Abstract

Active single-pixel imaging (also known as illumination-modulated single-pixel imaging) employs a spatial light modulator to illuminate a scene with structured patterns. The scheme of active single-pixel imaging is similar to a wireless broadcast system, allowing that multiple receivers use a single-pixel detector to capture an image simultaneously from a different place. The use of basis patterns allows for high-quality reconstructions and an efficient sampling process, but the public knowledge of the basis patterns is not a favorable feature for security applications. In order to develop a secured broadcast single-pixel imaging system, we propose to employ block-permutated Hadamard basis patterns for illumination. The randomness in permutation operations introduces strong security characteristics for the system. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate our proposed scheme has satisfactory imaging quality and efficiency. This work generates a new insight for the application of single-pixel imaging and provides a solution for developing a secured imaging system for non-visible wavebands.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

2017 (6)

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qin and Y. Zhang, “Information encryption in ghost imaging with customized data container and XOR operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Shadow-free single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Commun. 403, 257–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12029 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhuang, S. Jiao, W. Zou, and X. Li, “Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability,” Opt. Commun. 403, 245–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

J. Wu, Z. Xie, Z. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Multiple-image encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 359, 38–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, X. Meng, X. Yang, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, X. Peng, W. He, G. Dong, and H. Chen, “Multiple-image encryption based on compressive ghost imaging and coordinate sampling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Bian, J. Suo, G. Situ, Z. Li, J. Fan, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pelliccia, A. Rack, M. Scheel, V. Cantelli, and D. M. Paganin, “Experimental x-ray ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(11), 113902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and J. Zhong, “Three-dimensional single-pixel imaging with far fewer measurements than effective image pixels,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2497–2500 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

W. Wang, X. Hu, J. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Suo, and G. Situ, “Gerchberg-Saxton-like ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28416–28422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Aspden, N. R. Gemmell, P. A. Morris, D. S. Tasca, L. Mertens, M. G. Tanner, R. A. Kirkwood, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, R. W. Boyd, G. S. Buller, R. H. Hadfield, and M. J. Padgett, “Photon-sparse microscopy: visible light imaging using infrared illumination,” Optica 2(12), 1049 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for high-efficiency and high-security optical encryption,” Europhys. Lett. 109(1), 14001 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Liang, W. Cheng, and L. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (6)

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and W. K. Cheung, “Intensity image-embedded binary holograms,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), A26–A32 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, T. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Gao, S. Zhang, and H. Li, “Optical image encryption via ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1425–1427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 287, 73–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and A. S. M. Jiao, “Embedding intensity image in grid-cross down-sampling (GCD) binary holograms based on block truncation coding,” Opt. Commun. 304, 62–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101108 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. I. Erkmen, “Computational ghost imaging for remote sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(5), 782–789 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Clemente, V. Durán, V. Torres-Company, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, “Optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2391–2393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging: from quantum to classical to computational,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(4), 405–450 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

Y. Zhang and B. Wang, “Optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2443–2445 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, R. Baraniuk, and D. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6595–6601 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, “Optical encryption using a joint transform correlator architecture,” Opt. Eng. 39(8), 2031–2036 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Abril, H. C.

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.

M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alfalou, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andrés, P.

Aspden, R. S.

Baraniuk, R.

W. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, R. Baraniuk, and D. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barrera, J. F.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bian, L.

L. Bian, J. Suo, G. Situ, Z. Li, J. Fan, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowman, A.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowman, R.

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Compressive ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brosseau, C.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

Cai, L. Z.

Cantelli, V.

D. Pelliccia, A. Rack, M. Scheel, V. Cantelli, and D. M. Paganin, “Experimental x-ray ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(11), 113902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

Carnicer, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chan, W.

W. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, R. Baraniuk, and D. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charan, K.

W. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, R. Baraniuk, and D. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

L. Bian, J. Suo, G. Situ, Z. Li, J. Fan, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24752 (2016).
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Chen, H.

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Radwell, N.

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Refregier, P.

Rivenson, Y.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruggeri, A.

Scheel, M.

D. Pelliccia, A. Rack, M. Scheel, V. Cantelli, and D. M. Paganin, “Experimental x-ray ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(11), 113902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, J. H.

