Abstract

Understanding exoplanet formation and finding potentially habitable exoplanets is vital to an enhanced understanding of the universe. The use of nulling interferometry to strongly attenuate the central star’s light provides the opportunity to see objects closer to the star than ever before. Given that exoplanets are usually warm, the 4 µm Mid-Infrared region is advantageous for such observations. The key performance parameters for a nulling interferometer are the extinction ratio it can attain and how well that is maintained across the operational bandwidth. Both parameters depend on the design and fabrication accuracy of the subcomponents and their wavelength dependence. Via detailed simulation it is shown in this paper that a planar chalcogenide photonic chip, consisting of three highly fabrication tolerant multimode interference couplers, can exceed an extinction ratio of 60 dB in double nulling operation and up to 40 dB for a single nulling operation across a wavelength window of 3.9 to 4.2 µm. This provides a beam combiner with sufficient performance, in theory, to image exoplanets.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

L. Labadie, J.-P. Berger, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, R. Harris, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, G. Martin, S. Minardi, G. Perrin, M. Roth, and R. R. Thomson, “Astronomical photonics in the context of infrared interferometry and high-resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 990718 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Ottaviano, M. Pu, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, “Low-loss high-confinement waveguides and microring resonators in AlGaAs-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3996–3999 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Mukherjee, D. Choudhury, L. Labadie, and R. R. Thomson, “Ultrafast laser inscribed integrated waveguide components for L-band interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 91462L (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: A young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745(1), 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Madhusudhan, A. Burrows, and T. Currie, “Model atmospheres for massive gas giants with thick clouds: Application to the Hr 8799 planets and predictions for future detections,” Astrophys. J. 737(1), 34 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. K. Hsiao, K. A. Winick, and J. D. Monnier, “Midinfrared broadband achromatic astronomical beam combiner for nulling interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 49(35), 6675–6688 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rogalski, “Organic field-effect transistors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 121–136 (2010).

O. Guyon, F. Martinache, R. Belikov, and R. Soummer, “High performance PIAA coronagraphy with complex amplitude focal plane masks,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 190(2), 220–232 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hsiao, K. A. Winick, J. D. Monnier, and J. P. Berger, “An infrared integrated optic astronomical beam combiner for stellar interferometry at 3-4 microm,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18489–18500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

F. Selsis, L. Kaltenegger, and J. Paillet, “Terrestrial exoplanets: diversity, habitability and characterization,” Phys. Scr. T 130, 014032 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. Li, T. Eckhause, K. A. Winick, J. D. Monnier, and J.-P. Berger, “Integrated optic beam combiners in lithium niobate for stellar interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626834 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide separation Extrasolar Giant Planets,” Astrophys. J. 609(1), 407–416 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

D. A. Fischer, R. P. Butler, and G. W. Marcy, “A sub-Saturn mass planet orbiting HD 3651,” Astrophys. J. 44, 3325–3335 (2003).

S. Seager, “The search for extrasolar Earth-like planets,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 208(3-4), 113–124 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 X 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2305–2313 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(03), 163–164 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475(1), 373–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 6898–6910 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (4)

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33(18), 3905–3911 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 1004–1009 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. E. Graves, F. J. Roddier, M. J. Northcott, J. Anuskiewicz, and G. J. Monnet, “Adaptive optics at the University of Hawaii IV: a photon-counting curvature wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 502–507 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J.-P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, and P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 1088–1098 (1994).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

1921 (1)

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, “Measurement of the diameter of alpha Orionis with the interferometer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 7(5), 143–146 (1921).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1920 (1)

A. A. Michelson, “On the Application of interference methods to astronomical measurements,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 6(8), 474–475 (1920).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1891 (1)

A. A. Michelson, “Measurement of Jupiter’s satellites by interference,” Nature 45(1155), 160–161 (1891).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475(1), 373–379 (1997).
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Anuskiewicz, J.

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Boyer, C.

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Bryngdahl, O.

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Bulla, D. P.

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Carletti, L.

Charles, N.

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Choi, D.-Y.

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Debbarma, S.

Debregeas, H.

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Dong, R.

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
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Doyon, R.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
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Dreisow, F.

Duvall, S. G.

