Abstract

A new concept of intensity-tunable structural coloration is proposed on the basis of a helical photonic crystal (HPC). The HPCs are constructed from a mixture of chiral reactive mesogens by spin-coating, followed by the photo-polymerization. A liquid crystal (LC) layer, being homogeneously aligned, is prepared on the HPCs to serve as a tunable waveplate. The electrical modulation of the phase retardation through the LC layer directly leads to the intensity-tunable Bragg reflection from the HPCs upon the incidence of the polarized light. The bandwidths of the structural colors are found to be well preserved regardless of the applied voltage. A prototype of a full color reflective-type display, incorporated with three primary color units, is demonstrated. Our concept of decoupling two mutually independent functions, the intensity modulation by the tunable waveplate and the color reflection by the HPCs provides a simple and powerful way of producing a full color reflective-type display which possesses high color purity, high optical efficiency, the cycling durability, and the design flexibility.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (5)

E.-S. Yu, S.-U. Kim, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “The domain mixing effect on the electro optical properties of liquid crystals using polyimide doped with reactive mesogen,” J. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 125–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Lin, T.-Y. Wang, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Wide-band spatially tunable photonic bandgap in visible spectral range and laser based on a polymer stabilized blue phase,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead Iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Markos, “Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pouya, J. T. B. Overvelde, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, K. Bertoldi, J. C. Weaver, and P. Vukusic, “Characterization of a mechanically tunable gyroid photonic crystal inspired by the butterfly parides sesostris,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 99–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

J. N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Park, S. K. Hwang, S. Park, S. H. Cho, T. H. Park, B. Jeong, H. S. Kang, Y. Ryu, J. Huh, E. L. Thomas, and C. Park, “Electrically tunable soft-solid block copolymer structural color,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12158–12167 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Nucara, F. Greco, and V. Mattoli, “Electrically responsive photonic crystals: a review,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(33), 8449–8467 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. R. Howell, C. Li, N. S. Colella, K. Ito, and J. J. Watkins, “Strain-tunable one dimensional photonic crystals based on zirconium dioxide/slide-ring elastomer nanocomposites for mechanochromic sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(6), 3641–3646 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi, “The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(42), 12426–12430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Stimuli-responsive cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6892–6898 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xiang, Y. Li, Q. Li, D. A. Paterson, J. M. D. Storey, C. T. Imrie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics,” Adv. Mater. 27(19), 3014–3018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yi, L. Shui, L. Wang, M. Jin, R. A. Hayes, and G. Zhou, “A novel driver for active matrix electrowetting displays,” Displays 37, 86–93 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, W. L. Hsieh, N. Smith, M. Goulding, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrokinetic pixels with biprimary inks for color displays and color-temperature-tunable smart windows,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5603–5609 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

I.-H. Lee, S.-H. Lee, C.-M. Keum, S.-U. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Combinatorial color arrays based on optical micro-resonators in monolithic architecture,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15320–15327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Han, C.-J. Heo, H. Shim, C. G. Shin, S.-J. Lim, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, and S. Lee, “Structural color manipulation using tunable photonic crystals with enhanced switching reliability,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(6), 535–541 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stimulak and M. Ravnik, “Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases,” Soft Matter 10(33), 6339–6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Lee, V. P. Tondiglia, M. E. McConney, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and T. J. White, “Color-tunable mirrors based on electrically regulated bandwidth broadening in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(10), 1033–1041 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Faryad and A. Lakhtakia, “The circular Bragg phenomenon,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 225–292 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. P. Vernon, U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically reconfigurable reflective/scattering states enabled with photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Lin, Y. Li, C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, C.-C. Li, H. K. Bisoyi, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Red, green and blue reflections enabled in an optically tunable self-organized 3D cubic nanostructured thin film,” Adv. Mater. 25(36), 5050–5054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, K. M. Lee, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced color changes in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(6), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Park, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “Colloidal particle-based surface nanotopography with high mechanical stability by thermal fixation for liquid crystal devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. Dai, Y. Xiang, S. Wen, and H. He, “Thermally tunable and omnidirectional terahertz photonic bandgap in the one-dimensional photonic crystals containing semiconductor InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Na, H. Li, S. C. Park, and S.-D. Lee, “Symmetric-viewing liquid crystal display with alternating alignment layers in an inverse-twisted-nematic configuration,” J. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 191–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Hwang, D. Kwak, C. Kang, D. Kim, Y. Ahn, and Y. Kang, “Electrically tunable hysteretic photonic gels for nonvolatile display pixels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(28), 6311–6314 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. You and A. J. Steckl, “Three-color electrowetting display device for electronic paper,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023514 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-M. H. Lenssen, P. J. Baesjou, F. P. M. Budzelaar, M. H. W. M. van Delden, S. J. Roosendaal, L. W. G. Stofmeel, A. R. M. Verschueren, J. J. van Glabbeek, J. T. M. Osenga, and R. M. Schuurbiers, “Novel concept for full-color electronic paper,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(4), 383–388 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Walish, Y. Kang, R. A. Mickiewicz, and E. L. Thomas, “Bioinspired electrochemically tunable block copolymer full color pixels,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3078–3081 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
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2007 (1)

