Abstract

We demonstrate a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) strip-loaded waveguides on a silicon on insulator (SOI) platform, which can be fabricated by using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process without half etching of the SOI layer. Constructing a vertical p-n junction in a flat etchless SOI layer provides superior controllability and uniformity of carrier profiles. Moreover, the waveguide structure based on a thin a-Si:H strip line can be fabricated easily and precisely. Thanks to a large overlap between the depletion region and optical field in the SOI layer with a vertical p-n junction, the MZM provides 0.80- to 1.86-Vcm modulation efficiency and a 12.1- to 16.9-dBV loss-efficiency product, besides guaranteeing a 3-dB bandwidth of about 17 GHz and 28-Gbps high-speed operation. The αVπL is considerably lower than that of conventional high-speed modulators.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

F. Boeuf, S. Cr’emer, E. Temporiti, M. Fer’e, M. Shaw, C. Baudot, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, H. Petiton, P. L. Maitre, M. Traldi, and L. Maggi, “Silicon photonics R&D and manufacturing on 300-mm wafer platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 286–295 (2016).

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

2011 (1)

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

2010 (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletionmode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

2008 (1)

M. Nakamura, “OYO BUTURI,” Monthly Pub. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 77(7), 818 (2008).

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Amemiya, T.

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

Arai, S.

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

Atsumi, Y.

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

Azadeh, S. S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barth, R.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Baudot, C.

Bergman, K.

Boeuf, F.

Buca, D.

Buhl, L. L.

Chen, S.-W.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Chen, Y.-K.

Chu, T.

Cong, G.

Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

Cr’emer, S.

Crozat, P.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Fer’e, M.

Garcia-Lopez, I.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Goi, K.

Hauck, J.

Hirtzlin, T.

Hochberg, M.

Hsu, S. S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Hu, Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Kang, J.-H.

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

Kissinger, D.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Knoll, D.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Kotani, N.

N. Kotani, Proc. “TCAD in Selete,” in Proceedings of Int. Conf. Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices, (IEEE, 1998), pp. 3–7.

Kroh, M.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Kusaka, H.

Kwong, D.-L.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletionmode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Li, Q.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lischke, S.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, X.

Ma, Y.

Maegami, Y.

Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

Maggi, L.

Mai, C.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Maitre, P. L.

Mantl, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Masini, G.

Mekis, A.

Merget, F.

Messaoudène, S.

Moscoso-Mártir, A.

Mueller, J.

Müller, J.

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Nakamura, M.

M. Nakamura, “OYO BUTURI,” Monthly Pub. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 77(7), 818 (2008).

Nedeljkovic, M.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Nezhad, M. P.

Nishiyama, N.

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

Oda, M.

J.-H. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).

Ogawa, K.

Ohno, M.

Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

Oka, A.

Okano, M.

Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

Peczek, A.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Perez-Galacho, D.

Petermann, K.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Petiton, H.

Petousi, D.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Pinguet, T.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Raybon, G.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Rito, P.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Romero-García, S.

Shaw, M.

Shen, B.

Sinsky, J. H.

Song, J.

Temporiti, E.

Terada, Y.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Traldi, M.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletionmode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Tu, X.

Ulusoy, A.-C.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

Vivien, L.

Voigt, K.

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

von den Driesch, N.

Vulliet, N.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletionmode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Wilson, P. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

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D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

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Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletionmode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Petousi, P. Rito, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. Kroh, R. Barth, C. Mai, A.-C. Ulusoy, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, D. Kissinger, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Monolithically integrated high-extinction-ratio MZM with a segmented driver in photonic BiCMOS,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2866–2869 (2016).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

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G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

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Photonics Res. (1)

Y. Maegami, G. Cong, M. Ohno, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Strip-loaded waveguide-based optical phase shifter for high-efficiency silicon optical modulators,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 222–226 (2016).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the a-Si:H strip-loaded waveguide based phase shifter with the vertical p-n junction. (b) Designed carrier profile.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical microscope image of the fabricated MZM. (b) SEM image of the magnified 1 × 2 MMI coupler. (c) Cross-sectional STEM image of the phase shifter in TE, and (d) the magnified a-Si:H strip-loaded waveguide center in ZC image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dopant concentrations measured by SIMS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Cross-sectional AFM image around the junction region. (b) Carrier profile image analyzed by SCM. Each directional dashed line denotes scanning positions and directions of the doping regions: n + , n+/p + , and p + . The high-dose regions, p + + and n + + , are outside the sensitivity range. (c) Scanned line carrier profiles of the n + , n+/p + , and p + indicated in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized transmittance spectra of asymmetric MZM having 3-mm-long phase shifter with 100-μm arm length difference. (b) The phase shift as a function of reverse bias voltage and the determined VπL values.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized transmittance spectra of 3-mm-long doped and non-doped MZIs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized frequency response of the MZM at 0 and −5 V dc bias.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured eye diagrams at 10, 25, and 28 Gbps. The drive voltage was 3.5 Vpp.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance comparison of the MZMs with different p-n junction structures at 1550 nm.

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