Abstract

In the generation of Schrödinger’s cat states using an optical parametric oscillator in the continuous-wave regime up until now, single photons are subtracted from the whole bandwidth of the squeezed vacua. However, it was pointed out recently that the achievable purities are limited in such method [J. Yoshikawa, W. Asavanant, and A. Furusawa, Phys. Rev. A 96, 052304 (2017)]. In this paper, we used our new photon subtraction method with a narrowband filtering cavity and generated a highly pure Schrödinger’s cat state with the value of −0.184 ± 0.001 at the origin of the Wigner function. To our knowledge, this is the highest value ever reported without any loss corrections. The temporal mode also becomes exponentially rising in our method, which we utilize to make a real-time quadrature measurement on Schrödinger’s cat states, and we obtained the value of −0.162 ± 0.001 at the origin of the Wigner function.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  34. D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, “Frequency locking a laser to an optical cavity by use of spatial mode interference,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1499–1501 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. A. I. Lvovsky, “Iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction in quantum homodyne tomography,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S556–S559 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  37. A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1386 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  39. P. Comon, “Independent component analysis, A new concept?” Signal Processing 36, 287–314 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. MacRae, T. Brannan, R. Achal, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Tomography of a High-Purity Narrowband Photon from a Transient Atomic Collective Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033601 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Experimentally accessing the optimal temporal mode of traveling quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 213602 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An introduction to the bootstrap (Chapman & Hall, 1993).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yoshikawa, W. Asavanant, and A. Furusawa, “Purification of photon subtraction from continuous squeezed light by filtering,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 052304 (2017).

2016 (3)

K. Miyata, H. Ogawa, P. Marek, R. Filip, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Implementation of a quantum cubic gate by an adaptive non-Gaussian measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022301 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Serikawa, J. Yoshikawa, K. Makino, and A. Furusawa, “Creation and Measurement of Broadband Squeezed Vacuum from a Ring Optical Parametric Oscillator,” Opt. Express 24, 28383–28391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

Z. Qin, A. S. Prasad, T. Brannan, A. MacRae, A. Lezama, and A. Lvovsky, “Complete temporal characterization of a single photon,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e298 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Etesse, M. Bouillard, B. Kanseri, and R. Tualle-Brouri, “Experimental generation of squeezed cat states with an operation allowing iterative growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Experimentally accessing the optimal temporal mode of traveling quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 213602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. MacRae, T. Brannan, R. Achal, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Tomography of a High-Purity Narrowband Photon from a Transient Atomic Collective Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Lee, H. Benichi, Y. Takeno, S. Takeda, J. Webb, E. Huntington, and A. Furusawa, “Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light,” Science 332, 330–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, T. S. Clement, B. Calkins, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, A. L. Migdall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and E. Knill, “Generation of optical coherent-state superpositions by number-resolved photon subtraction from the squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031802 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, N. Gisin, J. Laurat, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A137–A145 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Gu, C. Weedbrook, N. C. Menicucci, T. C. Ralph, and P. van Loock, “Quantum computing with continuous-variable clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062318 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lund, T. C. Ralph, and H. L. Haselgrove, “Fault-tolerant linear optical quantum computing with small-amplitude coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 030503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

K. Mølmer, “Non-Gaussian states from continuous-wave Gaussian light sources,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063804 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating Optical Schrodinger Kittens for Quantum Information Processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, B. M. Nielsen, C. Hettich, K. Mølmer, and E. S. Polzik, “Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. I. Lvovsky, “Iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction in quantum homodyne tomography,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S556–S559 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Gilchrist, K. Nemoto, W. J. Munro, T. C. Ralph, S. Glancy, S. L. Braunstein, and G. J. Milburn, “Schrödinger cats and their power for quantum information processing,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S828–S833 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Ralph, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Milburn, W. J. Munro, and S. Glancy, “Quantum computation with optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042319 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

H. Jeong and M. S. Kim, “Efficient Quantum Computation using Coherent States,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042305 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, “Entanglement swapping of generalized cat states and secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. D. Bartlett, B. C. Sanders, S. L. Braunstein, and K. Nemoto, “Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, “Encoding a qubit in an oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Raussendorf and H. J. Briegel, “A One-Way Quantum Computer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

D. Gottesman and I. L. Chuang, “Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations,” Nature 402, 390–393 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, “Frequency locking a laser to an optical cavity by use of spatial mode interference,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1499–1501 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Dakna, T. Anhut, T. Opatrný, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Generating Schrödinger-cat-like states by means of conditional measurements on a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3184 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. Comon, “Independent component analysis, A new concept?” Signal Processing 36, 287–314 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

B. Yurke and D. Stoler, “Generating quantum mechanical superpositions of macroscopically distinguishable states via amplitude dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 13 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1386 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Achal, R.

