Abstract

Black perception (perceived blackness of gray 0) of transparent OLED displays was studied in this paper. In pre-test, maximum luminances of acceptable black level under various surround conditions were found in a non-transparent display. In the first experiment, the luminance of a transparent patch was compared with that of an opaque one in order to find the effect of transparency on black perception. As a result, participants perceived the transparent patch darker than the opaque one even when the two were in similar luminance levels, which we termed as the “Transparency Effect.” In the second experiment, the perceived brightness of gray 0 with various background brightness conditions was investigated to observe the effect of induced black perception. Most participants perceived the luminance of gray 0 darker with brighter background luminance, but some did not. It might result from transparency of gray 0 which had a role as a window presenting the area overlapped with a transparent OLED display.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electron. Telecommun. Trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).
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2012 (1)

2010 (2)

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electron. Telecommun. Trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

2003 (1)

K. Chakrabarti, R. V. Kaczmarek, J. A. Thomas, and A. Romanyukha, “Effect of room illuminance on monitor black level luminance and monitor calibration,” J. Digit. Imaging 16(4), 350–355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. A. Julious, “Inference and estimation in a changepoint regression problem,” J. Royal Statistical Soc.: Series D 50(1), 51–61 (2001).

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

Ayama, M.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baek, Y. S.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest (2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Chakrabarti, K.

K. Chakrabarti, R. V. Kaczmarek, J. A. Thomas, and A. Romanyukha, “Effect of room illuminance on monitor black level luminance and monitor calibration,” J. Digit. Imaging 16(4), 350–355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, K. I.

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electron. Telecommun. Trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

Cicerone, C. M.

Donnelly, S. K.

Eda, T.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M.

S. J. Park and M. Fairchild, “Color reproduction using “Black-Point Adaptation,”” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging Conference (CIC, 2001), pp. 245–250.

Ha, H.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Heynderickx, I. E.

Hwang, C. S.

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electron. Telecommun. Trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

Ishikawa, T.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Julious, S. A.

S. A. Julious, “Inference and estimation in a changepoint regression problem,” J. Royal Statistical Soc.: Series D 50(1), 51–61 (2001).

Kaczmarek, R. V.

K. Chakrabarti, R. V. Kaczmarek, J. A. Thomas, and A. Romanyukha, “Effect of room illuminance on monitor black level luminance and monitor calibration,” J. Digit. Imaging 16(4), 350–355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Kim, J. C.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest (2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Koike, Y.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwak, Y.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest (2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Lee, S.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Matsushima, S.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murdoch, M. J.

Nakano, Y.

Ozaki, K.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electron. Telecommun. Trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park and M. Fairchild, “Color reproduction using “Black-Point Adaptation,”” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging Conference (CIC, 2001), pp. 245–250.

Romanyukha, A.

K. Chakrabarti, R. V. Kaczmarek, J. A. Thomas, and A. Romanyukha, “Effect of room illuminance on monitor black level luminance and monitor calibration,” J. Digit. Imaging 16(4), 350–355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, Y. J.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Shinomori, K.

Thomas, J. A.

K. Chakrabarti, R. V. Kaczmarek, J. A. Thomas, and A. Romanyukha, “Effect of room illuminance on monitor black level luminance and monitor calibration,” J. Digit. Imaging 16(4), 350–355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

Volbrecht, V. J.

Werner, J. S.

Yang, B.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Electron. Telecommun. Trends (1)

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electron. Telecommun. Trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

J. Digit. Imaging (1)

K. Chakrabarti, R. V. Kaczmarek, J. A. Thomas, and A. Romanyukha, “Effect of room illuminance on monitor black level luminance and monitor calibration,” J. Digit. Imaging 16(4), 350–355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Royal Statistical Soc.: Series D (1)

S. A. Julious, “Inference and estimation in a changepoint regression problem,” J. Royal Statistical Soc.: Series D 50(1), 51–61 (2001).

Kansei Eng. Int. J. (1)

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, T. Ishikawa, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of blackness on visual impression of color images,” Kansei Eng. Int. J. 10(1), 49–58 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” in Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2010 (EI, 2010), pp. 75270W.

T. Eda, Y. Koike, S. Matsushima, K. Ozaki, and M. Ayama, “Influence of surround luminance upon perceived blackness,” in Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2009 (EI, 2010), pp. 72400T.

S. J. Park and M. Fairchild, “Color reproduction using “Black-Point Adaptation,”” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging Conference (CIC, 2001), pp. 245–250.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest (2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

S. Yamada, R. Tanaka, H. Shinoda, and Y. Seya, “Space Brightness Affected by a Scenic View through a Window,” In Proceedings of Association Internationale de la Couleur 2015 (AIC, 2015), pp. 1211–1216.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 An experiment environment in the pre-test.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Luminance of acceptable black under various surround conditions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured luminance of various spots in the two real places. (a) In a clothing store. (b) An arcade to a subway station.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Stimuli on the transparent display.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Luminance of reference patches and average luminance of test patches under three surround conditions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Stimuli on the transparent display with a color background.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A procedure of the pre-test in a non-transparent display.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The result of the induced blackness in the non-transparent display.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Stimuli in the experiment of induced blackness.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Average luminance of the test patch with various background luminance under three surround conditions in the change group.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Average luminance of the test patch under a 350cd/m2 condition in the change group.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Average luminance of the test patch with various background luminance under three surround conditions in the flat group.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Measured white-point of a monitor and surround

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Table 2 Luminance (cd/m2) of gray 0 and reference patch under surround conditions

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Table 3 Luminance of a test patch and reference patch under three surround conditions

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Table 4 Results of regression under three surround conditions

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