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
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2006 (1)

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
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2005 (2)

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
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J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
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2004 (1)

R. Hattori, S. Yamada, Y. Masuda, and N. Nihei, “A novel bistable reflective display using quick-response liquid powder,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(1), 75–80 (2004).
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2003 (2)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
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2002 (2)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Stimuli-responsive cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6892–6898 (2015).
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Addadi, L.

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi, “The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(42), 12426–12430 (2015).
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K. Hwang, D. Kwak, C. Kang, D. Kim, Y. Ahn, and Y. Kang, “Electrically tunable hysteretic photonic gels for nonvolatile display pixels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(28), 6311–6314 (2011).
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K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
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K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010).
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K.-M. H. Lenssen, P. J. Baesjou, F. P. M. Budzelaar, M. H. W. M. van Delden, S. J. Roosendaal, L. W. G. Stofmeel, A. R. M. Verschueren, J. J. van Glabbeek, J. T. M. Osenga, and R. M. Schuurbiers, “Novel concept for full-color electronic paper,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(4), 383–388 (2009).
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J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
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Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
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T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
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Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
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C. Pouya, J. T. B. Overvelde, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, K. Bertoldi, J. C. Weaver, and P. Vukusic, “Characterization of a mechanically tunable gyroid photonic crystal inspired by the butterfly parides sesostris,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 99–105 (2016).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
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T.-H. Lin, Y. Li, C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, C.-C. Li, H. K. Bisoyi, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Red, green and blue reflections enabled in an optically tunable self-organized 3D cubic nanostructured thin film,” Adv. Mater. 25(36), 5050–5054 (2013).
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K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010).
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J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
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K.-M. H. Lenssen, P. J. Baesjou, F. P. M. Budzelaar, M. H. W. M. van Delden, S. J. Roosendaal, L. W. G. Stofmeel, A. R. M. Verschueren, J. J. van Glabbeek, J. T. M. Osenga, and R. M. Schuurbiers, “Novel concept for full-color electronic paper,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(4), 383–388 (2009).
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Bukusoglu, E.

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Stimuli-responsive cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6892–6898 (2015).
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Bunning, T. J.

K. M. Lee, V. P. Tondiglia, M. E. McConney, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and T. J. White, “Color-tunable mirrors based on electrically regulated bandwidth broadening in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(10), 1033–1041 (2014).
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J. P. Vernon, U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically reconfigurable reflective/scattering states enabled with photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 84–91 (2013).
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T.-H. Lin, Y. Li, C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, C.-C. Li, H. K. Bisoyi, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Red, green and blue reflections enabled in an optically tunable self-organized 3D cubic nanostructured thin film,” Adv. Mater. 25(36), 5050–5054 (2013).
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M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, K. M. Lee, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced color changes in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(6), 417–421 (2013).
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Cademartiri, L.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
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Campi, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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Cao, G.

T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
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F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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Chen, C.-W.