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging: from quantum to classical to computational,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(4), 405–450 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sheikh, H. R.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, X. X.

Shen, Y.

J. Yang, L. Gong, X. Xu, P. Hai, Y. Shen, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 780 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, J. T.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 287, 73–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Hennelly and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical image encryption by random shifting in fractional Fourier domains,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 269–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Compressive ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simoncelli, E. P.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Situ, G.

L. Bian, J. Suo, G. Situ, Z. Li, J. Fan, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, X. Hu, J. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Suo, and G. Situ, “Gerchberg-Saxton-like ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28416–28422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soldevila, F.

Stern, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sud, K. K.

N. K. Pareek, V. Patidar, and K. K. Sud, “Image encryption using chaotic logistic map,” Image Vis. Comput. 24(9), 926–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, M. J.

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suo, J.

Suzuki, Y.

J. Yang, L. Gong, X. Xu, P. Hai, Y. Shen, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 780 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tajahuerce, E.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
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E. Tajahuerce, V. Durán, P. Clemente, E. Irles, F. Soldevila, P. Andrés, and J. Lancis, “Image transmission through dynamic scattering media by single-pixel photodetection,” Opt. Express 22(14), 16945–16955 (2014).
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P. Clemente, V. Durán, V. Torres-Company, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, “Optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2391–2393 (2010).
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E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6595–6601 (2000).
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Takhar, D.

W. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, R. Baraniuk, and D. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, Q.

Tanha, M.

M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

Tasca, D. S.

Torres-Company, V.

Torroba, R.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tosi, A.

Tsang, P. W. M.

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and W. K. Cheung, “Intensity image-embedded binary holograms,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), A26–A32 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and A. S. M. Jiao, “Embedding intensity image in grid-cross down-sampling (GCD) binary holograms based on block truncation coding,” Opt. Commun. 304, 62–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vittert, L. E.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Wang, L.

S. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Liang, W. Cheng, and L. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yang, L. Gong, X. Xu, P. Hai, Y. Shen, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 780 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Wang, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12029 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welsh, S.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, Z. Xie, Z. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Multiple-image encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 359, 38–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

J. Wu, Z. Xie, Z. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Multiple-image encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 359, 38–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

J. Yang, L. Gong, X. Xu, P. Hai, Y. Shen, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 780 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, L. Gong, X. Xu, P. Hai, Y. Shen, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 780 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Li, X. Meng, X. Yang, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, X. Peng, W. He, G. Dong, and H. Chen, “Multiple-image encryption based on compressive ghost imaging and coordinate sampling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

Yao, M.

Yin, Y.

X. Li, X. Meng, X. Yang, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, X. Peng, W. He, G. Dong, and H. Chen, “Multiple-image encryption based on compressive ghost imaging and coordinate sampling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, J. Suo, Y. Wang, and Q. Dai, “Doubling the pixel count limitation of single-pixel imaging via sinusoidal amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 26(6), 6929–6942 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qin and Y. Zhang, “Information encryption in ghost imaging with customized data container and XOR operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Z. Xie, Z. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Multiple-image encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 359, 38–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang and B. Wang, “Optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2443–2445 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Liang, W. Cheng, and L. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

Zhong, J.

Zhou, C.

Zhuang, Z.

Z. Zhuang, S. Jiao, W. Zou, and X. Li, “Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability,” Opt. Commun. 403, 245–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, W.

S. Jiao, Z. Jin, C. Zhou, W. Zou, and X. Li, “Is QR code an optimal data container in optical encryption systems from an error-correction coding perspective?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(1), A23–A29 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhuang, S. Jiao, W. Zou, and X. Li, “Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability,” Opt. Commun. 403, 245–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, “Ghost imaging: from quantum to classical to computational,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(4), 405–450 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Compressive ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, R. Baraniuk, and D. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101108 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Ghost imaging using labyrinth-like phase modulation patterns for high-efficiency and high-security optical encryption,” Europhys. Lett. 109(1), 14001 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

X. Li, X. Meng, X. Yang, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, X. Peng, W. He, G. Dong, and H. Chen, “Multiple-image encryption based on compressive ghost imaging and coordinate sampling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin and Y. Zhang, “Information encryption in ghost imaging with customized data container and XOR operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

