Abstract

An all-optical framing camera has been developed which measures the spatial profile of photons flux by utilizing a laser beam to probe the refractive index change in an indium phosphide semiconductor. This framing camera acquires two frames with the time resolution of about 1.5 ns and the inter frame separation time of about 13 ns by angularly multiplexing the probe beam on to the semiconductor. The spatial resolution of this camera has been estimated to be about 140 μm and the spectral response of this camera has also been theoretically investigated in 5 eV-100 KeV range. This camera has been applied in investigating the imploding dynamics of the molybdenum planar wire array Z-pinch on the 1-MA “QiangGuang-1” facility. This framing camera can provide an alternative scheme for high energy density physics experiments.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (2)

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Gao, K. He, J. Tian, C. Zhang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, S. Chen, H. Jia, F. Yuan, L. Liang, X. Yan, S. Li, C. Wang, and F. Yin, “Ultrafast all-optical solid-state framing camera with picosecond temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8721–8729 (2017).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

R. A. London, M. E. Lowry, S. P. Vernon, and R. E. Stewart, “Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 154510 (2013).

2012 (1)

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

2011 (1)

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

2010 (1)

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, and G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926 (1998).

1995 (2)

A. D. Rakić, “Algorithm for the determination of intrinsic optical constants of metal films: application to aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 34(22), 4755–4767 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

1990 (1)

R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, S. Member, and J. A. D. E. L. Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).

Adkins, T.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Alamo, J. A. D. E. L.

R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, S. Member, and J. A. D. E. L. Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).

Ampleford, D. J.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Astanovitsky, A.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Bailey, J. E.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Baker, K. L.

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Barrios, M. A.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Batie, S.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Bell, P. M.

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

Benedetti, L. R.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bennett, C. V.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Bennett, G. R.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bennett, R.

R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, S. Member, and J. A. D. E. L. Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).

Berzak Hopkins, L. F.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bradley, D. K.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

Callahan, D. A.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cao, L.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Casey, D. T.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Celeste, J. R.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Celliers, P. M.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cerjan, C.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Chandler, G. A.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

Choi, I. W.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Chuvatin, A. S.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Collins, G. W.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cooper, G.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Coverdale, C. A.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Cuneo, M. E.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. C. Hettrick, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, M. F. Vargas, and D. F. Wenger, “Profiled bar transmission gratings: soft-x-ray calibration of new Kirchoff solutions,” Appl. Opt. 43(19), 3772–3796 (2004).
[PubMed]

Deeney, C.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Dewald, E. L.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dittrich, T. R.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Döppner, T.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Eder, D. C.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Edwards, M. J.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Esaulov, A. A.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Field, J. E.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fowler, W. E.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gao, G.

Haboub, A.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Haynes, S.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

He, K.

Hernandez, V. J.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Hettrick, M. C.

Hinkel, D. E.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hsing, W. W.

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Hurricane, O. A.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ivanov, V. V.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Jeon, S. C.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Jeong, T. M.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Jia, H.

Jones, B.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Jones, M. C.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Jones, O. S.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kantsyrev, V. L.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Kilkenny, J. D.

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

Kim, C. M.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Kim, H. T.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Kim, I. J.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Kline, J. L.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kroll, J. J.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

LaCaille, G. A.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Landen, O. L.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

Lash, J. S.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lazier, S.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Le Pape, S.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, J.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Lee, S. K.

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LeGalloudec, B.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Lemke, R.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

LePell, P. D.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Li, B. K.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, M.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Li, S.

Li, X.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Liang, L.

London, R. A.

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S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Lowry, M. E.

R. A. London, M. E. Lowry, S. P. Vernon, and R. E. Stewart, “Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 154510 (2013).

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Ma, J. M.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ma, T.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

McDaniel, W.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Member, S.

R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, S. Member, and J. A. D. E. L. Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).

Meyer, C.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Milovich, J. L.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Moore, T. C.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Moran, B.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Nalajala, V.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Nash, T. J.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nielsen, D. S.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ning, G.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Oertel, J.

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

Osborne, G.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Ouart, N.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Pak, A.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Park, H.-S.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Patel, P. K.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Peng, B. D.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Peterson, J. L.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Porter, J. L.

Qiu, A.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Qiu, M.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Rabus, H.

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, and G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926 (1998).

Rakic, A. D.

Raman, K.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Remington, B. A.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
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K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

Rudakov, L. I.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Ruggles, L. E.

Ruiz, C. L.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rygg, J. R.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Safronova, A. S.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Salmonson, J. D.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schach von Wittenau, A.

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Scholze, F.

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, and G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926 (1998).

Schroen, D. G.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Serrano, J. D.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sheng, L.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Shlyaptseva, V.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Shrestha, I.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Simpson, W. W.

Slutz, S. A.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Smelser, R.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Song, G. Z.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, S. Member, and J. A. D. E. L. Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).

Springer, P. T.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Steele, P. T.

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Stewart, R. E.

R. A. London, M. E. Lowry, S. P. Vernon, and R. E. Stewart, “Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 154510 (2013).

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Stygar, W. A.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sung, J. H.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Tian, J.

Tommasini, R.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Torres, J.

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Town, R. P. J.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ulm, G.

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, and G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926 (1998).

Vargas, M. F.

