Abstract

Monolayer MoS2 is an emerging two-dimensional semiconductor that has seen wide applications in optoelectronic and light-emitting devices. Here we report on the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission of monolayer MoS2, which has weak absorbance and low intrinsic quantum yield. The ultrathin silver platelet antennas we use can both increase the absorption cross-section and improve the transmission efficiency via controlling the optical field at nanometer scale. Experimental results indicate the photoluminescence enhancement can reach 4 times, which is also supported by numerical analysis of both excitation and emission processes with respect to the thickness of spacer layer. This ultrathin structure can facilitate the development of on-chip emitters and valley-based devices, especially in cases of large area sample or flexible substrate.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Yang, E. Rusak, J. Straubel, R. Guo, Y. W. Myint, J. Pei, M. Decker, I. Staude, C. Rockstuhl, Y. Lu, Y. S. Kivshar, and D. Neshev, “Manipulation of photoluminescence of two-dimensional MoSe2 by gold nanoantennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22296 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, J.-N. Li, Y. Zhou, D.-H. Xu, X. Xiong, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Van der Waals epitaxy of ultrathin α-MoO3 sheets on mica substrate with single-unit-cell thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 053107 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Jeon, S. K. Jang, S. M. Jeon, G. Yoo, Y. H. Jang, J.-H. Park, and S. Lee, “Layer-controlled CVD growth of large-area two-dimensional MoS2 films,” Nanoscale 7(5), 1688–1695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Amani, D. H. Lien, D. Kiriya, J. Xiao, A. Azcatl, J. Noh, S. R. Madhvapathy, R. Addou, S. Kc, M. Dubey, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, S. C. Lee, J. H. He, J. W. Ager, X. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and A. Javey, “Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS2,” Science 350(6264), 1065–1068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Butun, S. Tongay, and K. Aydin, “Enhanced light emission from large-area monolayer MoS2 using plasmonic nanodisc arrays,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2700–2704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kern, A. Trügler, I. Niehues, J. Ewering, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, S. Najmaei, A. George, J. Zhang, J. Lou, U. Hohenester, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoantenna-Enhanced Light–Matter Interaction in Atomically Thin WS2,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1260–1265 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. C. J. Lee, Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Cheng, P.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Wu, M.-H. Shih, K.-H. Wei, L.-J. Li, and C.-W. Chang, “Plasmonic gold nanorods coverage influence on enhancement of the photoluminescence of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

K. F. Mak, K. L. McGill, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “The valley Hall effect in MoS2 transistors,” Science 344(6191), 1489–1492 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rose, T. B. Hoang, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic nanopatch antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4797–4802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Najmaei, A. Mlayah, A. Arbouet, C. Girard, J. Léotin, and J. Lou, “Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2-Au nanostructures,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12682–12689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

G. Eda and S. A. Maier, “Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 7(7), 5660–5665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Salvatore, N. Münzenrieder, C. Barraud, L. Petti, C. Zysset, L. Büthe, K. Ensslin, and G. Tröster, “Fabrication and transfer of flexible few-layers MoS2 thin film transistors to any arbitrary substrate,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8809–8815 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Late, Y. K. Huang, B. Liu, J. Acharya, S. N. Shirodkar, J. Luo, A. Yan, D. Charles, U. V. Waghmare, V. P. Dravid, and C. N. R. Rao, “Sensing behavior of atomically thin-layered MoS2 transistors,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4879–4891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1852–1857 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mouri, Y. Miyauchi, and K. Matsuda, “Tunable photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 via chemical doping,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5944–5948 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, S. Karaveli, T. Schiros, K. He, S. Yang, I. Kymissis, J. Shan, and R. Zia, “Orientation of luminescent excitons in layered nanomaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 271–276 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of Large-Area MoS2 Atomic Layers with Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, S. W. Min, Y. G. Chang, M. K. Park, T. Nam, H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Ryu, and S. Im, “MoS2 nanosheet phototransistors with thickness-modulated optical energy gap,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3695–3700 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

A. Kuc, N. Zibouche, and T. Heine, “Influence of quantum confinement on the electronic structure of the transition metal sulfide TS2,” Phys. Rev. B 83(24), 245213 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhu, Y. C. Cheng, and U. Schwingenschlögl, “Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153402 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zeng, X. Xia, M. Rycenga, P. Henneghan, Q. Li, and Y. Xia, “Successive deposition of silver on silver nanoplates: lateral versus vertical growth,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(1), 244–249 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. D. Torre, F. D. Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(2), 126–130 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acharya, J.

