO2/Ag emitter with different concentric metal rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233109 (2008).
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N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
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M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, M. A. Lieb, and A. J. Meixner, “Imaging Nanometre-Sized Hot Spots on Smooth Au Films with High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Luminescence and Raman Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(2), 316–320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, “Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 447–454 (2007).
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E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
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K.-Y. Jung, F. L. Teixeira, and R. M. Reano, “Au/SiO2 Nanoring Plasmon Waveguides at Optical Communication Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2757–2765 (2007).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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2006 (5)

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Photopolymers as vectorial sensors of the electric field,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2203–2210 (2006).
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L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57(1), 303–331 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational Imaging of Subwavelength Au Particles with Higher Order Laser Modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Escrig, P. Landeros, D. Altbir, M. Bahiana, and J. d’Albuquerque e Castro, “Magnetic properties of layered nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132501 (2006).
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S. Kim, J.-M. Jung, D.-G. Choi, H.-T. Jung, and S.-M. Yang, “Patterned Arrays of Au Rings for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance,” Langmuir 22(17), 7109–7112 (2006).
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2004 (1)

F. Yan and W. A. Goedel, “Preparation of Mesoscopic Gold Rings Using Particle Imprinted Templates,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1193–1196 (2004).
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2003 (6)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A Hybridization Model for the Plasmon Response of Complex Nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical Properties of Gold Nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Debus, M. A. Lieb, A. Drechsler, and A. J. Meixner, “Probing highly confined optical fields in the focal region of a high NA parabolic mirror with subwavelength spatial resolution,” J. Microsc. 210(Pt 3), 203–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
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R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
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2002 (1)

2001 (3)

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal Field Modes Probed by Single Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, and L. Novotny, “Probing confined fields with single molecules and vice versa,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 365–373 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lieb and A. Meixner, “A high numerical aperture parabolic mirror as imaging device for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 8(7), 458–474 (2001).
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2000 (2)

K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
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B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational Imaging of Single Molecules by Annular Illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
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1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
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1977 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems-I. An integral representation of the image field,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 349–357 (1959).
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B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems, II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
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Ahn, J. S.

Aiello, A.

A. Aiello, P. Banzer, M. Neugebauer, and G. Leuchs, “From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 789–795 (2015).
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Aizpurua, J.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical Properties of Gold Nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
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Albooyeh, M.

J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, T. A.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Altbir, D.

J. Escrig, P. Landeros, D. Altbir, M. Bahiana, and J. d’Albuquerque e Castro, “Magnetic properties of layered nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, M. D.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Search for the Ideal Plasmonic Nanoshell: The Effects of Surface Scattering and Alternatives to Gold and Silver,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(8), 3041–3045 (2009).

Babayan, Y.

Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining Standing Waves in Optical Corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahiana, M.

J. Escrig, P. Landeros, D. Altbir, M. Bahiana, and J. d’Albuquerque e Castro, “Magnetic properties of layered nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132501 (2006).
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Banzer, P.

A. Aiello, P. Banzer, M. Neugebauer, and G. Leuchs, “From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 789–795 (2015).
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T. Bauer, S. Orlov, U. Peschel, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Nanointerferometric amplitude and phase reconstruction of tightly focused vector beams,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 23–27 (2013).
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C. Huber, S. Orlov, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Corrections to the knife-edge based reconstruction scheme of tightly focused light beams,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25069–25076 (2013).
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Bär, S.

A. I. Chizhik, A. M. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, S. Bär, and A. J. Meixner, “Excitation Isotropy of Single CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1131–1135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Chizhik, R. Jäger, A. I. Chizhik, S. Bär, H.-G. Mack, M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, A. Lyubimtsev, M. Hanack, and A. J. Meixner, “Optical imaging of excited-state tautomerization in single molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 1722–1733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, T.

T. Bauer, S. Orlov, U. Peschel, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Nanointerferometric amplitude and phase reconstruction of tightly focused vector beams,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 23–27 (2013).
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Bautista, G.

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective Effects in Second-Harmonic Generation from Plasmonic Oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2571–2580 (2018).
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Beversluis, M. R.

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal Field Modes Probed by Single Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaber, M. G.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Search for the Ideal Plasmonic Nanoshell: The Effects of Surface Scattering and Alternatives to Gold and Silver,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(8), 3041–3045 (2009).