Velikovich, A. L.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Vernon, S. P.

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

R. A. London, M. E. Lowry, S. P. Vernon, and R. E. Stewart, “Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 154510 (2013).

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

Vesey, R. A.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

Vigil, M. P.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Waisman, E. M.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, H. X.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Wang, T.

Wenger, D. F.

Williamson, K.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Williamson, K. M.

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wu, G.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Wu, J.

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Yan, X.

Yilmaz, M. F.

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

Yin, F.

Yoon, J. W.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Yu, T. J.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Yuan, F.

Yue, Z. Q.

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yun, H.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

Zhang, C.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. L. Baker, R. E. Stewart, P. T. Steele, S. P. Vernon, W. W. Hsing, and B. A. Remington, “Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151111 (2013).

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121105 (2011).

High Energy Density Phys. (1)

V. L. Kantsyrev, L. I. Rudakov, A. S. Safronova, A. L. Velikovich, V. V. Ivanov, C. A. Coverdale, B. Jones, P. D. LePell, D. J. Ampleford, C. Deeney, A. S. Chuvatin, K. Williamson, I. Shrestha, N. Ouart, M. F. Yilmaz, G. Osborne, A. Haboub, S. Batie, A. Astanovitsky, B. LeGalloudec, V. Nalajala, W. McDaniel, V. Shlyaptseva, T. Adkins, and C. Meyer, “Properties of a planar wire arrays Z-pinch source and comparisons with cylindrical arrays,” High Energy Density Phys. 3, 136–142 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. A. London, M. E. Lowry, S. P. Vernon, and R. E. Stewart, “Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 154510 (2013).

F. Scholze, H. Rabus, and G. Ulm, “Mean energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in silicon for photons of energies between 50 and 1500 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2926 (1998).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, S. Member, and J. A. D. E. L. Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).

Nature (1)

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Döppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H.-S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506(7488), 343–348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. Wu, M. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, G. Wu, G. Ning, M. Qiu, and A. Qiu, “Estimations of Mo X-pinch plasma parameters on QiangGuang-1 facility by L-shell spectral analyses,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 082706 (2013).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. E. Bailey, G. A. Chandler, S. A. Slutz, G. R. Bennett, G. Cooper, J. S. Lash, S. Lazier, R. Lemke, T. J. Nash, D. S. Nielsen, T. C. Moore, C. L. Ruiz, D. G. Schroen, R. Smelser, J. Torres, and R. A. Vesey, “X-Ray Imaging Measurements of Capsule Implosions Driven by a Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(9), 095004 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D X-Ray Radiography of Imploding Capsules at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 195001 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Jones, D. J. Ampleford, R. A. Vesey, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, E. M. Waisman, M. C. Jones, W. E. Fowler, W. A. Stygar, J. D. Serrano, M. P. Vigil, A. A. Esaulov, V. L. Kantsyrev, A. S. Safronova, K. M. Williamson, A. S. Chuvatin, and L. I. Rudakov, “Planar Wire-Array Z-Pinch Implosion Dynamics and X-Ray Scaling at Multiple-MA Drive Currents for a Compact Multisource Hohlraum Configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(12), 125001 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

S. P. Vernon, M. E. Lowry, K. L. Baker, C. V. Bennett, J. R. Celeste, C. Cerjan, S. Haynes, V. J. Hernandez, W. W. Hsing, G. A. LaCaille, R. A. London, B. Moran, A. Schach von Wittenau, P. T. Steele, and R. E. Stewart, “X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D307 (2012).

D. K. Bradley, P. M. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, and J. Oertel, “Development and characterization of a pair of 30-40 ps x-ray framing cameras,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 716 (1995).

Y. Song, L. Cao, B. D. Peng, G. Z. Song, Z. Q. Yue, J. M. Ma, L. Sheng, B. K. Li, and H. X. Wang, “Investigation of an InP-based image converter with optical excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(3), 033109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Cullen, J. H. Hubbell, and L. Kissel, “EPDL97: the Evaluated Photon Data Library ’97 Version,” UCRL-ID-50400, Vol. 6, rev. 5, (1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental geometry used to record the x-ray images of Z-pinch at two separate times. (b) The probe beam pulse shape measured by a Hamamatsu R1328 detector with a rise time of 60 ps and fall time of 90 ps and a TEK DPO71254 oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 12 GHz. (c) The multiplexing probe beams incident on the image converter and their diffracted orders.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The obtained raw image of + 1 order diffracted light. The inset of Fig. 2(a) is the photograph of the 50 μm thick copper with a pattern. (b) The edge spread function which is used to estimate the spatial resolution of the framing camera.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorption spectra in 5 eV-100 KeV range for Al and InP. (b) Carrier concentration and phase shift in InP substrate, which are induced by photons with 5 mJ/cm2 intensity at a specific photon energy varying from 5 eV to 100 KeV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photograph of the Mo planar wire array load. (b) Load current and x-ray power (>100 eV) and their time relations with the shutters of two sequential frames. (c) Raw results of two sequential frames. The markers of Cath and An represent the cathode side and anode side, respectively. (d) Two sequential images of Z-pinch dynamics, which are obtained by performing median filtering on the results of Fig. 3(c) and then raising them to the power of 0.7.

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