Abstract

Controllable manipulation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons is critical in plasmonics and important for nanophotonic applications. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that graphene plasmons (GPs) can be unidirectionally excited in an Au-graphene composite structure by a linearly polarized optical wave at the wavelength of 10.2 µm. The unidirectional ratio can reach as large as 900 with the incidence angle at 37.7° off normal, which is obtained by the angular spectrum of GPs. Moreover, the physical mechanism behind the unidirectional excitation is revealed to be the interference between anti-symmetric and symmetric amplitude distributions of GPs, which are induced by the gold rod antenna under the normal and grazing illuminations, respectively.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on unidirectional excitation of plasmons

Bofeng Zhu, Guobin Ren, Yixiao Gao, Beilei Wu, Chenglong Wan, and Shuisheng Jian
Opt. Express 23(25) 32420-32428 (2015)

Versatile and tunable surface plasmon polariton excitation over a broad bandwidth with a simple metaline by external polarization modulation

Oubo You, Benfeng Bai, Lin Sun, Biyao Shen, and Zhendong Zhu
Opt. Express 24(19) 22061-22073 (2016)

Elliptically polarized modes for the unidirectional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons

Paul J. Compaijen, Victor A. Malyshev, and Jasper Knoester
Opt. Express 24(4) 3858-3872 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  5. Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  6. W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Huang and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact aperiodic metallic groove arrays for unidirectional launching of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 13, 5420–5424 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4, 153–159 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. Zhu, G. Ren, Y. Gao, B. Wu, C. Wan, and S. Jian, “Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on unidirectional excitation of plasmons,” Opt. Express 23, 32420 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Liu, C. Qian, and Y. D. Chong, “Directional excitation of graphene surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 23, 2383–2391 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics(Cambridge University, 2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Wang, W. Cai, X. Zhang, J. Xu, and Y. Luo, “Directional generation of graphene plasmons by near field interference,” Opt. Express 24, 19776–19787 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Cai, X. Zhang, J. Xu, and Y. Luo, “Directional generation of graphene plasmons by near field interference,” Opt. Express 24, 19776–19787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Huang and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact aperiodic metallic groove arrays for unidirectional launching of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 13, 5420–5424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4, 153–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aigouy, L.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Bourhis, E.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brongersma, M. L.

X. Huang and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact aperiodic metallic groove arrays for unidirectional launching of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 13, 5420–5424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brucoli, G.

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Casanova, F.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Centeno, A.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chong, Y. D.

Constant, T. J.

T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
[Crossref]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Devaux, E.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, G.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ebbesen, T.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fei, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fogler, M. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

García-Vidal, F.

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gierak, J.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ginzburg, P.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godignon, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Golmar, F.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, M.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guinea, F.

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics(Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

Hendry, E.

T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hornett, S. M.

T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

X. Huang and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact aperiodic metallic groove arrays for unidirectional launching of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 13, 5420–5424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hueso, L. E.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J.-P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huth, F.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jian, S.

Jin, C.

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Z.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4, 153–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F. H. L.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krenn, J.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lau, C. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lee, B.

S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4, 153–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, I.-M.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, H.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Liu, S.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Tejeira, F.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Marino, G.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez, A.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martín-Moreno, L.

McLeod, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Navickaite, G.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neto, A. H. C.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Y.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics(Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, D.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Park, J.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesquera, A.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Qian, C.

Radko, I.

I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ren, G.

Rodin, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Rodrigo, S.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. J.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, G.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, W.

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sols, F.

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Stauber, T.

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiemens, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Vajtai, R.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velez, S.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wan, C.

Wang, B.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Won, J.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

Wunsch, B.

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wurtz, G. A.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Xu, Q.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, W.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, S.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhu, B.

Zhu, Q.

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zurutuza, A.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ZurutuzaElorza, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J.-P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Switchable surface plasmon dichroic splitter modulated by optical polarization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 777–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

X. Huang and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact aperiodic metallic groove arrays for unidirectional launching of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 13, 5420–5424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmons by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15, 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, Y. Shen, W. Shin, Q. Zhu, S. Fan, and C. Jin, “Dislocated double-layer metal gratings: An efficient unidirectional coupler,” Nano Lett. 14, 3848–3854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (2)

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, J. Krenn, I. Radko, S. Bozhevolnyi, and M. Gonzalez, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. Constant, S. M. Hornett, D. E. Chang, and E. Hendry, “All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 12, 124–127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. ZurutuzaElorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. C. Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics 4, 153–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes,” Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Velez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344, 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics(Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic view of our proposed Au-graphene composite structure, in which the GPs can be unidirectionally excited by a linearly polarized light beam. (a) A gold rod with width and height of 1.2 µm is placed on a doped homogeneous graphene sheet. Asymmetric excitation of the rightward (PR) and leftward GPs (PL) on graphene can be realized by an oblique illumination. (b) Lateral view of the designed structure. The incidence angle of the incidence wave is θ. Unidirectional excitation of GPs occurs for the oblique illumination with θ = 37.7°, where one can see that PL is much stronger than PR.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The real part of z-component for the electric near-field [Re(Ez)]. The upper, middle and lower panels correspond to the incidence angles with θ = 0°, 90°, and 37.7°, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The near-field profiles Re(Ez) along the dashed lines 2 nm below (a) a graphene slit with width 1.2 µm (I), (b) a gold rod with height and width 1.2 µm (II) and a gold-graphene composite structure (III) which is composed by I and II. In each structure, three incidence angles 0°, 90°, and 37.7° are considered, which represent normal and grazing incidence, and an example of oblique incidence, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Angular spectra for the real part of z-component electric field [Re(Ez)] dependent on the incidence angle θ. The cases for structures I and III (see Fig. 3) are compared. E ˜ I, E ˜ I I I R and E ˜ I I I L are the angular spectra for I, rightward and leftward angular spectra for III, respectively. (b) The incidence angle dependent unidirectional ratio η of excited GPs in the Au-graphene composite structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The maximum unidirectional ratios (solid line) and corresponding incidence angles (dashed line) for GGCs using gold rods with different aspect ratios h/w, where the width is fixed at 1.2 µm. (b) Similar to (a), except for that the god rod is square and has different width (w).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Substrate effect on the unidirectional launching of GPs. The blue line marked with triangles shows the maximum unidirectional ratio η dependent on the relative permittivity ϵ of the substrate, where the corresponding incidence angle θ of the plane wave is indicated by a red line marked with dots.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ ( ω ) = 2 e 2 T π i ω + i τ 1 log [ 2 cosh ( E F 2 K B T ) ] + e 2 4 [ H ( ω / 2 ) + 4 i ω π 0 d ε H ( ε ) H ( ω / 2 ) ω 2 4 ε 2 ] ,
H ( ε ) = sinh ( ε / k B T ) cosh ( E F / k B T ) + cosh ( ε / k B T ) .

Metrics