Borghs, G.

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Observation of plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding mode in silver nanoring structures,” Nanotechnology 20(46), 465203 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Braun, K.

S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, T.

Brown, T. G.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal Field Modes Probed by Single Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryant, G.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical Properties of Gold Nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
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Cabrini, S.

C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
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Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, Y. Li, P. Nordlander, and P. S. Cremer, “Fabrication of Elliptical Nanorings with Highly Tunable and Multiple Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4881–4888 (2012).
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Cao, L.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Capolino, F.

J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
[Crossref]

Castaño, F. J.

F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chan, C.-F.

Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ye, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-H. Yang, C.-F. Chan, Y.-W. Jiang, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmons in Al/Si structure and Ag/SiO2/Ag emitter with different concentric metal rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
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Chang, K.-H.

C.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Wu, K.-H. Chang, and P.-T. Lee, “Slab Thickness Dependence of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Behavior in Gold Nanorings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 1011–1016 (2013).
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Chang, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ye, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-H. Yang, C.-F. Chan, Y.-W. Jiang, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmons in Al/Si structure and Ag/SiO2/Ag emitter with different concentric metal rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charraut, D.

M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, “Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 447–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

C. K. Chu, Y. C. Tu, J. H. Hsiao, J. H. Yu, C. K. Yu, S. Y. Chen, P. H. Tseng, S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Combination of photothermal and photodynamic inactivation of cancer cells through surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoring,” Nanotechnology 27(11), 115102 (2016).
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S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Y.

C. K. Chu, Y. C. Tu, J. H. Hsiao, J. H. Yu, C. K. Yu, S. Y. Chen, P. H. Tseng, S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Combination of photothermal and photodynamic inactivation of cancer cells through surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoring,” Nanotechnology 27(11), 115102 (2016).
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Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chizhik, A. I.

A. I. Chizhik, A. M. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, S. Bär, and A. J. Meixner, “Excitation Isotropy of Single CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1131–1135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Chizhik, R. Jäger, A. I. Chizhik, S. Bär, H.-G. Mack, M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, A. Lyubimtsev, M. Hanack, and A. J. Meixner, “Optical imaging of excited-state tautomerization in single molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 1722–1733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chizhik, A. M.

A. I. Chizhik, A. M. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, S. Bär, and A. J. Meixner, “Excitation Isotropy of Single CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1131–1135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Chizhik, R. Jäger, A. I. Chizhik, S. Bär, H.-G. Mack, M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, A. Lyubimtsev, M. Hanack, and A. J. Meixner, “Optical imaging of excited-state tautomerization in single molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 1722–1733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, B. K.

S. H. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Jeong, M. Han, S. M. Choi, J. G. Kim, J.-W. Park, G. Y. Jung, B. K. Cho, and W. B. Kim, “Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10653–10659 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, K.

M. Toma, K. Cho, J. B. Wood, and R. M. Corn, “Gold Nanoring Arrays for Near Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing,” Plasmonics 9(4), 765–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-G.

S. Kim, J.-M. Jung, D.-G. Choi, H.-T. Jung, and S.-M. Yang, “Patterned Arrays of Au Rings for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance,” Langmuir 22(17), 7109–7112 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. M.

S. H. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Jeong, M. Han, S. M. Choi, J. G. Kim, J.-W. Park, G. Y. Jung, B. K. Cho, and W. B. Kim, “Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10653–10659 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. K.

C. K. Chu, Y. C. Tu, J. H. Hsiao, J. H. Yu, C. K. Yu, S. Y. Chen, P. H. Tseng, S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Combination of photothermal and photodynamic inactivation of cancer cells through surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoring,” Nanotechnology 27(11), 115102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consonni, M.

M. Consonni, J. Hazart, and G. Lérondel, “Fabry–Pérot-type enhancement in plasmonic visible nanosource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corn, R. M.

M. Toma, K. Cho, J. B. Wood, and R. M. Corn, “Gold Nanoring Arrays for Near Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing,” Plasmonics 9(4), 765–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

Courjon, D.

M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, “Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 447–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Photopolymers as vectorial sensors of the electric field,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2203–2210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cremer, P. S.

Y. Cai, Y. Li, P. Nordlander, and P. S. Cremer, “Fabrication of Elliptical Nanorings with Highly Tunable and Multiple Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4881–4888 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crupi, I.