D. J. Late, Y. K. Huang, B. Liu, J. Acharya, S. N. Shirodkar, J. Luo, A. Yan, D. Charles, U. V. Waghmare, V. P. Dravid, and C. N. R. Rao, “Sensing behavior of atomically thin-layered MoS2 transistors,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4879–4891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addou, R.

M. Amani, D. H. Lien, D. Kiriya, J. Xiao, A. Azcatl, J. Noh, S. R. Madhvapathy, R. Addou, S. Kc, M. Dubey, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, S. C. Lee, J. H. He, J. W. Ager, X. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and A. Javey, “Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS2,” Science 350(6264), 1065–1068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

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J. Kern, A. Trügler, I. Niehues, J. Ewering, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, S. Najmaei, A. George, J. Zhang, J. Lou, U. Hohenester, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoantenna-Enhanced Light–Matter Interaction in Atomically Thin WS2,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1260–1265 (2015).
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P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. D. Torre, F. D. Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(2), 126–130 (2006).
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H. Chen, J. Yang, E. Rusak, J. Straubel, R. Guo, Y. W. Myint, J. Pei, M. Decker, I. Staude, C. Rockstuhl, Y. Lu, Y. S. Kivshar, and D. Neshev, “Manipulation of photoluminescence of two-dimensional MoSe2 by gold nanoantennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22296 (2016).
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Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
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D. J. Late, Y. K. Huang, B. Liu, J. Acharya, S. N. Shirodkar, J. Luo, A. Yan, D. Charles, U. V. Waghmare, V. P. Dravid, and C. N. R. Rao, “Sensing behavior of atomically thin-layered MoS2 transistors,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4879–4891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1852–1857 (2013).
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M. Amani, D. H. Lien, D. Kiriya, J. Xiao, A. Azcatl, J. Noh, S. R. Madhvapathy, R. Addou, S. Kc, M. Dubey, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, S. C. Lee, J. H. He, J. W. Ager, X. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and A. Javey, “Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS2,” Science 350(6264), 1065–1068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
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G. Eda and S. A. Maier, “Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 7(7), 5660–5665 (2013).
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G. A. Salvatore, N. Münzenrieder, C. Barraud, L. Petti, C. Zysset, L. Büthe, K. Ensslin, and G. Tröster, “Fabrication and transfer of flexible few-layers MoS2 thin film transistors to any arbitrary substrate,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8809–8815 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ewering, J.

J. Kern, A. Trügler, I. Niehues, J. Ewering, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, S. Najmaei, A. George, J. Zhang, J. Lou, U. Hohenester, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoantenna-Enhanced Light–Matter Interaction in Atomically Thin WS2,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1260–1265 (2015).
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X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fang, C.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1852–1857 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galli, G.

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, A.

J. Kern, A. Trügler, I. Niehues, J. Ewering, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, S. Najmaei, A. George, J. Zhang, J. Lou, U. Hohenester, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoantenna-Enhanced Light–Matter Interaction in Atomically Thin WS2,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1260–1265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giacometti, V.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

S. Najmaei, A. Mlayah, A. Arbouet, C. Girard, J. Léotin, and J. Lou, “Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2-Au nanostructures,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12682–12689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberger, J. E.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grinblat, G.

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
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Gu, Y.

