Abstract

Highly efficient erbium-doped titanium in-diffused ridge waveguide optical amplifiers and lasers in x-cut congruent LiNbO3 pumped at 1486 nm have been developed. A total internal gain of 14 dB has been achieved in 4.6 cm-long waveguides for a coupled pump power of 200 mW. We demonstrated a laser operating at 1561 nm with a slope efficiency of 33% exceeding the best literature values for Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers. To improve the amplifier/laser performance, our novel fabrication technique of three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion into pre-defined ridges was used.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
  4. R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–416 (1991).
  5. P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).
  6. H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
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  10. I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).
  11. D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
  12. H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).
  13. H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
  14. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
  15. N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).
  16. J. Sun, Y. Gan, and C. Xu, “Efficient green-light generation by proton-exchanged periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 549–551 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  17. A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
  18. S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
  19. C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).
  20. C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).
  21. D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Correct determination of net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 64–67 (2007).
  22. B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, “Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:)Er:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 165–167 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  23. S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
  24. E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

2017 (1)

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).

2015 (1)

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).

2014 (1)

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

J. Sun, Y. Gan, and C. Xu, “Efficient green-light generation by proton-exchanged periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 549–551 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

2010 (1)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).

2009 (1)

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

2007 (2)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Correct determination of net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 64–67 (2007).

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

2000 (2)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

1996 (2)

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).

1992 (1)

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

1991 (1)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–416 (1991).

1974 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).

Akhmadaliev, S.

Asobe, M.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

Balsamo, S.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

Becker, C.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Becker, P.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

Belmonte, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

Bernal, M. P.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Bosso, S.

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–416 (1991).

Cantelar, E.

E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

Carmannini, C.

Chen, F.

Corsini, R.

Courjal, N.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Cuss, F.

E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

Das, B. K.

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, “Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:)Er:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 165–167 (2004).
[PubMed]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

Gan, Y.

Garcia-Granda, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

Gerthoffer, A.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

Guichardaz, B.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Guyot, C.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

Hu, H.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).

Hua, P. R.

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Correct determination of net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 64–67 (2007).

Huang, C. H.

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).

Imaeda, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Iwai, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Janner, D.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

Jia, Y.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).

Kip, D.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).

Y. Jia, C. E. Rüter, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystals produced by combining swift heavy ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 433–438 (2013).

Lifante, G.

E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

Lu, H. H.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

McCaughan, L.

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).

Miyazawa, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

Montrosset, I.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Ndao, A.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

Nevado, R.

E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

Nishida, Y.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

Oesselke, T.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Pal, S.

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).

Pandavenes, J.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Pavel, N.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Pruneri, V.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

Pun, E. Y. B.

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Correct determination of net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 64–67 (2007).

Qui, W.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

Quiring, V.

Ramaswamy, V.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).

Rauch, J. Y.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Ricken, R.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, “Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:)Er:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 165–167 (2004).
[PubMed]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Rochhausen, K.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Rüter, C. E.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).

Y. Jia, C. E. Rüter, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystals produced by combining swift heavy ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 433–438 (2013).

Sadani, B.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Schmidt, R. V.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).

Schreiber, G.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Sciancalepore, D.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

Shoji, I.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Sohler, W.

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, “Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:)Er:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 165–167 (2004).
[PubMed]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[PubMed]

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–416 (1991).

Suche, H.

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, “Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:)Er:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 165–167 (2004).
[PubMed]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[PubMed]

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–416 (1991).

Sun, J.

Suntsov, S.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).

Suzuki, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

Tadanaga, O.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

Taira, T.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Tulli, D.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).

Ulliac, G.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Wehrspohn, R. B.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).

Wessel, R.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[PubMed]

Westenhöfer, S.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[PubMed]

Xu, C.

Yamaguchi, S.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Yoshino, T.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Zhang, D. L.

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Correct determination of net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 64–67 (2007).

Zhou, S.

Appl. Phys. B (3)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Er-diffused Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of 1563 and 1576 nm emission wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1257–1259 (1992).

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “High-power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–416 (1991).

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 417–419 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J. Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H. H. Lu, and M. P. Bernal, “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(30), 305101 (2011).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic lithium niobate modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Correct determination of net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 64–67 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qui, A. Ndao, M. P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Cantelar, R. Nevado, G. Lifante, and F. Cuss, “Modelling of optical amplification in Er/Yb co-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6–8), 819–827 (2000).

Other (2)

I. Baumann, D. Johlen, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and F. Tian, “Acoustically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3-waveguide laser,” in: Proc. 20th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 1994), pp. 99–102.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the setup for the single-pass small-signal optical absorption/gain measurements. (b) Small-signal absorption/gain spectra at various coupled pump power levels measured for a 6 µm-wide ridge waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup of the Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide laser operating at 1531 nm. (b) Setup of the ridge waveguide laser operating at 1561 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Laser performance of the Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide of 6 µm width: (a) Laser output power at 1531 nm versus coupled pump power for the laser configuration with an inserted Si plate, see setup in Fig. 2(a). Inset: The laser output power, measured over a 30 min time span. (b) Laser output power of the ridge waveguide laser at 1561 nm versus coupled pump power for front facet reflectivities ROC of 14% (red) and 30% (blue).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance of previously reported Er:LiNbO3 channel waveguide laser. The abbreviations (l) and (i) stand for launched and incident pump power, respectively.

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