Abstract

The imaging principles and phenomena of integral imaging technique have been studied in detail using geometrical optics, wave optics, or light filed theory. However, most of the conclusions are only suit for the integral imaging systems using diffused illumination. In this work, a kind of twin imaging phenomenon and mechanism has been observed in a non-diffused illumination reflective integral imaging system. Interactive twin images including a real and a virtual 3D image of one object can be activated in the system. The imaging phenomenon is similar to the conjugate imaging effect of hologram, but it base on the refraction and reflection instead of diffraction. The imaging characteristics and mechanisms different from traditional integral imaging are deduced analytically. Thin film integral imaging systems with 80μm thickness have also been made to verify the imaging phenomenon. Vivid lighting interactive twin 3D images have been realized using a light-emitting diode (LED) light source. When the LED is moving, the twin 3D images are moving synchronously. This interesting phenomenon shows a good application prospect in interactive 3D display, argument reality, and security authentication.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

Y. Lou and J. Hu, “Passive lighting responsive three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 402, 498–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

Y. Takaki and Y. Yamaguchi, “Flat-panel see-through three-dimensional display based on integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1873–1876 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Shen, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Multiple-planes pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion for 3D integral imaging display,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 921–926 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

2012 (1)

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, Y. Katayama, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional display with a long viewing distance by use of integral photography,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 613–615 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 71–74 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, J. Park, and H. Choi, “Scaling of Three-Dimensional Integral Imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), 216–224 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Multiple-viewing-zone integral imaging using a dynamic barrier array for three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 11(8), 927–932 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” SIGGRAPH 96, 31–42 (1996).

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Bahn, J.-E.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bu, Q.

Burckhardt, C. B.

Chen, N.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

Choi, H.

Choi, H.-H.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.-J.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

Dohi, T.

Durand, F.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, and H. Pfister, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays in Rendering Techniques,” Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. 13(7), 73–82 (2006).

Hanrahan, P.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” SIGGRAPH 96, 31–42 (1996).

Hata, N.

Hong, J.-Y.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

Hu, J.

Y. Lou and J. Hu, “Passive lighting responsive three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 402, 498–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Iwahara, M.

Jang, C.

Javidi, B.

Jeong, J.

Jeong, Y.

G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ji, C.

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

Katayama, Y.

Kawakita, M.

Kim, J.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 71–74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-K.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, D.

Lee, S.

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” SIGGRAPH 96, 31–42 (1996).

Li, D.

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

Li, G.

Liao, H.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Lou, Y.

Y. Lou and J. Hu, “Passive lighting responsive three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 402, 498–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Corral, M.

X. Xiao, X. Shen, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Multiple-planes pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion for 3D integral imaging display,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 921–926 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

Matusik, W.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, and H. Pfister, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays in Rendering Techniques,” Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. 13(7), 73–82 (2006).

Min, S.-W.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 71–74 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Multiple-viewing-zone integral imaging using a dynamic barrier array for three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 11(8), 927–932 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nago, N.

Navarro, H.

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

Park, J.

B. Lee, J. Park, and H. Choi, “Scaling of Three-Dimensional Integral Imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), 216–224 (2005).

Park, J.-H.

Park, S.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pfister, H.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, and H. Pfister, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays in Rendering Techniques,” Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. 13(7), 73–82 (2006).

Saavedra, G.

Saveljev, V. V.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

X. Shen and B. Javidi, “Large depth of focus dynamic micro integral imaging for optical see-through augmented reality display using a focus-tunable lens,” Appl. Opt. 57(7), B184–B189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Shen, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Multiple-planes pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion for 3D integral imaging display,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 921–926 (2015).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stern, A.

Takaki, Y.

Wang, F.

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, X. Shen, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Multiple-planes pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion for 3D integral imaging display,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 921–926 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, Y.

Yeom, J.

C. Jang, C.-K. Lee, J. Jeong, G. Li, S. Lee, J. Yeom, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in see-through three-dimensional displays using holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 55(3), A71–A85 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

Zwicker, M.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, and H. Pfister, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays in Rendering Techniques,” Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. 13(7), 73–82 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (5)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Chin. Opt. lett. (1)

Y. Wang, Q. Wang, D. Li, H. Deng, and C. Luo, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display based on double plano-convex micro-lens array,” Chin. Opt. lett. 11(6), 61–101 (2013).

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

X. Xiao, X. Shen, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Multiple-planes pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion for 3D integral imaging display,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 921–926 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Luo, C. Ji, F. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 71–74 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, J. Park, and H. Choi, “Scaling of Three-Dimensional Integral Imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), 216–224 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Lou and J. Hu, “Passive lighting responsive three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 402, 498–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H.-H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

SIGGRAPH (1)

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” SIGGRAPH 96, 31–42 (1996).

Other (2)

A. Isaksen, L. McMillan, and S. Gortler, “Dynamically reparameterized light fields,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series. 23(3), 297–306 (2000).

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, and H. Pfister, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays in Rendering Techniques,” Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. 13(7), 73–82 (2006).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The twin images including a real 3D image and a virtual 3D image of one object are activated using a LED point light source.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Twin imaging phenomenon of II.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Geometrical relationships among the light source and the twin 3D images
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Z axis positions of the twin 3D images vs. Z axis positions of the light source.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 X axis positions of the twin 3D images vs. X axis positions of the light source.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fabrication processes of the twin imaging II system. (a) UV photolithography, (b) Micro-patterns in photoresist after developing, (c) thermal reflow to form the MLA, (d) electroplating to make the MLA and EIs nickel master mold, (e) double side UV imprinting to duplicate and integrate the MLA and EIs, (f) scraping knife system to fill the nano ink in the grooves of the EIs, (g) deposition of a reflective layer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 3D surface profile of the fabricated MLA and EIs. (a) MLA, (b) EIs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Performance of the fabricated II system illuminated by the diffused light.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Two frames excerpted from Visualization 1 show the twin images of the II system.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 One clear image is captured in the diffuser area.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z I = g 1 ( Z L +F) P e P l ( Z L +2F)
Z I ' = F 1 2( Z L +2F) P l ( Z L +F) P e ( Z L +2F)( Z L +g) P l ( Z L +F)
X I = ( Z I g)F g( Z L +F) X L
X I ' = N P l F Z I ' ( Z L +F)(1+F)N P e F( Z L +g)( Z I ' +F) Z I ' + F+1 F+ Z L X L
N= ( Z I ' 1)( Z I ' +F)( Z L +g)F X L [(2F+ Z I ' + Z L )F P l + P l ( Z L +F) Z I ' ]( Z L +g)( Z I ' +F) ( Z L +F) 2 (F+1) P e Z I '
Z I = g P l P l P e
Z I ' = F P l P e P l
X I =( Z I g 1)Ftan(α)
X I ' = Z I ' tan(α)
N= Ftan(α) P l

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