Abstract

We have demonstrated a helical long-period grating (HLPG) manufactured from multicore fiber (MCF) combined with twist and CO2-laser heating technology. The MCF we used behaves as a kind of single mode fiber. The nineteen cores of MCF are distributed hexagonally which make the helical structure only exist in core area after heating and twisting. There are several strong couplings between the core and cladding modes at different wavelengths when the grating pitch was 900 µm. The extinction ratio of the main coupling reached 20 dB at 1550 nm. We have investigated the sensor characteristics of the HLPG. It is found that the grating presents clear sensitivity to refractive-index while exhibiting smaller cross-sensitivity to environmental temperature than conventional long-period gratings. The HLPG also shows great potential as a twist sensor, which has a sensitivity up to 0.198 nm/(rad/m) and can apply for measuring twist directions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

J. U. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Krämer, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings II: complete vectorial analysis,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21434–21449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. A. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and G. W. Chern, “A torsion sensor made of a corrugated long period fibre grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 793–799 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. G. Askins, R. W. McElhanon, and E. J. Friebele, “Amplitude mask patterned on an excimer laser mirror for high intensity writing of long period fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 33(13), 1167–1168 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abdou-Ahmed, M.

Aitchison, J. S.

Arregui, F.

Askins, C. G.

H. J. Patrick, C. G. Askins, R. W. McElhanon, and E. J. Friebele, “Amplitude mask patterned on an excimer laser mirror for high intensity writing of long period fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 33(13), 1167–1168 (1997).
[Crossref]

Awaji, Y.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Barton, J. S.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Biancalana, F.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, P. M.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burnett, J. G.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chao, N.

Chapman, D. N.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheo, P.

Chern, G. W.

L. A. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and G. W. Chern, “A torsion sensor made of a corrugated long period fibre grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 793–799 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Churikov, V. M.

Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Del Villar, I.

Draper, C. W.

Eom, T. J.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Erry, G. R. G.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fender, A.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fernandes, L. A.

Flockhart, G. M. H.

Friebele, E. J.

H. J. Patrick, C. G. Askins, R. W. McElhanon, and E. J. Friebele, “Amplitude mask patterned on an excimer laser mirror for high intensity writing of long period fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 33(13), 1167–1168 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gander, M. J.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Genack, A. Z.

George, D. S.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

Greenaway, A. H.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grenier, J. R.

Han, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Harrison, P.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, T.

Herman, P. R.

Howden, R. I.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

Imamura, K.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Inaba, H.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jones, B. J. S.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jones, J. D. C.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, N.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. U.

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kang, M. S.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanno, A.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Kawanishi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Kim, C.-S.

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

King, G.

Klaus, W.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Knight, J. C.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ko, D.-K.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Kopp, V. I.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krämer, R. G.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, H. W.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. R.

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

L. A. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and G. W. Chern, “A torsion sensor made of a corrugated long period fibre grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 793–799 (2001).
[Crossref]

MacPherson, W. N.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, R. R. J.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

Matías, I.

McBride, R.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

McCulloch, S.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

McElhanon, R. W.

H. J. Patrick, C. G. Askins, R. W. McElhanon, and E. J. Friebele, “Amplitude mask patterned on an excimer laser mirror for high intensity writing of long period fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 33(13), 1167–1168 (1997).
[Crossref]

Metje, N.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moore, A. J.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mukasa, K.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Neugroschl, D.

Noh, Y.-C.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

Oh, K.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

Paek, U.-C.

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, C. G. Askins, R. W. McElhanon, and E. J. Friebele, “Amplitude mask patterned on an excimer laser mirror for high intensity writing of long period fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 33(13), 1167–1168 (1997).
[Crossref]

Puttnam, B. J.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Rogers, C. D. F.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, J.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Sasaki, T.

Sasaoka, E.

Shimakawa, O.

Shin, W.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Silva-Lopez, M.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Singer, J.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Smith, G. W.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Steel, M. J.

Sugizaki, R.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Suo, R.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taru, T.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thomas, J. U.

Tünnermann, A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vogel, M. M.

Voss, A.

Wada, N.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Wang, L. A.

L. A. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and G. W. Chern, “A torsion sensor made of a corrugated long period fibre grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 793–799 (2001).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

Weiss, T.

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withford, M. J.

Wong, G. K. L.

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, X.

Yu, B.-A.

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, L.

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. J. Patrick, C. G. Askins, R. W. McElhanon, and E. J. Friebele, “Amplitude mask patterned on an excimer laser mirror for high intensity writing of long period fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 33(13), 1167–1168 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y.-G. Han, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Shin, K. Oh, B.-A. Yu, Y. L. Lee, T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “All-Fiber Bandpass Filter Based on Helicoidal Long-Period Grating Pair and Null Core Hollow Optical Fiber With Flexible Transmission Control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 153–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. McCulloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-Axis Temperature-Insensitive Accelerometer Based on Multicore Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1292–1298 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. Silva-Lopez, J. S. Barton, A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, N. Metje, D. N. Chapman, and C. D. F. Rogers, “Tunnel monitoring using multicore fibre displacement sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1180–1185 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. A. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and G. W. Chern, “A torsion sensor made of a corrugated long period fibre grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 793–799 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (2)

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral Fiber Gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fibre,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9(2), 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C–1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The cross section of MCF measured with microscope; (b) the far field spot of MCF at1556nm; (c) the near field spot of MCF at1556nm; (d) The neff of LP01, LP11 and LP21 ;(e) the confinement loss of LP01, LP11 and LP21
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Fabrication of an HLPG. (b) A picture of fabricated HLPG, and the schematic illustration of a portion of the fabricated HLPG.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectrum of HLPG 4 and spectrum of the main couplings of the other HLPGs with various pitches.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation of the electric-field distribution of the MCF for the core mode (LP01), cladding mode LP0 m (LP02), and LP lm (LP11 and LP32) at 1550 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Effects of environmental RI. (a) Wavelength shifts with changes in the environmental RI. (b) Near-coupling changes in RI intensity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Twist sensitivity of HLPG. (a) Platform for the twist test. (b) Changes in spectrum under different twist angles. (c) Linearity of the central wavelength increases with increases in dip twist ratio which the HLPG’s pitch is 900µm. The insert pitch show the twist’s sensitivity of HLPGs which the pitch are 930µm and 960µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Effects of changes in temperature and curvature. (a) Wavelength shifts with changing temperature. (b) Central wavelengths and extinction ratios of the dip changes with increases of curvature.

Equations (1)

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λ = Λ ( n e f f c o r e n e f f c l a d )

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