T.-H. Lin, Y. Li, C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, C.-C. Li, H. K. Bisoyi, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Red, green and blue reflections enabled in an optically tunable self-organized 3D cubic nanostructured thin film,” Adv. Mater. 25(36), 5050–5054 (2013).
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S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead Iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
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Chen, T.

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
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Cheng, K.-T.

Cho, S. H.

T. J. Park, S. K. Hwang, S. Park, S. H. Cho, T. H. Park, B. Jeong, H. S. Kang, Y. Ryu, J. Huh, E. L. Thomas, and C. Park, “Electrically tunable soft-solid block copolymer structural color,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12158–12167 (2015).
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F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
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Chong, W. K.

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead Iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
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Chu, G.

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
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J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
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I. R. Howell, C. Li, N. S. Colella, K. Ito, and J. J. Watkins, “Strain-tunable one dimensional photonic crystals based on zirconium dioxide/slide-ring elastomer nanocomposites for mechanochromic sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(6), 3641–3646 (2015).
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F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
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X. Dai, Y. Xiang, S. Wen, and H. He, “Thermally tunable and omnidirectional terahertz photonic bandgap in the one-dimensional photonic crystals containing semiconductor InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053104 (2011).
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F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Stimuli-responsive cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6892–6898 (2015).
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Denk, R.

Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
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Ding, T.

T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
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J. N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
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Faetti, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
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M. Faryad and A. Lakhtakia, “The circular Bragg phenomenon,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 225–292 (2014).
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R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
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C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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Fratzl, P.

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi, “The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(42), 12426–12430 (2015).
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Friend, R. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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Gai, F.

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallei, M.

T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
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Gao, J.

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
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Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
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Goulding, M.

Graz, I.

Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
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C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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Gur, D.

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi, “The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(42), 12426–12430 (2015).
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N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
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Haines, A.

Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
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Hammond, M. S.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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Han, M. G.

M. G. Han, C.-J. Heo, H. Shim, C. G. Shin, S.-J. Lim, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, and S. Lee, “Structural color manipulation using tunable photonic crystals with enhanced switching reliability,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(6), 535–541 (2014).
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F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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Hattori, R.

R. Hattori, S. Yamada, Y. Masuda, and N. Nihei, “A novel bistable reflective display using quick-response liquid powder,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(1), 75–80 (2004).
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Hayes, R. A.

Z. Yi, L. Shui, L. Wang, M. Jin, R. A. Hayes, and G. Zhou, “A novel driver for active matrix electrowetting displays,” Displays 37, 86–93 (2015).
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R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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T. J. Park, S. K. Hwang, S. Park, S. H. Cho, T. H. Park, B. Jeong, H. S. Kang, Y. Ryu, J. Huh, E. L. Thomas, and C. Park, “Electrically tunable soft-solid block copolymer structural color,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12158–12167 (2015).
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K. Hwang, D. Kwak, C. Kang, D. Kim, Y. Ahn, and Y. Kang, “Electrically tunable hysteretic photonic gels for nonvolatile display pixels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(28), 6311–6314 (2011).
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K. Hwang, D. Kwak, C. Kang, D. Kim, Y. Ahn, and Y. Kang, “Electrically tunable hysteretic photonic gels for nonvolatile display pixels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(28), 6311–6314 (2011).
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E.-S. Yu, S.-U. Kim, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “The domain mixing effect on the electro optical properties of liquid crystals using polyimide doped with reactive mesogen,” J. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 125–130 (2016).
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Kim, J. W.

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E.-S. Yu, S.-U. Kim, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “The domain mixing effect on the electro optical properties of liquid crystals using polyimide doped with reactive mesogen,” J. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 125–130 (2016).
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Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
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K. Hwang, D. Kwak, C. Kang, D. Kim, Y. Ahn, and Y. Kang, “Electrically tunable hysteretic photonic gels for nonvolatile display pixels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(28), 6311–6314 (2011).
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J.-D. Lin, T.-Y. Wang, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Wide-band spatially tunable photonic bandgap in visible spectral range and laser based on a polymer stabilized blue phase,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30407 (2016).
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S.-U. Kim, B.-Y. Lee, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “Reduction of gamma distortions in liquid crystal display by anisotropic voltage-dividing layer of reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 44(2), 364–371 (2017).