A. MacRae, T. Brannan, R. Achal, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Tomography of a High-Purity Narrowband Photon from a Transient Atomic Collective Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, U. L.

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anhut, T.

M. Dakna, T. Anhut, T. Opatrný, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Generating Schrödinger-cat-like states by means of conditional measurements on a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Asavanant, W.

J. Yoshikawa, W. Asavanant, and A. Furusawa, “Purification of photon subtraction from continuous squeezed light by filtering,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 052304 (2017).

Bagherinezhad, S.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, “Entanglement swapping of generalized cat states and secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bahraminasab, A.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, “Entanglement swapping of generalized cat states and secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bartlett, S. D.

S. D. Bartlett, B. C. Sanders, S. L. Braunstein, and K. Nemoto, “Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benichi, H.

N. Lee, H. Benichi, Y. Takeno, S. Takeda, J. Webb, E. Huntington, and A. Furusawa, “Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light,” Science 332, 330–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouillard, M.

J. Etesse, M. Bouillard, B. Kanseri, and R. Tualle-Brouri, “Experimental generation of squeezed cat states with an operation allowing iterative growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brannan, T.

Z. Qin, A. S. Prasad, T. Brannan, A. MacRae, A. Lezama, and A. Lvovsky, “Complete temporal characterization of a single photon,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e298 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. MacRae, T. Brannan, R. Achal, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Tomography of a High-Purity Narrowband Photon from a Transient Atomic Collective Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brask, J. B.

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Braunstein, S. L.

A. Gilchrist, K. Nemoto, W. J. Munro, T. C. Ralph, S. Glancy, S. L. Braunstein, and G. J. Milburn, “Schrödinger cats and their power for quantum information processing,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S828–S833 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. D. Bartlett, B. C. Sanders, S. L. Braunstein, and K. Nemoto, “Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briegel, H. J.

R. Raussendorf and H. J. Briegel, “A One-Way Quantum Computer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calkins, B.

T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, T. S. Clement, B. Calkins, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, A. L. Migdall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and E. Knill, “Generation of optical coherent-state superpositions by number-resolved photon subtraction from the squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cerè, A.

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chng, B.

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, I. L.

D. Gottesman and I. L. Chuang, “Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations,” Nature 402, 390–393 (1999).
[Crossref]

Clement, T. S.

T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, T. S. Clement, B. Calkins, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, A. L. Migdall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and E. Knill, “Generation of optical coherent-state superpositions by number-resolved photon subtraction from the squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Collett, M. J.

M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1386 (1984).
[Crossref]

Comon, P.

P. Comon, “Independent component analysis, A new concept?” Signal Processing 36, 287–314 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dakna, M.

M. Dakna, T. Anhut, T. Opatrný, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Generating Schrödinger-cat-like states by means of conditional measurements on a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Efron, B.

B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An introduction to the bootstrap (Chapman & Hall, 1993).
[Crossref]

Etesse, J.

J. Etesse, M. Bouillard, B. Kanseri, and R. Tualle-Brouri, “Experimental generation of squeezed cat states with an operation allowing iterative growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

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O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570 (2014).
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H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
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H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
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J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, B. M. Nielsen, C. Hettich, K. Mølmer, and E. S. Polzik, “Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083604 (2006).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Experimentally accessing the optimal temporal mode of traveling quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 213602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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A. Gilchrist, K. Nemoto, W. J. Munro, T. C. Ralph, S. Glancy, S. L. Braunstein, and G. J. Milburn, “Schrödinger cats and their power for quantum information processing,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S828–S833 (2004).
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T. Ralph, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Milburn, W. J. Munro, and S. Glancy, “Quantum computation with optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042319 (2003).
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K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
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H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
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K. Miyata, H. Ogawa, P. Marek, R. Filip, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Implementation of a quantum cubic gate by an adaptive non-Gaussian measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022301 (2016).
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H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
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M. Dakna, T. Anhut, T. Opatrný, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Generating Schrödinger-cat-like states by means of conditional measurements on a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ourjoumtsev, A.

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating Optical Schrodinger Kittens for Quantum Information Processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, B. M. Nielsen, C. Hettich, K. Mølmer, and E. S. Polzik, “Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, A. S.