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

H. Chen, J. Yang, E. Rusak, J. Straubel, R. Guo, Y. W. Myint, J. Pei, M. Decker, I. Staude, C. Rockstuhl, Y. Lu, Y. S. Kivshar, and D. Neshev, “Manipulation of photoluminescence of two-dimensional MoSe2 by gold nanoantennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22296 (2016).
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O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
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M. Amani, D. H. Lien, D. Kiriya, J. Xiao, A. Azcatl, J. Noh, S. R. Madhvapathy, R. Addou, S. Kc, M. Dubey, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, S. C. Lee, J. H. He, J. W. Ager, X. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and A. Javey, “Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS2,” Science 350(6264), 1065–1068 (2015).
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A. Kuc, N. Zibouche, and T. Heine, “Influence of quantum confinement on the electronic structure of the transition metal sulfide TS2,” Phys. Rev. B 83(24), 245213 (2011).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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J. A. Schuller, S. Karaveli, T. Schiros, K. He, S. Yang, I. Kymissis, J. Shan, and R. Zia, “Orientation of luminescent excitons in layered nanomaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 271–276 (2013).
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D. J. Late, Y. K. Huang, B. Liu, J. Acharya, S. N. Shirodkar, J. Luo, A. Yan, D. Charles, U. V. Waghmare, V. P. Dravid, and C. N. R. Rao, “Sensing behavior of atomically thin-layered MoS2 transistors,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4879–4891 (2013).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. S. Lee, S. W. Min, Y. G. Chang, M. K. Park, T. Nam, H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Ryu, and S. Im, “MoS2 nanosheet phototransistors with thickness-modulated optical energy gap,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3695–3700 (2012).
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O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
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M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
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J. Zeng, X. Xia, M. Rycenga, P. Henneghan, Q. Li, and Y. Xia, “Successive deposition of silver on silver nanoplates: lateral versus vertical growth,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(1), 244–249 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Kern, A. Trügler, I. Niehues, J. Ewering, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, S. Najmaei, A. George, J. Zhang, J. Lou, U. Hohenester, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoantenna-Enhanced Light–Matter Interaction in Atomically Thin WS2,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1260–1265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of Large-Area MoS2 Atomic Layers with Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Amani, D. H. Lien, D. Kiriya, J. Xiao, A. Azcatl, J. Noh, S. R. Madhvapathy, R. Addou, S. Kc, M. Dubey, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, S. C. Lee, J. H. He, J. W. Ager, X. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and A. Javey, “Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS2,” Science 350(6264), 1065–1068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-Q.

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of Large-Area MoS2 Atomic Layers with Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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Zhao, W.

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J. G.

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

D. Wang, J.-N. Li, Y. Zhou, D.-H. Xu, X. Xiong, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Van der Waals epitaxy of ultrathin α-MoO3 sheets on mica substrate with single-unit-cell thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 053107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Zhu, Y. C. Cheng, and U. Schwingenschlögl, “Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zia, R.

J. A. Schuller, S. Karaveli, T. Schiros, K. He, S. Yang, I. Kymissis, J. Shan, and R. Zia, “Orientation of luminescent excitons in layered nanomaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 271–276 (2013).
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Zibouche, N.

A. Kuc, N. Zibouche, and T. Heine, “Influence of quantum confinement on the electronic structure of the transition metal sulfide TS2,” Phys. Rev. B 83(24), 245213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysset, C.

G. A. Salvatore, N. Münzenrieder, C. Barraud, L. Petti, C. Zysset, L. Büthe, K. Ensslin, and G. Tröster, “Fabrication and transfer of flexible few-layers MoS2 thin film transistors to any arbitrary substrate,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8809–8815 (2013).
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ACS Nano (5)

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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D. J. Late, Y. K. Huang, B. Liu, J. Acharya, S. N. Shirodkar, J. Luo, A. Yan, D. Charles, U. V. Waghmare, V. P. Dravid, and C. N. R. Rao, “Sensing behavior of atomically thin-layered MoS2 transistors,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4879–4891 (2013).
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G. A. Salvatore, N. Münzenrieder, C. Barraud, L. Petti, C. Zysset, L. Büthe, K. Ensslin, and G. Tröster, “Fabrication and transfer of flexible few-layers MoS2 thin film transistors to any arbitrary substrate,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8809–8815 (2013).
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G. Eda and S. A. Maier, “Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 7(7), 5660–5665 (2013).
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S. Najmaei, A. Mlayah, A. Arbouet, C. Girard, J. Léotin, and J. Lou, “Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2-Au nanostructures,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12682–12689 (2014).
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ACS Photonics (1)

J. Kern, A. Trügler, I. Niehues, J. Ewering, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, S. Najmaei, A. George, J. Zhang, J. Lou, U. Hohenester, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanoantenna-Enhanced Light–Matter Interaction in Atomically Thin WS2,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1260–1265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of Large-Area MoS2 Atomic Layers with Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. Zeng, X. Xia, M. Rycenga, P. Henneghan, Q. Li, and Y. Xia, “Successive deposition of silver on silver nanoplates: lateral versus vertical growth,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(1), 244–249 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Wang, J.-N. Li, Y. Zhou, D.-H. Xu, X. Xiong, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Van der Waals epitaxy of ultrathin α-MoO3 sheets on mica substrate with single-unit-cell thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 053107 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
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Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
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Nano Lett. (6)