E.-S. Yu, S.-U. Kim, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “The domain mixing effect on the electro optical properties of liquid crystals using polyimide doped with reactive mesogen,” J. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 125–130 (2016).
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I. R. Howell, C. Li, N. S. Colella, K. Ito, and J. J. Watkins, “Strain-tunable one dimensional photonic crystals based on zirconium dioxide/slide-ring elastomer nanocomposites for mechanochromic sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(6), 3641–3646 (2015).
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M. G. Han, C.-J. Heo, H. Shim, C. G. Shin, S.-J. Lim, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, and S. Lee, “Structural color manipulation using tunable photonic crystals with enhanced switching reliability,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(6), 535–541 (2014).
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J.-D. Lin, T.-Y. Wang, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Wide-band spatially tunable photonic bandgap in visible spectral range and laser based on a polymer stabilized blue phase,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30407 (2016).
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T. J. Park, S. K. Hwang, S. Park, S. H. Cho, T. H. Park, B. Jeong, H. S. Kang, Y. Ryu, J. Huh, E. L. Thomas, and C. Park, “Electrically tunable soft-solid block copolymer structural color,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12158–12167 (2015).
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Tondiglia, V. P.

K. M. Lee, V. P. Tondiglia, M. E. McConney, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and T. J. White, “Color-tunable mirrors based on electrically regulated bandwidth broadening in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(10), 1033–1041 (2014).
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K.-M. H. Lenssen, P. J. Baesjou, F. P. M. Budzelaar, M. H. W. M. van Delden, S. J. Roosendaal, L. W. G. Stofmeel, A. R. M. Verschueren, J. J. van Glabbeek, J. T. M. Osenga, and R. M. Schuurbiers, “Novel concept for full-color electronic paper,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(4), 383–388 (2009).
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Vekris, E.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vernon, J. P.

J. P. Vernon, U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically reconfigurable reflective/scattering states enabled with photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 84–91 (2013).
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Verschueren, A. R. M.

K.-M. H. Lenssen, P. J. Baesjou, F. P. M. Budzelaar, M. H. W. M. van Delden, S. J. Roosendaal, L. W. G. Stofmeel, A. R. M. Verschueren, J. J. van Glabbeek, J. T. M. Osenga, and R. M. Schuurbiers, “Novel concept for full-color electronic paper,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(4), 383–388 (2009).
[Crossref]

von Freymann, G.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vukusic, P.

C. Pouya, J. T. B. Overvelde, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, K. Bertoldi, J. C. Weaver, and P. Vukusic, “Characterization of a mechanically tunable gyroid photonic crystal inspired by the butterfly parides sesostris,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 99–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Walish, J. J.

J. J. Walish, Y. Kang, R. A. Mickiewicz, and E. L. Thomas, “Bioinspired electrochemically tunable block copolymer full color pixels,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3078–3081 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-T.

T.-H. Lin, Y. Li, C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, C.-C. Li, H. K. Bisoyi, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Red, green and blue reflections enabled in an optically tunable self-organized 3D cubic nanostructured thin film,” Adv. Mater. 25(36), 5050–5054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Z. Yi, L. Shui, L. Wang, M. Jin, R. A. Hayes, and G. Zhou, “A novel driver for active matrix electrowetting displays,” Displays 37, 86–93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. Z.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.-Y.

J.-D. Lin, T.-Y. Wang, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Wide-band spatially tunable photonic bandgap in visible spectral range and laser based on a polymer stabilized blue phase,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Stimuli-responsive cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6892–6898 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watkins, J. J.

I. R. Howell, C. Li, N. S. Colella, K. Ito, and J. J. Watkins, “Strain-tunable one dimensional photonic crystals based on zirconium dioxide/slide-ring elastomer nanocomposites for mechanochromic sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(6), 3641–3646 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, J. C.

C. Pouya, J. T. B. Overvelde, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, K. Bertoldi, J. C. Weaver, and P. Vukusic, “Characterization of a mechanically tunable gyroid photonic crystal inspired by the butterfly parides sesostris,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 99–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weiner, S.

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi, “The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(42), 12426–12430 (2015).
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Wen, S.

