Abstract

We demonstrate wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) 200 Gb/s (8 × 25 Gb/s) data transmission over 100 μm long aluminum (Al) surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waveguides on a Si3N4 waveguide platform at telecom wavelengths. The Al SPP waveguide was evaluated in terms of signal integrity by performing bit-error-rate (BER) measurements that revealed error-free operation for all eight 25 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulated data channels with power penalties not exceeding 0.2 dB at 10−9. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of WDM enabled data transmission over complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) SPP waveguides fueling future development of CMOS compatible plasmo-photonic devices for on-chip optical interconnections.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

G. Gao, M. Luo, X. Li, Y. Zhang, Q. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Xiao, Q. Yang, and J. Xia, “Transmission of 2.86 Tb/s data stream in silicon subwavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2918–2927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design and fabrication of hybrid SPP waveguides for ultrahigh-bandwidth low-penalty terabit-scale data transmission,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30124–30134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Fan, R. Orobtchouk, B. Han, Y. Li, and H. Li, “8 x 8 wavelength router of optical network on chip,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23677–23683 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

J. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. F. Buckwalter, “Scaling Trends for Picojoule-per-Bit WDM Photonic Interconnects in CMOS SOI and FinFET Processes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(11), 2730–2742 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Lotan, C. L. C. Smith, J. Bar-David, N. A. Mortensen, A. Kristensen, and U. Levy, “Propagation of channel plasmons at the visible regime in aluminum v-groove waveguides,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2150–2157 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Fedyanin, D. I. Yakubovsky, R. V. Kirtaev, and V. S. Volkov, “Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 362–366 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kinsey, M. Ferrera, G. V. Naik, V. E. Babicheva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12238–12247 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zektzer, B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (lr-dlsppws),” Opt. Express 22(18), 22009–22017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bahirat and S. Parischa, “METEOR: Hybrid Photonic Ring-Mesh Network-on-Chip for Multicore Architectures,” ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 13(3), 1–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, K. Hassan, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7655–7662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Sorger, R. Oulton, R. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1461–1471 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Calculation of bit-error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 505–513 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Ansell, D.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apostolopoulos, D.

Arocas, J.

Avramopoulos, H.

Ayata, M.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aznakayeva, D. E.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babicheva, V. E.

Baeuerle, B.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahirat, S.

S. Bahirat and S. Parischa, “METEOR: Hybrid Photonic Ring-Mesh Network-on-Chip for Multicore Architectures,” ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 13(3), 1–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bar-David, J.

O. Lotan, C. L. C. Smith, J. Bar-David, N. A. Mortensen, A. Kristensen, and U. Levy, “Propagation of channel plasmons at the visible regime in aluminum v-groove waveguides,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2150–2157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baus, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Belle, B. D.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Binkert, N.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Blaize, S.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zektzer, B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (lr-dlsppws),” Opt. Express 22(18), 22009–22017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, K. Hassan, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7655–7662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Britnell, L.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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Carloni, L. P.

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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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Cunningham, J. E.

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G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
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G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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Delacour, C.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
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S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-Throughput Capable 2x2 Silicon-Plasmonic Router Architecture for Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011).
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Djordjevic, S. S.

Du, J.

Elder, D. L.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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Fan, G.

Fedeli, J.-M.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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D. Y. Fedyanin, D. I. Yakubovsky, R. V. Kirtaev, and V. S. Volkov, “Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 362–366 (2016).
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Fiorentino, M.

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Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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Giesecke, A. L.

G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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Han, B.

Han, Z.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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Heintz, O.

Heni, W.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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Hillerkuss, D.

Hoessbacher, C.

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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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Jalil, R.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

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Kalavrouziotis, D.

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C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1461–1471 (2008).
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V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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Kirtaev, R. V.

D. Y. Fedyanin, D. I. Yakubovsky, R. V. Kirtaev, and V. S. Volkov, “Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 362–366 (2016).
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Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
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Kriezis, E. E.

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Levy, U.

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J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, K. Hassan, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7655–7662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-Throughput Capable 2x2 Silicon-Plasmonic Router Architecture for Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mazurski, N.

McLaren, M.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Miliou, A.

Möller, M.

Monchiero, M.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Mortensen, N. A.

O. Lotan, C. L. C. Smith, J. Bar-David, N. A. Mortensen, A. Kristensen, and U. Levy, “Propagation of channel plasmons at the visible regime in aluminum v-groove waveguides,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2150–2157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Naik, G. V.

Novoselov, K. S.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R.

Osgood, R. M.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R.

V. Sorger, R. Oulton, R. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Papaioannou, S.

Parischa, S.

S. Bahirat and S. Parischa, “METEOR: Hybrid Photonic Ring-Mesh Network-on-Chip for Multicore Architectures,” ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 13(3), 1–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pitilakis, A.

Pleros, N.

G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, K. Hassan, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7655–7662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-Throughput Capable 2x2 Silicon-Plasmonic Router Architecture for Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011).
[Crossref]

Porschatis, C.

G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raj, K.

Rohracher, K.

Salamin, Y.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salas-Montiel, R.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, R.

Schreiber, R.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Schwind, M.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1461–1471 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shubin, I.

Smith, C. L. C.

O. Lotan, C. L. C. Smith, J. Bar-David, N. A. Mortensen, A. Kristensen, and U. Levy, “Propagation of channel plasmons at the visible regime in aluminum v-groove waveguides,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2150–2157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V.

V. Sorger, R. Oulton, R. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tekin, T.

Thacker, H. D.

