Abstract

Usually electromagnetic modes inside a laser resonator are a matter of the theoretical studies. In a sense we manage “to have a look into a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator” and observe how the resonator modes arrange in reality. The picture occurs to be quite different from the commonly used Bessel modes in a disk resonator. A chance to explore optical modes inside a resonator appears in a WGM laser with a cleaved cavity. The flat laser facet gives an opportunity to study both far and near field patterns formed by different modes. In this research we use a high resolution technique of detection of laser emission based on an atomic force microscope, which allowed us to visualize even high Q modes normally sealed inside the resonator. This information was completed with spatially resolved emission spectra and far-field patterns measured using an infrared camera. The analysis of the obtained results using both wave and geometrical optics approaches and finite elements simulations showed that emission of the studied devices is governed by a few low order optical modes experiencing a small number of reflections from the resonator walls. These modes can be considered as counter propagating Gaussian beams and their interference at the laser facet was also observed in the experiment. This work showed that, contrary to conventional ridge or surface emitting lasers, in such deformed disk resonators outputs of different optical modes are spatially separated and can be studied individually along the cleaved facet of the laser.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3478–3481 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining Directional Light Output and Ultralow Loss in Deformed Microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. Gmachl, E. E. Narimanov, F. Capasso, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser transition and laser action on scar modes in semiconductor diode lasers with deformed resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 824–826 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3478–3481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining Directional Light Output and Ultralow Loss in Deformed Microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alekseev, P.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alekseev, P. A.

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ankudinov, A. V.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arinero, R.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Astakhova, A. P.

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Averkiev, N. S.

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Baranov, A. N.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogdanov, A. A.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boissier, G.

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, E. E. Narimanov, F. Capasso, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser transition and laser action on scar modes in semiconductor diode lasers with deformed resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 824–826 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, E. E. Narimanov, F. Capasso, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser transition and laser action on scar modes in semiconductor diode lasers with deformed resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 824–826 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dementyev, P. A.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dontsov, A.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dunaevskii, M. S.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dunaevskiy, M.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dunaevskiy, M. S.

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Edamura, T.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukushima, T.

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Girard, P.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, E. E. Narimanov, F. Capasso, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser transition and laser action on scar modes in semiconductor diode lasers with deformed resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 824–826 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harayama, T.

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining Directional Light Output and Ultralow Loss in Deformed Microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, G.

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kan, H.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kislyakova, A. Y.

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Komissarenko, F. E.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krasnok, A. E.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krier, A.

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kryzhanovskaya, N.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kulagina, M. M.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laiho, R.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lipovskii, A. A.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Makarenko, I. V.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maximov, M. V.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moiseev, E. I.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Monakhov, A.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Monakhov, A. M.

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mozharov, A. M.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mukhin, I. S.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Narimanov, E. E.

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, E. E. Narimanov, F. Capasso, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser transition and laser action on scar modes in semiconductor diode lasers with deformed resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 824–826 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nöckel, J. U.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Petrov, V. N.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pflügl, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polubavkina, Y. S.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sadrieva, Z. F.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherstnev, V. V.

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shinohara, S.

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teissier, R.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Titkov, A. N.

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Unterhinninghofen, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiersig, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining Directional Light Output and Ultralow Loss in Deformed Microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, Yu. P.

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yarekha, D.

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zadiranov, Y. M.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhukov, A. E.

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

E. I. Moiseev, N. Kryzhanovskaya, Y. S. Polubavkina, M. V. Maximov, M. M. Kulagina, Y. M. Zadiranov, A. A. Lipovskii, I. S. Mukhin, A. M. Mozharov, F. E. Komissarenko, Z. F. Sadrieva, A. E. Krasnok, A. A. Bogdanov, A. V. Lavrinenko, and A. E. Zhukov, “Light Outcoupling from Quantum Dot-Based Microdisk Laser via Plasmonic Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 275–281 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. M. Monakhov, V. V. Sherstnev, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “Experimental observation of whispering gallery modes in sector disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 51102 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Dunaevskiy, P. A. Alekseev, A. N. Baranov, A. M. Monakhov, R. Teissier, R. Arinero, and A. N. Titkov, “Near field imaging of a semiconductor laser by scanning probe microscopy without a photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 53120 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Dunaevskiy, A. Dontsov, P. Alekseev, A. Monakhov, A. N. Baranov, P. Girard, R. Arinero, R. Teissier, and A. N. Titkov, “Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 171105 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. A. Dementyev, M. S. Dunaevskii, A. V. Ankudinov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Petrov, A. N. Titkov, A. N. Baranov, D. Yarekha, and R. Laiho, “Giant oxidation related relief of Al-rich layers on cleaved mirrors of GaSb/Ga0.1Al0.9SbAs/GaInAsSb laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 81103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, “Ray Chaos and Q Spoiling in Lasing Droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2682–2685 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining Directional Light Output and Ultralow Loss in Deformed Microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shinohara, T. Harayama, T. Fukushima, M. Hentschel, T. Sasaki, and E. E. Narimanov, “Chaos-Assisted Directional Light Emission from Microcavity Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 163902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semiconductors (1)

V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, A. Y. Kislyakova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, N. S. Averkiev, A. Krier, and G. Hill, “Semiconductor WGM Lasers for the Mid-IR Spectral Range,” Semiconductors 39(9), 1087 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K.Y. Kim, “Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices,” INTECH, 276 (2010).

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (5th ed.). (Springer, 2010).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Schematic of the experiment. The cones represent the light output of the laser; b) Scanning electron microscope photography of the AFM probe used in the experiment; c) Schematic of the top view of a laser cleaved with a deviation δ from the disk center.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical image of a half-disk laser obtained by an IR camera focused a) on the laser facet, b), c) on the plane moved away by 30 and 50 μm from the facet, respectively. Left image shows schematically the position of the analyzed light spot on the cleaved facet of the laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cleaved facet near the edge of a half-disk laser. a) Surface topography. Dotted lines mark the boundaries of the waveguide. b), c) The phase shift of the probe oscillations, proportional to the intensity of the optical radiation (LIFS image). The distance between the probe and the surface is 50 nm (b), 700 nm (c); d) A series of LIFS profiles obtained in the center of the waveguide at a distance between the probe and the surface increasing from 50 nm to 700 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cleaved facet near the edge of a half-disk laser with a diameter of 200 μm. a) Surface topography. Dotted lines mark the boundaries of the waveguide. b) LIFS image and the corresponding profile at the center of the waveguide, at z distance of 100 nm (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spatially resolved lasing spectra measured along the cleaved facet of the half-disk laser. The spatial resolution of spectral measurements is 10 µm (defined by the spectrometer slits width and the optical telescope magnification). One can see signatures of the low order WGM modes along the output facet resulting in very different spectral mode spacing.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Some modes of a segment resonator that is slightly larger (upper images) or smaller (lower images) than the half-disk. The left images correspond to the conventional WGM, the right ones are discussed in the text. Disk diameter – 200 µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) PSOS diagram of a half-disk resonator cleaved with a 10% deviation from the center; b) Fragment of the PSOS diagram corresponding to the site near the edge of the half disk; c) Fragment of the PSOS diagram corresponding to the site near the edge of the half disk cleaved with a 20% deviation from the center; d) Stable closed mode (half of a triangle, m = 3), corresponding to the green area in Fig. 7(c); e) Stable mode (half of a rectangle, m = 4), corresponding to the red area in Fig. 7(c).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Interference image E2(x,y) of two Gaussian beams falling on the cleaved surface at angles of 10 (a) and 20 (b) degrees.

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