X. Dai, Y. Xiang, S. Wen, and H. He, “Thermally tunable and omnidirectional terahertz photonic bandgap in the one-dimensional photonic crystals containing semiconductor InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053104 (2011).
[Crossref]

West, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
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K. M. Lee, V. P. Tondiglia, M. E. McConney, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and T. J. White, “Color-tunable mirrors based on electrically regulated bandwidth broadening in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(10), 1033–1041 (2014).
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J. P. Vernon, U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically reconfigurable reflective/scattering states enabled with photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 84–91 (2013).
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M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, K. M. Lee, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced color changes in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(6), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, S.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
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Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
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J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
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J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. X.

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
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Xiang, J.

J. Xiang, Y. Li, Q. Li, D. A. Paterson, J. M. D. Storey, C. T. Imrie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics,” Adv. Mater. 27(19), 3014–3018 (2015).
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Xiang, Y.

X. Dai, Y. Xiang, S. Wen, and H. He, “Thermally tunable and omnidirectional terahertz photonic bandgap in the one-dimensional photonic crystals containing semiconductor InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
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R. Hattori, S. Yamada, Y. Masuda, and N. Nihei, “A novel bistable reflective display using quick-response liquid powder,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(1), 75–80 (2004).
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Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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Yang, S.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.-H.

Yi, Z.

Z. Yi, L. Shui, L. Wang, M. Jin, R. A. Hayes, and G. Zhou, “A novel driver for active matrix electrowetting displays,” Displays 37, 86–93 (2015).
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Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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Yoon, T.-H.

Yoshida, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
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I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, and M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 832–836 (1973).
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H. You and A. J. Steckl, “Three-color electrowetting display device for electronic paper,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023514 (2010).
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Yu, E.-S.

E.-S. Yu, S.-U. Kim, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “The domain mixing effect on the electro optical properties of liquid crystals using polyimide doped with reactive mesogen,” J. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 125–130 (2016).
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Zhao, Q.

T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
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Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Z. Yi, L. Shui, L. Wang, M. Jin, R. A. Hayes, and G. Zhou, “A novel driver for active matrix electrowetting displays,” Displays 37, 86–93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, K.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (3)

T. Ding, G. Cao, C. G. Schäfer, Q. Zhao, M. Gallei, S. K. Smoukov, and J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: images from strain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(24), 13497–13502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. R. Howell, C. Li, N. S. Colella, K. Ito, and J. J. Watkins, “Strain-tunable one dimensional photonic crystals based on zirconium dioxide/slide-ring elastomer nanocomposites for mechanochromic sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(6), 3641–3646 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chu, X. Wang, T. Chen, J. Gao, F. Gai, Y. Wang, and Y. Xu, “Optically tunable chiral plasmonic guest−host cellulose films weaved with long-range ordered silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 11863–11870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

T. J. Park, S. K. Hwang, S. Park, S. H. Cho, T. H. Park, B. Jeong, H. S. Kang, Y. Ryu, J. Huh, E. L. Thomas, and C. Park, “Electrically tunable soft-solid block copolymer structural color,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12158–12167 (2015).
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S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead Iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
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ACS Photonics (1)

K. M. Lee, V. P. Tondiglia, M. E. McConney, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and T. J. White, “Color-tunable mirrors based on electrically regulated bandwidth broadening in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(10), 1033–1041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (6)

J. Xiang, Y. Li, Q. Li, D. A. Paterson, J. M. D. Storey, C. T. Imrie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics,” Adv. Mater. 27(19), 3014–3018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Walish, Y. Kang, R. A. Mickiewicz, and E. L. Thomas, “Bioinspired electrochemically tunable block copolymer full color pixels,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3078–3081 (2009).
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K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010).
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T.-H. Lin, Y. Li, C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, C.-C. Li, H. K. Bisoyi, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Red, green and blue reflections enabled in an optically tunable self-organized 3D cubic nanostructured thin film,” Adv. Mater. 25(36), 5050–5054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Stimuli-responsive cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6892–6898 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (5)