F. Ruffino, I. Crupi, F. Simone, and M. G. Grimaldi, “Formation and evolution of self-organized Au nanorings on indium-tin-oxide surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 023101 (2011).
[Crossref]

d’Albuquerque e Castro, J.

J. Escrig, P. Landeros, D. Altbir, M. Bahiana, and J. d’Albuquerque e Castro, “Magnetic properties of layered nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davis, T. J.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon Coupling of Gold Nanorods at Short Distances and in Different Geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debus, C.

C. Debus, M. A. Lieb, A. Drechsler, and A. J. Meixner, “Probing highly confined optical fields in the focal region of a high NA parabolic mirror with subwavelength spatial resolution,” J. Microsc. 210(Pt 3), 203–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

Dmitriev, A.

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drechsler, A.

C. Debus, M. A. Lieb, A. Drechsler, and A. J. Meixner, “Probing highly confined optical fields in the focal region of a high NA parabolic mirror with subwavelength spatial resolution,” J. Microsc. 210(Pt 3), 203–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dreser, C.

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective Effects in Second-Harmonic Generation from Plasmonic Oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2571–2580 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, J.

R. Near, C. Tabor, J. Duan, R. Pachter, and M. El-Sayed, “Pronounced Effects of Anisotropy on Plasmonic Properties of Nanorings Fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2158–2164 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehlich, R.

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eilez, A.

F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
[Crossref]

El-Sayed, M.

R. Near, C. Tabor, J. Duan, R. Pachter, and M. El-Sayed, “Pronounced Effects of Anisotropy on Plasmonic Properties of Nanorings Fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2158–2164 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng, L. M.

Escrig, J.

J. Escrig, P. Landeros, D. Altbir, M. Bahiana, and J. d’Albuquerque e Castro, “Magnetic properties of layered nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Failla, A. V.

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Multicolor Microscopy and Spectroscopy Reveals the Physics of the One-Photon Luminescence in Gold Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(34), 17870–17877 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light Microscopy with Doughnut Modes: A Concept to Detect, Characterize, and Manipulate Individual Nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Züchner, F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Nanoscale characterization of single Au nanorods by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5391–5395 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational Imaging of Subwavelength Au Particles with Higher Order Laser Modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Firester, A. H.

Fischer, H.

Fleischer, M.

G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective Effects in Second-Harmonic Generation from Plasmonic Oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2571–2580 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Reichenbach, A. Horneber, D. A. Gollmer, A. Hille, J. Mihaljevic, C. Schäfer, D. P. Kern, A. J. Meixner, D. Zhang, M. Fleischer, and L. M. Eng, “Nonlinear optical point light sources through field enhancement at metallic nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15484–15501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy nanoprobes,” Nanotechnol. Rev. 1(4), 313–338 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ford, M. J.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Search for the Ideal Plasmonic Nanoshell: The Effects of Surface Scattering and Alternatives to Gold and Silver,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(8), 3041–3045 (2009).

Frandsen, C.

F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.-F.

L. Zhou, X.-F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and Z.-H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fulmes, J.

C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funston, A. M.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon Coupling of Gold Nanorods at Short Distances and in Different Geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galarreta, B. C.

B. C. Galarreta, E. Harté, N. Marquestaut, P. R. Norton, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, “Plasmonic properties of Fischer’s patterns: polarization effects,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(25), 6810–6816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical Properties of Gold Nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gérard, D.

T. Lerond, J. Proust, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, D. Gérard, and J. Plain, “Self-assembly of metallic nanoparticles into plasmonic rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 123110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gil, D.

F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goedel, W. A.

F. Yan and W. A. Goedel, “Preparation of Mesoscopic Gold Rings Using Particle Imprinted Templates,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1193–1196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gollmer, D. A.

P. Reichenbach, A. Horneber, D. A. Gollmer, A. Hille, J. Mihaljevic, C. Schäfer, D. P. Kern, A. J. Meixner, D. Zhang, M. Fleischer, and L. M. Eng, “Nonlinear optical point light sources through field enhancement at metallic nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15484–15501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.-M.

H.-M. Gong, L. Zhou, X.-R. Su, S. Xiao, S.-D. Liu, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Illuminating Dark Plasmons of Silver Nanoantenna Rings to Enhance Exciton–Plasmon Interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(2), 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gray, S. K.

Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining Standing Waves in Optical Corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimaldi, M. G.

F. Ruffino, I. Crupi, F. Simone, and M. G. Grimaldi, “Formation and evolution of self-organized Au nanorings on indium-tin-oxide surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 023101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grosjean, T.

M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, “Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 447–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Photopolymers as vectorial sensors of the electric field,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2203–2210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guclu, C.

J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gunnarsson, L.

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Häffner, M.

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A Hybridization Model for the Plasmon Response of Complex Nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

S. H. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Jeong, M. Han, S. M. Choi, J. G. Kim, J.-W. Park, G. Y. Jung, B. K. Cho, and W. B. Kim, “Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10653–10659 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanack, M.

A. M. Chizhik, R. Jäger, A. I. Chizhik, S. Bär, H.-G. Mack, M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, A. Lyubimtsev, M. Hanack, and A. J. Meixner, “Optical imaging of excited-state tautomerization in single molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 1722–1733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanarp, P.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical Properties of Gold Nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.-H.

L. Zhou, X.-F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and Z.-H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harté, E.

B. C. Galarreta, E. Harté, N. Marquestaut, P. R. Norton, and F. Lagugné-Labarthet, “Plasmonic properties of Fischer’s patterns: polarization effects,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(25), 6810–6816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational Imaging of Subwavelength Au Particles with Higher Order Laser Modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazart, J.

M. Consonni, J. Hazart, and G. Lérondel, “Fabry–Pérot-type enhancement in plasmonic visible nanosource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, and L. Novotny, “Probing confined fields with single molecules and vice versa,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 365–373 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational Imaging of Single Molecules by Annular Illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeren, A.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heller, M. E.

Hentschel, M.

S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hille, A.

Holmgaard, T.

Hörber, J. K. H.

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horneber, A.

Horrer, A.

C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, J. H.

C. K. Chu, Y. C. Tu, J. H. Hsiao, J. H. Yu, C. K. Yu, S. Y. Chen, P. H. Tseng, S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Combination of photothermal and photodynamic inactivation of cancer cells through surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoring,” Nanotechnology 27(11), 115102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, F.

J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huber, C.

Humphrey, F. B.

F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hung, T.-H.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jäger, R.

S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Chizhik, R. Jäger, A. I. Chizhik, S. Bär, H.-G. Mack, M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, A. Lyubimtsev, M. Hanack, and A. J. Meixner, “Optical imaging of excited-state tautomerization in single molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 1722–1733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jäger, S.

S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, H.