Z. Qin, A. S. Prasad, T. Brannan, A. MacRae, A. Lezama, and A. Lvovsky, “Complete temporal characterization of a single photon,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e298 (2015).
[Crossref]

Preskill, J.

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, “Encoding a qubit in an oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pushkina, A. A.

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, A. S. Prasad, T. Brannan, A. MacRae, A. Lezama, and A. Lvovsky, “Complete temporal characterization of a single photon,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e298 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ralph, T.

T. Ralph, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Milburn, W. J. Munro, and S. Glancy, “Quantum computation with optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ralph, T. C.

M. Gu, C. Weedbrook, N. C. Menicucci, T. C. Ralph, and P. van Loock, “Quantum computing with continuous-variable clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062318 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. P. Lund, T. C. Ralph, and H. L. Haselgrove, “Fault-tolerant linear optical quantum computing with small-amplitude coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 030503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Gilchrist, K. Nemoto, W. J. Munro, T. C. Ralph, S. Glancy, S. L. Braunstein, and G. J. Milburn, “Schrödinger cats and their power for quantum information processing,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S828–S833 (2004).
[Crossref]

Raussendorf, R.

R. Raussendorf and H. J. Briegel, “A One-Way Quantum Computer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Richards, M. W.

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rigas, I.

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruaudel, J.

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, B. C.

S. D. Bartlett, B. C. Sanders, S. L. Braunstein, and K. Nemoto, “Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sangouard, N.

Sasaki, M.

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Photon subtracted squeezed states generated with periodically poled KTiOPO(4),” Opt. Express 15, 3568–3574 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serikawa, T.

Shaddock, D. A.

Shaw, M. D.

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simon, C.

Sørensen, A. S.

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Srivathsan, B.

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoler, D.

B. Yurke and D. Stoler, “Generating quantum mechanical superpositions of macroscopically distinguishable states via amplitude dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 13 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sychev, D. V.

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taguchi, M.

H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Photon subtracted squeezed states generated with periodically poled KTiOPO(4),” Opt. Express 15, 3568–3574 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, S.

N. Lee, H. Benichi, Y. Takeno, S. Takeda, J. Webb, E. Huntington, and A. Furusawa, “Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light,” Science 332, 330–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeno, Y.

N. Lee, H. Benichi, Y. Takeno, S. Takeda, J. Webb, E. Huntington, and A. Furusawa, “Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light,” Science 332, 330–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeoka, M.

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, M.

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tibshirani, R.

B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An introduction to the bootstrap (Chapman & Hall, 1993).
[Crossref]

Tualle-Brouri, R.

J. Etesse, M. Bouillard, B. Kanseri, and R. Tualle-Brouri, “Experimental generation of squeezed cat states with an operation allowing iterative growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, N. Gisin, J. Laurat, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A137–A145 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating Optical Schrodinger Kittens for Quantum Information Processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulanov, A. E.

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

van Loock, P.

M. Gu, C. Weedbrook, N. C. Menicucci, T. C. Ralph, and P. van Loock, “Quantum computing with continuous-variable clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Verna, V. B.

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wakui, K.

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Photon subtracted squeezed states generated with periodically poled KTiOPO(4),” Opt. Express 15, 3568–3574 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Webb, J.

N. Lee, H. Benichi, Y. Takeno, S. Takeda, J. Webb, E. Huntington, and A. Furusawa, “Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light,” Science 332, 330–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weedbrook, C.

M. Gu, C. Weedbrook, N. C. Menicucci, T. C. Ralph, and P. van Loock, “Quantum computing with continuous-variable clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Welsch, D.-G.

M. Dakna, T. Anhut, T. Opatrný, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Generating Schrödinger-cat-like states by means of conditional measurements on a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, E

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonezawa, H.

K. Miyata, H. Ogawa, P. Marek, R. Filip, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Implementation of a quantum cubic gate by an adaptive non-Gaussian measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022301 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, J.

J. Yoshikawa, W. Asavanant, and A. Furusawa, “Purification of photon subtraction from continuous squeezed light by filtering,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 052304 (2017).

K. Miyata, H. Ogawa, P. Marek, R. Filip, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Implementation of a quantum cubic gate by an adaptive non-Gaussian measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022301 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Serikawa, J. Yoshikawa, K. Makino, and A. Furusawa, “Creation and Measurement of Broadband Squeezed Vacuum from a Ring Optical Parametric Oscillator,” Opt. Express 24, 28383–28391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yurke, B.