S. Butun, S. Tongay, and K. Aydin, “Enhanced light emission from large-area monolayer MoS2 using plasmonic nanodisc arrays,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2700–2704 (2015).
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A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1852–1857 (2013).
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H. S. Lee, S. W. Min, Y. G. Chang, M. K. Park, T. Nam, H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Ryu, and S. Im, “MoS2 nanosheet phototransistors with thickness-modulated optical energy gap,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3695–3700 (2012).
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A. Rose, T. B. Hoang, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic nanopatch antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4797–4802 (2014).
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S. Mouri, Y. Miyauchi, and K. Matsuda, “Tunable photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 via chemical doping,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5944–5948 (2013).
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Nanoscale (1)

J. Jeon, S. K. Jang, S. M. Jeon, G. Yoo, Y. H. Jang, J.-H. Park, and S. Lee, “Layer-controlled CVD growth of large-area two-dimensional MoS2 films,” Nanoscale 7(5), 1688–1695 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y.-H. Chang, L. Zhang, L.-J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (6)

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. D. Torre, F. D. Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(2), 126–130 (2006).
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O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 494–498 (2012).
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J. A. Schuller, S. Karaveli, T. Schiros, K. He, S. Yang, I. Kymissis, J. Shan, and R. Zia, “Orientation of luminescent excitons in layered nanomaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 271–276 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
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G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Kuc, N. Zibouche, and T. Heine, “Influence of quantum confinement on the electronic structure of the transition metal sulfide TS2,” Phys. Rev. B 83(24), 245213 (2011).
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Z. Y. Zhu, Y. C. Cheng, and U. Schwingenschlögl, “Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 153402 (2011).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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H. Chen, J. Yang, E. Rusak, J. Straubel, R. Guo, Y. W. Myint, J. Pei, M. Decker, I. Staude, C. Rockstuhl, Y. Lu, Y. S. Kivshar, and D. Neshev, “Manipulation of photoluminescence of two-dimensional MoSe2 by gold nanoantennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22296 (2016).
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Science (3)

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characterization of monolayer MoS2. (a) AFM image of MoS2 flakes grown by CVD (scale bar: 10 μm). (b) Photoluminescence spectra of as-prepared monolayer MoS2. (c) Raman spectra of as-prepared monolayer MoS2. The peaks at 387 cm−1 and 408 cm−1 correspond to in-plane and out-of-plane lattice vibration, respectively. The peak around 525cm−1 comes from the silicon substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Plasmon resonance of silver platelet antennas. (a) Shape and size of the platelet antennas characterized by HRTEM. Scale bar: 100 nm. (Inset: side view. Scale bar: 20 nm.) (b) Absorbance of the colloidal silver platelet antenna solution measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. (c) Antenna resonance on SiO2/Si substrate calculated by FDTD simulation and MoS2 photoluminescence.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated spontaneous emission enhancement of MoS2. (a) Schematic view of the antennas/MoS2/SiO2/Si heterostructure. (b) Simulated excitation rate enhancement f E (gap = 12 nm). (c) Simulated radiative rate enhancement γ r / γ r 0 and (d) nonradiative rate enhancement γ abs / γ r 0 (gap = 12 nm). (e) Field enhancement f E (red square) and quantum yield enhancement f Q (blue circle) with respect to the gap thickness. (f) Theoretical PL enhancement (PLE) f F with (red line) and without (black line) spacer layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental demonstration of emission enhancement from monolayer MoS2. (a) PL spectra normalized to antenna-free sample (solid black line) at spacer thickness: 6 nm, 10 nm, 14 nm and 18 nm, respectively. (b) PL enhancement factor f F with respect to the thickness of spacer layer. Standard deviation of three measurements is used for error bars in the Figure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f F = f E f Q = γ exc γ exc 0 q q 0
f E = γ exc γ exc 0 = | E exc n ^ p | 2 | E exc 0 n ^ p | 2
γ sp = γ r + γ abs + γ nr 0 = πω 3 ε 0 | p | 2 ρ( r ,ω)+ γ nr 0
f Q = q q 0 = γ r γ r 0 ( γ r γ r 0 + γ abs γ r 0 ) q 0 +(1 q 0 )

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