Abstract

We demonstrate a long-term stable, all-fiber, erbium-doped femtosecond laser mode-locked by a black phosphorus saturable absorber. The saturable absorber, fabricated by scalable and highly controllable inkjet printing technology, exhibits strong nonlinear optical response and is stable for long-term operation against intense irradiation, overcoming a key drawback of this material. The oscillator delivers self-starting, 102 fs stable pulses centered at 1555 nm with 40 nm spectral bandwidth. This represents the shortest pulse duration achieved from black phosphorus in a fiber laser to date. Our results demonstrate the great potential for black phosphorus as an excellent candidate for long-term stable ultrashort pulse generation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, M. Liu, M. Lei, S. Fang, H. Teng, and Z. Wei, “Tungsten disulfide saturable absorbers for 67 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2950–2959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (8)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 440–449 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by black phosphorus nanoplatelets-based saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10290–10294 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining, graphene-based femtosecond Tm-doped all-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9339–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “41.9 fs hybridly mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser at 212 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1553–1556 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Mao and H. Lu, “Formation and evolution of passively mode-locked fiber soliton lasers operating in a dual-wavelength regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2819–2826 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Q. Wang, H. Chen, and J. Liu, “Fast, long-scan-range pump-probe measurement based on asynchronous sampling using a dual-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25584–25589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Q. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 183 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389(6653), 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Ultrabroadband femtosecond lasers,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 1100–1114 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Abellan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

Ali, S. Z.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backes, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bakajin, O.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389(6653), 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Berner, N. C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Ultrabroadband femtosecond lasers,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 1100–1114 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brent, J. R.

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “41.9 fs hybridly mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser at 212 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1553–1556 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. X.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Cho, W. B.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, D.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

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S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
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Fan, D. Y.

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F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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Gardner, J. W.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
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A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
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Guo, Z.

Haigh, S. J.

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
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Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 183 (2010).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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Harvey, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Q. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Hauke, F.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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Haus, H. A.

He, Z. L.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
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G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Hirsch, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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Hisyam, M.

M. Hisyam, M. Rusdi, A. Latiff, and S. Harun, “Generation of Mode-locked Ytterbium doped fiber ring laser using few-layer black phosphorus as a saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(1), 1100205 (2016).

Howe, R. C. T.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Hsieh, G.-W.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, G.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Huber, G.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389(6653), 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, T.

Jones, C.

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Jung, S.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
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Kang, J.

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Kowalczyk, M.

Krajewska, A.

Krausz, F.

C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Ultrabroadband femtosecond lasers,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 1100–1114 (1994).
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Kulmala, T. S.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
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Latiff, A.

M. Hisyam, M. Rusdi, A. Latiff, and S. Harun, “Generation of Mode-locked Ytterbium doped fiber ring laser using few-layer black phosphorus as a saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(1), 1100205 (2016).

Lee, K.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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Lei, M.

Leonelli, R.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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Lévesque, P. L.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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Lewis, D. J.

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
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Lewis, E. A.

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
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Li, C.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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Li, X.

Liang, Z. M.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
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Liu, L.

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Liu, W.

Loiseau, A.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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Lombardo, A.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
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Lu, H.

Lynch, P.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 440–449 (2015).
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Martel, R.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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McEvoy, N.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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Moynihan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
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R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389(6653), 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

Ng, L. W. T.

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Nicolosi, V.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, P.

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Regan, D. D.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paletko, P.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 440–449 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
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Pang, L.

Pasternak, I.

Paul, P. J.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, P.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phaneuf-L’Heureux, A.-L.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
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Pokle, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

Qin, Z.

Ramasse, Q. M.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramasubramaniam, A.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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Ray, S. K.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
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Rozhin, A. G.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Q. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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Rusdi, M.

M. Hisyam, M. Rusdi, A. Latiff, and S. Harun, “Generation of Mode-locked Ytterbium doped fiber ring laser using few-layer black phosphorus as a saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(1), 1100205 (2016).

Santra, S.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanvito, S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savjani, N.

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobon, G.

Song, Y. F.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 183 (2010).
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Sotor, J.

Spielmann, C.

C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Ultrabroadband femtosecond lasers,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 1100–1114 (1994).
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Strupinski, W.

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z. P.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Q. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tang, N. Y. W.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A.-L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, H.

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udrea, F.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. De Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. Q.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Q. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wei, Z.

Wen, S.

White, I. H.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Q. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Witten, T. A.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389(6653), 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, P.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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Xie, G.

Xu, Y. J.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
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Yin, K.

Yu, H.

Yu, X.

Yuan, P.

Zhang, H.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
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J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
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Zhang, K.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(25), 6129–6135 (2017).
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Zhang, M.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zheng, X.

Zheng, Z.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
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X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Q. Wang, H. Chen, and J. Liu, “Fast, long-scan-range pump-probe measurement based on asynchronous sampling using a dual-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25584–25589 (2012).
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Zhou, L.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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Zhu, X.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
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G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev.in press.

Zou, W.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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X. Li, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “41.9 fs hybridly mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser at 212 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1553–1556 (2014).
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ACS Nano (1)

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6(4), 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 4 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 183 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 440–449 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. R. Brent, N. Savjani, E. A. Lewis, S. J. Haigh, D. J. Lewis, and P. O’Brien, “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(87), 13338–13341 (2014).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Photograph of the as produced BP dispersion. (b) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) thickness histogram of the exfoliated BP fakes, showing the flakes are 3.37 nm thick on average, equivalent to ~6 layers (0.9 nm for the first single layer and 0.5 nm for subsequent individual layers [29]). Inset: AFM micrograph of selected exfoliated BP fakes. (c) Inkjet-printed large-scale BP patterns on PET showing university crests, and (d) inkjet-printed BP SA arrays, showing spatially uniform printed SA devices.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A typical data set from Z-scan experiment of the SA device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of the stretched-pulse fiber laser. WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer. BP-SA, black phosphorus saturable absorber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Oscilloscope trace of the laser output. (b) Optical spectrum with a bandwidth of 40 nm. (c) Autocorrelation trace with a Gaussian fit. (d) Radio frequency spectrum, on a 500 kHz range span, with a 30 Hz resolution, measured around the fundamental repetition rate f1 = 23.9 MHz. (e) Spectra of long-term stable operation over 240 hours. (f) Spectra acquired after 80 hours (blue curve), 160 hours (red dot line), and 240 hours (green dot line), respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation results of (a) temporal pulse evolution, (b) spectrum evolution against the position in the cavity. Output pulse profile propagating through (c) 0 m and (d) 1.20 m of the fiber-pigtailed OC. Insets show the corresponding spectrograms.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fiber Parameters of the Numerical Simulations

Equations (3)

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α( I )= α 0 / ( 1+I/ I sat ) + α ns
U Z =i β 2 2 2 U t 2 +iγ | U | 2 U+ g 2 U+ g 2 Ω g 2 U t 2
g=Gexp( P ave / P sat )

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