S. H. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Jeong, M. Han, S. M. Choi, J. G. Kim, J.-W. Park, G. Y. Jung, B. K. Cho, and W. B. Kim, “Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10653–10659 (2013).
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A. I. Chizhik, A. M. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, S. Bär, and A. J. Meixner, “Excitation Isotropy of Single CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1131–1135 (2011).
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M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
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A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational Imaging of Subwavelength Au Particles with Higher Order Laser Modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
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D. K. Singh, R. V. Krotkov, H. Xiang, T. Xu, T. P. Russell, and M. T. Tuominen, “Arrays of ultrasmall metal rings,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245305 (2008).
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M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, M. A. Lieb, and A. J. Meixner, “Imaging Nanometre-Sized Hot Spots on Smooth Au Films with High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Luminescence and Raman Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(2), 316–320 (2008).
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C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
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Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining Standing Waves in Optical Corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
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C. Schäfer, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, J. Fulmes, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7861–7866 (2013).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, and L. Novotny, “Probing confined fields with single molecules and vice versa,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 365–373 (2001).
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F. Ruffino, I. Crupi, F. Simone, and M. G. Grimaldi, “Formation and evolution of self-organized Au nanorings on indium-tin-oxide surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 023101 (2011).
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D. K. Singh, R. V. Krotkov, H. Xiang, T. Xu, T. P. Russell, and M. T. Tuominen, “Arrays of ultrasmall metal rings,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245305 (2008).
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F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross, C. Frandsen, A. Eilez, D. Gil, H. I. Smith, M. Redjdal, and F. B. Humphrey, “Metastable states in magnetic nanorings,” Phys. Rev. B 67(18), 184425 (2003).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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M. Toma, K. Cho, J. B. Wood, and R. M. Corn, “Gold Nanoring Arrays for Near Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing,” Plasmonics 9(4), 765–772 (2014).
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C.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Wu, K.-H. Chang, and P.-T. Lee, “Slab Thickness Dependence of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Behavior in Gold Nanorings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 1011–1016 (2013).
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Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ye, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-H. Yang, C.-F. Chan, Y.-W. Jiang, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmons in Al/Si structure and Ag/SiO2/Ag emitter with different concentric metal rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233109 (2008).
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D. K. Singh, R. V. Krotkov, H. Xiang, T. Xu, T. P. Russell, and M. T. Tuominen, “Arrays of ultrasmall metal rings,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245305 (2008).
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Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ye, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-H. Yang, C.-F. Chan, Y.-W. Jiang, and S.-C. Lee, “Localized surface plasmons in Al/Si structure and Ag/SiO2/Ag emitter with different concentric metal rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233109 (2008).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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C. K. Chu, Y. C. Tu, J. H. Hsiao, J. H. Yu, C. K. Yu, S. Y. Chen, P. H. Tseng, S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Combination of photothermal and photodynamic inactivation of cancer cells through surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoring,” Nanotechnology 27(11), 115102 (2016).
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L. Zhou, X.-F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and Z.-H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153102 (2009).
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L. Zhou, X.-F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and Z.-H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153102 (2009).
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G. Bautista, C. Dreser, X. Zang, D. P. Kern, M. Kauranen, and M. Fleischer, “Collective Effects in Second-Harmonic Generation from Plasmonic Oligomers,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2571–2580 (2018).
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J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
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P. Reichenbach, A. Horneber, D. A. Gollmer, A. Hille, J. Mihaljevic, C. Schäfer, D. P. Kern, A. J. Meixner, D. Zhang, M. Fleischer, and L. M. Eng, “Nonlinear optical point light sources through field enhancement at metallic nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15484–15501 (2014).
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S. Jäger, A. M. Kern, M. Hentschel, R. Jäger, K. Braun, D. Zhang, H. Giessen, and A. J. Meixner, “Au Nanotip as Luminescent Near-Field Probe,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3566–3570 (2013).
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M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
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J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Colloidal Self-Assembly Meets Nanofabrication: from Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Nanostructure Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4249–4269 (2010).
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J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Colloidal Self-Assembly Meets Nanofabrication: from Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Nanostructure Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4249–4269 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
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T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light Microscopy with Doughnut Modes: A Concept to Detect, Characterize, and Manipulate Individual Nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
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T. Züchner, F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Nanoscale characterization of single Au nanorods by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5391–5395 (2009).
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ACS Nano (1)

Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining Standing Waves in Optical Corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
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ACS Photonics (1)

J. Zeng, F. Huang, C. Guclu, M. Veysi, M. Albooyeh, H. K. Wickramasinghe, and F. Capolino, “Sharply Focused Azimuthally Polarized Beams with Magnetic Dominance: Near-Field Characterization at Nanoscale by Photoinduced Force Microscopy,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 390–397 (2018).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H.-M. Gong, L. Zhou, X.-R. Su, S. Xiao, S.-D. Liu, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Illuminating Dark Plasmons of Silver Nanoantenna Rings to Enhance Exciton–Plasmon Interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(2), 298–303 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Colloidal Self-Assembly Meets Nanofabrication: from Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Nanostructure Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4249–4269 (2010).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light Microscopy with Doughnut Modes: A Concept to Detect, Characterize, and Manipulate Individual Nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
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Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57(1), 303–331 (2006).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153108 (2011).
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M. Consonni, J. Hazart, and G. Lérondel, “Fabry–Pérot-type enhancement in plasmonic visible nanosource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051105 (2009).
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M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
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T. Lerond, J. Proust, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, D. Gérard, and J. Plain, “Self-assembly of metallic nanoparticles into plasmonic rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 123110 (2011).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

T. Züchner, F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Nanoscale characterization of single Au nanorods by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5391–5395 (2009).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4), 262–266 (2008).
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ChemPhysChem (1)

M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, M. A. Lieb, and A. J. Meixner, “Imaging Nanometre-Sized Hot Spots on Smooth Au Films with High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Luminescence and Raman Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 9(2), 316–320 (2008).
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H. Jiang and J. Sabarinathan, “Effects of Coherent Interactions on the Sensing Characteristics of Near-Infrared Gold Nanorings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(36), 15243–15250 (2010).
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Nanoscale (2)