Dzibrou, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Eckardt, R. C.

Eckhause, T.

G. Li, T. Eckhause, K. A. Winick, J. D. Monnier, and J.-P. Berger, “Integrated optic beam combiners in lithium niobate for stellar interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626834 (2006).
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Eggleton, B. J.

Errmann, R.

Fejer, M. M.

Felicetti, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Firth, P.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Fischer, D. A.

D. A. Fischer, R. P. Butler, and G. W. Marcy, “A sub-Saturn mass planet orbiting HD 3651,” Astrophys. J. 44, 3325–3335 (2003).

Fuerbach, A.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Gaffard, J.-P.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J.-P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, and P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 1088–1098 (1994).
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Gai, X.

Gallagher, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Geluk, E.-J.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Gendron, E.

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Gentner, J.-L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J.-P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, and P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 1088–1098 (1994).
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Gilardi, G.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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J. E. Graves, F. J. Roddier, M. J. Northcott, J. Anuskiewicz, and G. J. Monnet, “Adaptive optics at the University of Hawaii IV: a photon-counting curvature wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 502–507 (1994).
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Gross, S.

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Grote, N.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Harris, R.

L. Labadie, J.-P. Berger, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, R. Harris, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, G. Martin, S. Minardi, G. Perrin, M. Roth, and R. R. Thomson, “Astronomical photonics in the context of infrared interferometry and high-resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 990718 (2016).
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Haynes, R.

L. Labadie, J.-P. Berger, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, R. Harris, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, G. Martin, S. Minardi, G. Perrin, M. Roth, and R. R. Thomson, “Astronomical photonics in the context of infrared interferometry and high-resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 990718 (2016).
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Heiss, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Hsiao, H. K.

Hubeny, I.

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Hubin, N. N.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J.-P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, and P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 1088–1098 (1994).
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Hudson, D.

Ireland, M.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Ireland, M. J.

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
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M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
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A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: A young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745(1), 5 (2012).
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Isella, A.

M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
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J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
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Jackson, S. D.

Jiao, Y.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Jin, Z.

Jovanovic, N.

L. Labadie, J.-P. Berger, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, R. Harris, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, G. Martin, S. Minardi, G. Perrin, M. Roth, and R. R. Thomson, “Astronomical photonics in the context of infrared interferometry and high-resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 990718 (2016).
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B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Kleijn, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Korthorst, T.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: A young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745(1), 5 (2012).
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Kraus, S.

M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
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J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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L. Labadie, J.-P. Berger, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, R. Harris, N. Jovanovic, S. Lacour, G. Martin, S. Minardi, G. Perrin, M. Roth, and R. R. Thomson, “Astronomical photonics in the context of infrared interferometry and high-resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 990718 (2016).
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Labeye, P.

Lacour, S.

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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Lafrenière, D.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Lawrence, J. S.

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Lehmann, A.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Stopinski, S.

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J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Thomson, R. R.

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Traub, W.

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(03), 163–164 (2001).
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Tuthill, P.

Tuthill, P. G.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
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M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
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J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
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Veldhoven, R.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vittot, M.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J.-P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, and P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 1088–1098 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vries, T.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wale, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. P.

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williams, K.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Winick, K. A.

Wishnow, E.

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woillez, J.

M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
[Crossref]

Wonfor, A.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Woolf, N. J.

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475(1), 373–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Yao, W.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Young, J.

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Yvind, K.

Zhao, J.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
[Crossref]

Zuckerman, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(03), 163–164 (2001).
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Astrophys. J. (5)

A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: A young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745(1), 5 (2012).
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N. Madhusudhan, A. Burrows, and T. Currie, “Model atmospheres for massive gas giants with thick clouds: Application to the Hr 8799 planets and predictions for future detections,” Astrophys. J. 737(1), 34 (2011).
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A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide separation Extrasolar Giant Planets,” Astrophys. J. 609(1), 407–416 (2004).
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D. A. Fischer, R. P. Butler, and G. W. Marcy, “A sub-Saturn mass planet orbiting HD 3651,” Astrophys. J. 44, 3325–3335 (2003).