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-free, microsecond electro-optic tuning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. P. Vernon, U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically reconfigurable reflective/scattering states enabled with photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(1), 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pouya, J. T. B. Overvelde, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg, K. Bertoldi, J. C. Weaver, and P. Vukusic, “Characterization of a mechanically tunable gyroid photonic crystal inspired by the butterfly parides sesostris,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 99–105 (2016).
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M. G. Han, C.-J. Heo, H. Shim, C. G. Shin, S.-J. Lim, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, and S. Lee, “Structural color manipulation using tunable photonic crystals with enhanced switching reliability,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(6), 535–541 (2014).
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M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, K. M. Lee, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced color changes in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(6), 417–421 (2013).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. Faryad and A. Lakhtakia, “The circular Bragg phenomenon,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 225–292 (2014).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (2)

K. Hwang, D. Kwak, C. Kang, D. Kim, Y. Ahn, and Y. Kang, “Electrically tunable hysteretic photonic gels for nonvolatile display pixels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(28), 6311–6314 (2011).
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D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi, “The mechanism of color change in the neon tetra fish: a light-induced tunable photonic crystal array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(42), 12426–12430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Q. Zhao, A. Haines, D. Snoswell, C. Keplinger, R. Kaltseis, S. Bauer, I. Graz, R. Denk, P. Spahn, G. Hellmann, and J. J. Baumberg, “Electric-field-tuned color in photonic crystal elastomers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 101902 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. You and A. J. Steckl, “Three-color electrowetting display device for electronic paper,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023514 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

Z. Yi, L. Shui, L. Wang, M. Jin, R. A. Hayes, and G. Zhou, “A novel driver for active matrix electrowetting displays,” Displays 37, 86–93 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

X. Dai, Y. Xiang, S. Wen, and H. He, “Thermally tunable and omnidirectional terahertz photonic bandgap in the one-dimensional photonic crystals containing semiconductor InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053104 (2011).
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S. C. Park, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “Colloidal particle-based surface nanotopography with high mechanical stability by thermal fixation for liquid crystal devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (2)

E.-S. Yu, S.-U. Kim, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “The domain mixing effect on the electro optical properties of liquid crystals using polyimide doped with reactive mesogen,” J. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 125–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Na, H. Li, S. C. Park, and S.-D. Lee, “Symmetric-viewing liquid crystal display with alternating alignment layers in an inverse-twisted-nematic configuration,” J. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 191–194 (2011).
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J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

L. Nucara, F. Greco, and V. Mattoli, “Electrically responsive photonic crystals: a review,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(33), 8449–8467 (2015).
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J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (3)

R. Hattori, S. Yamada, Y. Masuda, and N. Nihei, “A novel bistable reflective display using quick-response liquid powder,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(1), 75–80 (2004).
[Crossref]

K.-M. H. Lenssen, P. J. Baesjou, F. P. M. Budzelaar, M. H. W. M. van Delden, S. J. Roosendaal, L. W. G. Stofmeel, A. R. M. Verschueren, J. J. van Glabbeek, J. T. M. Osenga, and R. M. Schuurbiers, “Novel concept for full-color electronic paper,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(4), 383–388 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Li, G. Baird, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
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Liq. Cryst. (1)

S.-U. Kim, B.-Y. Lee, J.-H. Suh, J. Kim, J.-H. Na, and S.-D. Lee, “Reduction of gamma distortions in liquid crystal display by anisotropic voltage-dividing layer of reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 44(2), 364–371 (2017).

Nat. Mater. (4)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, “Electrofluidic displays using Young–Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 292–296 (2009).
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J. N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
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Nature (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, and M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 832–836 (1973).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. W. Miles, “Interferometric modulation: MOEMS as an enabling technology for high-performance reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 131–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J.-D. Lin, T.-Y. Wang, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Wide-band spatially tunable photonic bandgap in visible spectral range and laser based on a polymer stabilized blue phase,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Markos, “Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

M. Stimulak and M. Ravnik, “Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases,” Soft Matter 10(33), 6339–6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Hong, E. Chan, T. Chang, R. Fung, C. Kim, J. Ma, Y. Pan, B. Wen, I. Reines, and C. Lee, “Single mirror interferometric display – a new paradigm for reflective display technologies,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 45(1), 793–796 (2014).