B. Yurke and D. Stoler, “Generating quantum mechanical superpositions of macroscopically distinguishable states via amplitude dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 13 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (2)

A. Gilchrist, K. Nemoto, W. J. Munro, T. C. Ralph, S. Glancy, S. L. Braunstein, and G. J. Milburn, “Schrödinger cats and their power for quantum information processing,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S828–S833 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. I. Lvovsky, “Iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction in quantum homodyne tomography,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6, S556–S559 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. Qin, A. S. Prasad, T. Brannan, A. MacRae, A. Lezama, and A. Lvovsky, “Complete temporal characterization of a single photon,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e298 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. Gottesman and I. L. Chuang, “Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations,” Nature 402, 390–393 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (12)

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, “Encoding a qubit in an oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Yoshikawa, W. Asavanant, and A. Furusawa, “Purification of photon subtraction from continuous squeezed light by filtering,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 052304 (2017).

M. Gu, C. Weedbrook, N. C. Menicucci, T. C. Ralph, and P. van Loock, “Quantum computing with continuous-variable clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 062318 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Miyata, H. Ogawa, P. Marek, R. Filip, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Implementation of a quantum cubic gate by an adaptive non-Gaussian measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022301 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, T. S. Clement, B. Calkins, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, A. L. Migdall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and E. Knill, “Generation of optical coherent-state superpositions by number-resolved photon subtraction from the squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031802 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1386 (1984).
[Crossref]

M. Dakna, T. Anhut, T. Opatrný, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Generating Schrödinger-cat-like states by means of conditional measurements on a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3184 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Mølmer, “Non-Gaussian states from continuous-wave Gaussian light sources,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063804 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Jeong and M. S. Kim, “Efficient Quantum Computation using Coherent States,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042305 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ralph, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Milburn, W. J. Munro, and S. Glancy, “Quantum computation with optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042319 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, “Entanglement swapping of generalized cat states and secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

J. B. Brask, I. Rigas, E. S. Polzik, U. L. Andersen, and A. S. Sørensen, “Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160501 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. MacRae, T. Brannan, R. Achal, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Tomography of a High-Purity Narrowband Photon from a Transient Atomic Collective Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Experimentally accessing the optimal temporal mode of traveling quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 213602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lund, T. C. Ralph, and H. L. Haselgrove, “Fault-tolerant linear optical quantum computing with small-amplitude coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 030503 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, M. Takeuchi, K. Wakui, H. Takahashi, K. Hayasaka, M. Takeoka, and M. Sasaki, “Optical continuous-variable qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, B. M. Nielsen, C. Hettich, K. Mølmer, and E. S. Polzik, “Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, K. Wakui, S. Suzuki, M. Takeoka, K. Hayasaka, A. Furusawa, and M. Sasaki, “Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon subtraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Etesse, M. Bouillard, B. Kanseri, and R. Tualle-Brouri, “Experimental generation of squeezed cat states with an operation allowing iterative growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Huang, H. Le Jeannic, J. Ruaudel, V. B. Verna, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, E Wu, H. Zeng, Y. -C. Jeong, R. Filip, O. Morin, and J. Laurat, “Optical synthesis of large-amplitude squeezed coherent-state superpositions with minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Bartlett, B. C. Sanders, S. L. Braunstein, and K. Nemoto, “Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ogawa, H. Ohdan, K. Miyata, M. Taguchi, K. Makino, H. Yonezawa, J. Yoshikawa, and A. Furusawa, “Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Raussendorf and H. J. Briegel, “A One-Way Quantum Computer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yurke and D. Stoler, “Generating quantum mechanical superpositions of macroscopically distinguishable states via amplitude dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 13 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating Optical Schrodinger Kittens for Quantum Information Processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lee, H. Benichi, Y. Takeno, S. Takeda, J. Webb, E. Huntington, and A. Furusawa, “Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light,” Science 332, 330–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Signal Processing (1)