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475(1), 373–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. (1)

O. Guyon, F. Martinache, R. Belikov, and R. Soummer, “High performance PIAA coronagraphy with complex amplitude focal plane masks,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 190(2), 220–232 (2010).
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S. Seager, “The search for extrasolar Earth-like planets,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 208(3-4), 113–124 (2003).
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P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 1004–1009 (1994).
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M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 X 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2305–2313 (2003).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: An integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(1), 806–815 (2012).
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Nature (1)

A. A. Michelson, “Measurement of Jupiter’s satellites by interference,” Nature 45(1155), 160–161 (1891).
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Opt. Express (6)

H. K. Hsiao, K. A. Winick, J. D. Monnier, and J. P. Berger, “An infrared integrated optic astronomical beam combiner for stellar interferometry at 3-4 microm,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18489–18500 (2009).
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B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
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S. Madden, Z. Jin, D. Choi, S. Debbarma, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss coupling to sub-micron thick rib and nanowire waveguides by vertical tapering,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3582–3594 (2013).
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F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
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L. Carletti, P. Ma, Y. Yu, B. Luther-Davies, D. Hudson, C. Monat, R. Orobtchouk, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, M. Brun, S. Ortiz, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and C. Grillet, “Nonlinear optical response of low loss silicon germanium waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8261–8271 (2015).
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P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Y. Yu, X. Gai, Z. Yang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29927–29937 (2013).
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Proc. SPIE (7)

J. E. Graves, F. J. Roddier, M. J. Northcott, J. Anuskiewicz, and G. J. Monnet, “Adaptive optics at the University of Hawaii IV: a photon-counting curvature wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 502–507 (1994).
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G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J.-P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, and P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 1088–1098 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. D. Monnier, M. J. Ireland, S. Kraus, F. Baron, M. Creech-Eakman, R. Dong, A. Isella, A. Merand, E. Michael, S. Minardi, D. Mozurkewich, R. Petrov, S. Rinehart, T. ten Brummelaar, G. Vasisht, E. Wishnow, J. Young, and Z. Zhu, “Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI),” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071O (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Ireland, J. D. Monnier, S. Kraus, A. Isella, S. Minardi, R. Petrov, T. ten Brummelaar, J. Young, G. Vasisht, D. Mozurkewich, S. Rinehart, E. A. Michael, G. van Belle, and J. Woillez, “Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071L (2016).
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C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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T. Han, “Nano-Moulding of Integrated Optical Devices,” (Australian National University, 2011). Thesis.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The mode distribution of a single mode 2 by 2 μm waveguide of design as per text at 4 µm wavelength.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The full 3-D taper simulation (left): Dual 2-D taper simulation; (right): Height reduces from 10 to 2 μm in first taper and width in the second. Beam propogation is from right to left.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission for the two taper designs vs wavelength and total length.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An RSoft BEAMProp simulation of an MMI at 4 µm for an optimized design. Power is from the left and propagates to the right. The black lines in the middle of the MMI cavity are only to track the progress of the input light.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The difference in the length for minimum imbalance subtracted with the length for optimum transmission vs MMI width. The error bars are from the numerical noise in the simulation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmission and imbalance vs length for a 45 μm width MMI.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmission and imbalance vs width for 875 μm length MMI.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The imbalance after the outside boundary of the MMI is varied for both TE and TM.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Transmission and imbalance vs core (green shaded area) and cladding (red shaded area) refractive index.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Transmission and imbalance vs core thickness.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Transmission and imbalance vs taper width.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Transmission and imbalance vs wavelengths for an optimized MMI.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Three MMIs in a 2:1 Angel and Wolf configuration [35]. The black lines in the centre of each MMI are only for simulation purposes they are in no way physical.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Monte-Carlo simulation of extinction for three coupler MMI based Bracewell nuller over a range of realistic fabrication tolerances and wavelengths. (a) single nulling operation and (b) double nulling operation – the yellow box represents the bandwidth of 3.8 to 4.2 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Fabrication sources, corresponding imbalance and area of impact on the full nulling device.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L= M N 4n W 2 3λ
Imbalance (%)= Bar portCross port Bar port+Cross port ×100
Extinction (dB)=10Log[ Null AntiNull ],
α| 1k i k i k 1k |,

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