N. K. Pareek, V. Patidar, and K. K. Sud, “Image encryption using chaotic logistic map,” Image Vis. Comput. 24(9), 926–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Commun. (3)

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Gong, X. Xu, P. Hai, Y. Shen, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Motionless volumetric photoacoustic microscopy with spatially invariant resolution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 780 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (6)

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and A. S. M. Jiao, “Embedding intensity image in grid-cross down-sampling (GCD) binary holograms based on block truncation coding,” Opt. Commun. 304, 62–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 287, 73–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, S. Jiao, W. Zou, and X. Li, “Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability,” Opt. Commun. 403, 245–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Liang, W. Cheng, and L. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Z. Xie, Z. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Multiple-image encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Commun. 359, 38–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Shadow-free single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Commun. 403, 257–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, “Optical encryption using a joint transform correlator architecture,” Opt. Eng. 39(8), 2031–2036 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Pelliccia, A. Rack, M. Scheel, V. Cantelli, and D. M. Paganin, “Experimental x-ray ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(11), 113902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12029 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bian, J. Suo, G. Situ, Z. Li, J. Fan, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Jiao, W. Zou, and X. Li, “Noise Removal for Optical Holographic Encryption from Telecommunication Engineering Perspective,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, 2017 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A–5.

Z. Zhang and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel Broadcast Imaging,” in Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, 2015 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper CT4F–3.

S. Jiao and P. Tsang, “A hologram watermarking scheme based on scrambling embedding and image inpainting,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, 2015 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper DT2A–4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Proposed secured single-pixel broadcast imaging system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An example of permutation operation on a 2-D intensity pattern.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) One original Hadamard basis pattern and corresponding permutated Hadamard basis patterns for different M b : (b) M b = 1 ; (c) M b = 2 ; (d) M b = 4 ; (e) M b = 8 .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Decrypted image of our proposed encrypted Hadamard single-pixel imaging scheme in numerical simulation (sampling ratio = 100%) with correct key when (a) M b = 1 ; (b) M b = 4 ; (c) M b = 8 ; with incorrect key when (d) M b = 1 ; (e) M b = 4 ; (f) M b = 8 ; (g) Reference image 1 for security evaluation; (h) Reference image 2 for security evaluation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation results. The first panel shows the recovered encrypted image and final decrypted image by the proposed technique with Key 1 for M b = 1 and different sampling ratios. The second panel shows the recovered encrypted image and final decrypted image by the proposed technique with Key 2 for M b = 2 and different sampling ratios. The third panel shows the recovered encrypted image and final decrypted image by the proposed technique with Key 3 for M b = 4 and different sampling ratios. The fourth panel shows the reconstructions by original Hadamard single-pixel imaging without encryption for different sampling ratios. The fifth panel shows the reconstructions by conventional encrypted single-pixel imaging (or ghost imaging) with random illumination patterns for different sampling ratios. The red number at the right-bottom corner of each image is the corresponding SSIM value.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental set-up of our proposed secured single-pixel broadcast imaging system.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experiments results: the top four panels shows the final decrypted images by the unauthorized receiver (PD1) and the authorized receiver (PD2) for different sampling ratios and different values of M b ; the bottom-most panel shows reconstructed results from original Hadamard single-pixel imaging without encryption.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Auto-correlation of neighboring pixels in plaintext image and ciphertext image.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cross correlation coefficients between plaintext image and ciphertext image.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculation time of object image reconstruction and decryption in proposed scheme.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i ( t ) = I ( x , y ) P t ( x , y ) d x d y .
I ( x , y ) i ( t ) P t ( x , y ) i ( t ) P t ( x , y ) ,
i t ( u , v ) = H { I ( x , y ) } = I ( x , y ) P t ( x , y ) d x d y ,
I ( x , y ) = H 1 { i t ( u , v ) } ,
P E ( x , y ) = E K { P t ( x , y ) } ,
i K ( u , v ) = I ( x , y ) E K { P t ( x , y ) } d x d y = E K 1 { I ( x , y ) } P t ( x , y ) d x d y ,
I ( x , y ) = E K { H 1 { i K ( u , v ) } } .

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