P. Comon, “Independent component analysis, A new concept?” Signal Processing 36, 287–314 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An introduction to the bootstrap (Chapman & Hall, 1993).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Screen captures of oscilloscope for real-time measurements.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of photon subtraction and comparison of relation of squeezed spectra and frequency bandwidth of subtracted photon between previous demonstrations and our optical filtering method. (a) Schematic diagram of photon subtraction. (b) Previous demonstrations. (c) our method. Red line: anti-squeezing level. Blue line: squeezing level. Area painted with yellow: frequency bandwidth of photon subtracted from squeezed state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experiment setup. Only important optical components are included in the figure. Piezoelectric components and electrical channels for feedback and control are omitted. Red lines denote 860 nm laser beam, while blue lines denote 430 nm laser beam. SHG: Second harmonic generator. ISO: Isolator. HWP: Half-wave plate. QWP: Quarter-wave plate. PBS: Polarization beamsplitter. EOM: Electro-optic modulator. AOM: Acousto-optic modulator. APD: Avalanche photodiode. FC: Filtering cavity. LPF: Low-pass filter. DET: Detector. Detectors shown in the figure are for detecting error signal used in cavities locking and such.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristic of homodyne detector measured with spectrum analyzer. (a) Noise of spectrum analyzer. (b) Circuit noise. (c) Shot noise. LO power is 20 mW. The data here are taken with resolution bandwidth of 200 kHz, and averaged over 300 sweeps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal modes of generated cat state. Solid curve: estimated temporal mode. Dashed curve: Theoretical prediction from experiment parameters. Dotted curve: Temporal response of low-pass filter used in real-time measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3rd-order LPF designed for real-time measurement. Vhom: Electric signal from homodyne detector. Zhom: Output impedance of homodyne detector. Zosc: Input impedance of oscilloscope. Vout: Output signal measured at oscilloscope.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Squeezing spectra of the initial squeezed vacua normalized to vacuum. (a) ξ = 0.11, (b) ξ = 0.25, and (c) ξ = 0.39. Dashed pink lines: theoretical plots of squeezing spectra using Eq. (6) where the external loss for all cases are L = 0.113. Solid red lines: fitting of Eq. (6) to squeezing spectral with L = 0.162. Note that both L included 3% loss due to R = 0.97 beamsplitter used in photon subtraction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wigner functions and photon number probability distributions of states generated in this experiment. The upper-half is the results of post processing measurement, while the lower half is the corresponding real-time measurement. (a,d) ξ = 0.11. (b,e) ξ = 0.25. (c,f) ξ = 0.39. For post processing measurements, Wigner negativities are −0.176 ± 0.001, −0.184 ± 0.001, and −0.121 ± 0.002 respectively. For real-time measurement, Wigner negativities are −0.154 ± 0.001, −0.162 ± 0.001, and −0.102 ± 0.001 respectively. The initial squeezing spectra are shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Screen captures of oscilloscope displaying electric signal from homodyne detector and quadrature distribution of cat state of phases corresponded to anti-squeezing and squeezing. The number of the overlaid events is 10,000 and electric signal is recorded 200 ns around the timing of photon detection. For anti-squeezing: (a) Screen capture of post processing measurement. (b) Screen capture of real-time measurement. White triangle marks represent the timing of the generation of cat states (ξ = 0.25). The coloring represents frequency of the distribution at each time and change from blue to green, yellow and red as the frequency increase. (c) Correlation plot between quadrature of post processing and real-time measurement. (d) Quadrature distribution of post processing. (e) Quadrature distribution of real-time measurement (This corresponds to the histogram of electric signal at the white triangle mark in (b)). The correspoding figures for squeezing are (f–j). (See Visualization 1 for the screen captures of real-time measurement for phases in between.)

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Parameters of the OPO and filtering cavities

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Table 2 Mixedness due to the imperfection in the photon subtraction

Equations (7)

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g OPO ( t ; t 0 ) = 2 π f HWHM exp ( 2 π f HWHM | t t 0 | ) .
g filter ( t ; t 0 ) = 4 π f HWHM exp ( 2 π f HWHM | t t 0 | ) Θ ( t 0 t ) ,
g ideal ( t ; t 0 ) = N [ i = 1 4 c i exp ( 2 π f i | t t 0 | ) Θ ( t 0 t ) + ( i = 1 4 c i ) exp ( 2 π f i | t t 0 | ) Θ ( t 0 t ) ] ,
c 4 = f 1 f 2 f 4 f 3 + f 2 f 3 f 4 f 1 + f 3 f 1 f 4 f 2 ,
N = 1 2 π [ i , j = 1 4 c i c j f i + f j + 1 2 f 4 ( i = 1 4 c i ) 2 ] 1 2 .
S ± ( f ) = 1 ± ( 1 L ) 4 ξ ( 1 ξ ) 2 + ( f / f HWHM ) 2 ,
r = ( x real x real ) ( x post x post ) ( x real x real ) 2 ( x post x post ) 2 ,

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