Thackray, B.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsilipakos, O.

Tsiokos, D.

G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vantrease, D.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

Viarbitskaya, S.

Vlasov, Y. A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Volkov, V. S.

D. Y. Fedyanin, D. I. Yakubovsky, R. V. Kirtaev, and V. S. Volkov, “Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 362–366 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vyrsokinos, K.

Wahlbrink, T.

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Weeber, J.

Weeber, J. C.

Weeber, J.-C.

Withers, F.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xia, J.

Xiao, X.

Yakubovsky, D. I.

D. Y. Fedyanin, D. I. Yakubovsky, R. V. Kirtaev, and V. S. Volkov, “Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 362–366 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yao, J.

Zahner, M.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zektzer, R.

Zhang, X.

V. Sorger, R. Oulton, R. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, S.

Zoric, I.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1461–1471 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. (1)

S. Bahirat and S. Parischa, “METEOR: Hybrid Photonic Ring-Mesh Network-on-Chip for Multicore Architectures,” ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 13(3), 1–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

O. Lotan, C. L. C. Smith, J. Bar-David, N. A. Mortensen, A. Kristensen, and U. Levy, “Propagation of channel plasmons at the visible regime in aluminum v-groove waveguides,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2150–2157 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

MRS Bull. (1)

V. Sorger, R. Oulton, R. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zorić, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1461–1471 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Fedyanin, D. I. Yakubovsky, R. V. Kirtaev, and V. S. Volkov, “Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 362–366 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, T. Wahlbrink, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Opt. Commun. 405, 35–38 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

G. Gao, M. Luo, X. Li, Y. Zhang, Q. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Xiao, Q. Yang, and J. Xia, “Transmission of 2.86 Tb/s data stream in silicon subwavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2918–2927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zektzer, B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (lr-dlsppws),” Opt. Express 22(18), 22009–22017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kinsey, M. Ferrera, G. V. Naik, V. E. Babicheva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12238–12247 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon nitride based plasmonic components for CMOS back-end-of-line integration,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23376–23390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Fan, R. Orobtchouk, B. Han, Y. Li, and H. Li, “8 x 8 wavelength router of optical network on chip,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23677–23683 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, K. Hassan, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7655–7662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design and fabrication of hybrid SPP waveguides for ultrahigh-bandwidth low-penalty terabit-scale data transmission,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30124–30134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photonics J. (1)

G. Dabos, D. Ketzaki, A. Manolis, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, D. Tsiokos, and N. Pleros, “Plasmonic stripes in aqueous environment co-integrated with Si3N4 photonics,” Photonics J. 10(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/mode/ .

S. Zhu, T. Liow, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Fully CMOS Compatible Subwavelength Plasmonic Slot Waveguides for Si Electronic-Photonic Integrated Circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThV5.
[Crossref]

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE, 2008), pp. 153–164.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Conceptual schematic of a plasmo-photonic WDM data transmission line comprised of an Al SPP waveguide on Si3N4 photonics resembling an on-chip optical interconnection. (b) Cross-sectional dimensions for the Si3N4 and the Al plasmonic waveguides.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Side-view of the butt-coupled Si3N4-to-Al interface. (b) Simulated mode-profiles (|Ey|) for the strip and the tapered photonic modes as well as the SPP mode at 1550 nm. (c) Simulated Si3N4-to-Al insertion loss as a function of vertical (black-squares) and longitudinal (red-circles) offset at 1550 nm. (d) Simulated plasmonic propagation loss (black-squares) and Si3N4-to-Al insertion loss (red-circles) as function of wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication process flow of the Si3N4 and the Al SPP waveguides.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Mask layout showing the reference waveguide and an Si3N4-to-Al interface test structure used during the optical characterization. GCs are not depicted for clarity. (b) SEM image of a 70 μm long Al plasmonic stripe recessed in a cavity formed by etching in one step LTO, Si3N4 and SiO2. (c) FtF loss budget over wavelength for the reference waveguide and the Si3N4-to-Al interface test structures with increasing Al stripe length. (d) Experimental plasmonic propagation loss of the Al plasmonic waveguide (black-squares) and the Si3N4-to-Al interface insertion loss (red-circles) as a function of wavelength. Respective simulation results for the plasmonic propagation losses (down-black triangles) as well as the Si3N4-to-Al interface losses (up-red triangles) accounting for VO of 400 nm. The error-bars correspond to the standard deviation deduced from the linear fitting process based on least-squares method.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The experimental setup that was used during the WDM data transmission experiment with an aggregate bandwidth of 200 Gb/s (8 × 25 NRZ Gb/s). (DFB: distributed-feedback-laser, PC: polarization-controller, AWG: arrayed-waveguide-grating, MOD: modulator, EDFA: erbium-doped-fiber-amplifier, PBS: polarization-beam-splitter, SMF: single-mode-fiber, PMF: polarization-maintaining-fiber, VOA: variable-optical-attenuator). (b), (c) and (d) eight-channel spectrum: before the chip, after the chip and just after the EDFA before the receiver, respectively. (e) BER curves and eye diagrams for each transmitted channel exhibiting error-free operation in all cases.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison with other experimentally demonstrated CMOS compatible plasmonic waveguides that support propagating SPP modes. (LR: long-range, IMI: insulator-metal-insulator, DLSPP: dielectric-loaded surface-plasmon-polariton, MIM: metal-insulator-metal, CPP: channel-plasmon-polariton).

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