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M. Fleischer, D. Zhang, K. Braun, S. Jäger, R. Ehlich, M. Häffner, C. Stanciu, J. K. H. Hörber, A. J. Meixner, and D. P. Kern, “Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications,” Nanotechnology 21(6), 065301 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

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P. Reichenbach, A. Horneber, D. A. Gollmer, A. Hille, J. Mihaljevic, C. Schäfer, D. P. Kern, A. J. Meixner, D. Zhang, M. Fleischer, and L. M. Eng, “Nonlinear optical point light sources through field enhancement at metallic nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15484–15501 (2014).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A Hybridization Model for the Plasmon Response of Complex Nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. Stern, “Silver nanorings: Nanofabrication and optical Properties,” Process & Characterization, NNIN REU Research Accomplishments (2006), http://www.nnin.org/sites/default/files/files/NNINreu06Stern.pdf .

M. A. Lieb, Mikroskopie mit Parabolspiegeloptik: Theorie, Aufbau und Charakterisierung eines kombinierten konfokalen und nahfeld-optischen Mikroskops für die Einzelmolekül-Spektroskopie bei tiefen Temperaturen (BoD–Books on Demand, 2002).

“Refractive Index Database”, retrieved Jan. 01, 2012, < http://refractiveindex.info >.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The processing steps of the ring fabrication: (a) using HSQ negative resist and an etch-mask transfer, (b) using PMMA positive resist and a lift-off, and (c) schematic of NR array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Top-view SEM images of gold NRs with periodicity p = 2 µm, height h = 50 nm, average width w = 50 nm and nominal centre diameters d of 250, 450, 650 and 850 nm; (b) normalized scattering dark-field spectra of single gold NRs as imaged in (a); (c) and (d) normalized extinction spectra of gold NRs (d = 450 nm, h = 50 nm, w = 50 nm) with TE and TM polarization of the incident light and the sample normal tilted by 0°, 30° and 60° relative to the incident beam. (e) Simulated scattering spectra of an infinite gold nanorod on ITO (h = 50 nm, w = 50 nm) excited by electromagnetic field components polarized perpendicular and parallel to the substrate (inset: polarization direction of the excitation fields).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Correlation between ring diameter und PL intensity distribution under excitation with AP and RP laser modes. (a) and (b) Individually normalized PL images and line cuts through the PL images of NRs excited with AP laser mode, as well as with (d) and (e) RP laser mode. (c) Top-view SEM images of measured gold NRs with increasing center diameters from 369 nm to 751 nm. The scale bar applies to (c). The center-to-center distances in (b), (c) and (d) correspond to 2 μm. Occasional artefacts in the shape of short bright lines appear in some of the PL images, which may result from intermittent local contaminations on the NRs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b) Calculation (based on a beam radius of 190 nm from beam simulations) and measurement of the average diameters of the ring-shaped PL patterns under excitation with (a) AP and (b) RP laser beams versus ring centre diameter. (c) Calculation and measurement of the average FWHM of the PL maximum or double peak inside the ring under excitation with RP laser mode versus ring centre diameter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Formation of (upper row) RP and (lower row) AP laser modes from a linearly polarized mode; arrows denote the orientation of the electric field vector, black lines indicate the fast axis of the four λ/2 wave plates. After the mode converter, a pin-hole is used for spatial filtering (not shown). (b) Calculated intensity profiles of (left) RP and (right) AP doughnut modes for a 632.8 nm laser beam in the focus of an objective with an NA of 1.25: Ez2 (dotted line) is the longitudinal, Exy2 (dashed line) is the transversal and E2 (solid lines) is the total electric field strength squared. For AP modes, E2 = Exy2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Generation of PL signal for gold NRs of width w = 50 nm using (a) and (b) focused AP laser modes and (c),(d) focused RP laser modes centered at the positions of the red dots for NR diameters (a) and (c) d = 751 nm and (b), (d) d = 369 nm. The arrows indicate the in-plane electric field orientation in the focus plane, with components marked in yellow leading to PL. The black and green lines mark the ring radius Rr and radius of the intensity maximum of Exy2, respectively, and the red arrows mark the distance from the ring centre to the maxima of PL intensity RPL.

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