L. A. Francis and K. Iniewski, Novel Advances in Microsystems Technologies and Their Applications (CRC Press, 2016).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Operation principle of the intensity-tunable structural coloration based on the HPC. Color unit consists of the front polarizer, the homogeneously aligned LC layer (a tunable waveplate), and the HPC: (a) The voltage-off state (total reflection state) that the incident light becomes circularly polarized in the same direction as the handedness of the HPC and a certain bandwidth of the incident light corresponding to the Bragg reflection of the HPC comes out from the incidence plane. Here, P1, P2, P3, and P4 denote the polarization states of the light in the optical stages. (b) The voltage-on state (total transmission state) that the incident light becomes circularly polarized in the opposite direction to the handedness of the HPC by the reorientation of the LC molecule and penetrates the HPC without the Bragg reflection. Here, θ denotes the angle between the optical axis of the tunable waveplate and the front polarizer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabrication of the color reflective-type display based on the HPC array: (a) Spin-coating of MR on the bottom substrate. Top and bottom substrates were prepared by patterning ITO electrode and applying a homogeneous alignment layer. (b) Photo-polymerization of MR with the photomask. (c) Wash-out process for un-polymerized material. (d) Repetition of spin-coating, photo-polymerization, and wash-out process using MG and MB for the construction of HPC-G and HPC-B, respectively. (e) Assembly of the top substrate and injection of LC as the tunable waveplate. Here, h1, h2, and h3 denote the thickness of the HPC-R, HPC-G, and HPC-B, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Numerical and the experimental results of the transmittance and the reflectance of the G unit as a function of θ and Φ: (a) The contour plot of the transmittance. (b) The experimental result of the transmittance for several different values of θ (θ = 15°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 165°). (c) The contour plot of the reflectance. (d) The experimental result of the reflectance for several different values of θ (θ = 15°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 165°). (e) Poincaré spheres showing the polarization states along the optical pathway for θ = 135°. The red and blue arrows represent the propagation of the incident light and that of the reflected light, respectively. The dashed arrows represent the transitions of the polarization states.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electro-optical properties of three color units (R, G, and B): (a) The voltage-dependent reflectance of R, G, and B color units. (b) Dynamic response of the R color unit. The applied voltage was a bipolar square waveform with the amplitude of 4 V at the frequency of 1 kHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflection spectra showing the intensity-tuning capability of (a) R, (b) G, and (c) B color units and the corresponding POM images of the arrays of the color units at several different values of the applied voltage. Here, P and R denote the optic axis of the front polarizer and the rubbing direction, respectively. Scale bars in the POM images are 200 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The demonstration of a prototype of a full color reflective-type display incorporated with three primary color units. The POM images showing (a) the bright state for three color units in the initial state (VR = 0 V, VG = 0 V, and VB = 0 V), and the black states for (b) B color unit (VR = 0 V, VG = 0 V, and VB = 3.8 V), (c) G color unit (VR = 0 V, VG = 3.7 V, and VB = 0 V), and (d) R color unit (VR = 3.2 V, VG = 0 V, and VB = 0 V). Scale bars are 200 μm.

Equations (10)

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P 2 = I in 2 [ cos 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o + e iΦ ( sin 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ) sin 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o + e iΦ ( cos 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ) ].
P t = K t I in 2 2 [ 1 i ],
K t = cos 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o +i( sin 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ) + e iΦ ( sin 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o )i e iΦ ( cos 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ).
I t I in = 1sin2θsinΦ 4 .
P 3 = K r I in 2 2 [ 1 i ],
K r = cos 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o +i( sin 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o ) + e iΦ ( sin 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o )+i e iΦ ( cos 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ).
P 4 = K r I in 2 2 [ cos 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o + e iΦ ( sin 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ) sin 2 θ o cos θ o sin θ o + e iΦ ( cos 2 θ o +cos θ o sin θ o ) ].
P r = K r 2 I in 4 2 [ 1 1 ].
I r I in = 1 2 [ 1+sin2θsinΦ 2 ] 2 .
h k =d 3 λ k 4Δn ,

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