Abstract

We demonstrate enhanced light out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by applying a multilayer stacked electrode structure consisting of fast and cost-effective sol-gel processed tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), thin layer of Au and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). The application of the Ta2O5/Au/MoO3 electrode can modulate the optical characteristics of the device due to the optical microcavity effect. The refractive index of the sol-gel processed Ta2O5 thin film varied depending on the annealing temperature and reached a maximum at 400 °C (n = 2.2 at 512 nm). The influence of the refractive index of the Ta2O5 layer and the thickness of the multilayer electrode stack on the optical microcavity effect was systematically investigated. The device with the Ta2O5/Au/MoO3 electrode, fabricated at an optimum condition based on the simulation result by calculating the photon flux, exhibited 52% enhancement in light out-coupling efficiency at 1000 cd/m2 and improved color stability with the viewing angle, having near-Lambertian emission.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

2015 (2)

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. C. Gather and S. Reineke, “Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Ener. 5, 057607 (2015).

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

2011 (2)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (3)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[PubMed]

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).

2008 (2)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, and Z. H. Lu, “Band alignment at metal/organic and metal/oxide/organic interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193310 (2008).

2007 (1)

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

2006 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).

2003 (1)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).

2001 (2)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).

K. Meerholz and D. C. Müller, “Outsmarting waveguide losses in thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 251–253 (2001).

1998 (1)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

1997 (1)

N. Ozer and C. M. Lampert, “Structural and optical properties of sol-gel deposited proton conducting Ta2O5 films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1), 703–709 (1997).

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).

1958 (1)

Adachi, C.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Bathelt, R.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

Brown, J. J.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).

Buchhauser, D.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

Cho, C. O.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Cho, H.

Cho, H. W.

Choi, J.-M.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[PubMed]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Fukushima, T.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gärditz, C.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather and S. Reineke, “Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Ener. 5, 057607 (2015).

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

Ha, J.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, and Z. H. Lu, “Band alignment at metal/organic and metal/oxide/organic interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193310 (2008).

Hofmann, S.

Hong, K.

Hong, Y.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

Hwang, J.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).

Jeon, H.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Kaji, H.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kido, J.

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

Kim, D.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

Kim, K.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Koh, T.-W.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[PubMed]

Komino, T.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Koo, B.

Koo, W.

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Kubo, S.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kwon, Y.

Lampert, C. M.

N. Ozer and C. M. Lampert, “Structural and optical properties of sol-gel deposited proton conducting Ta2O5 films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1), 703–709 (1997).

Lee, C.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

W. Y. Park, Y. Kwon, C. Lee, and K. W. Whang, “Light outcoupling enhancement from top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes made on a nano-sized stochastic texture surface,” Opt. Express 22(Suppl 7), A1687–A1694 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, J.-L.

Lee, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Lee, Y. J.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Leo, K.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, and Z. H. Lu, “Band alignment at metal/organic and metal/oxide/organic interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193310 (2008).

Lüssem, B.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz and D. C. Müller, “Outsmarting waveguide losses in thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 251–253 (2001).

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).

Müller, D. C.

K. Meerholz and D. C. Müller, “Outsmarting waveguide losses in thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 251–253 (2001).

Murata, Y.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

O’Brien, D. F.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Oiwa, H.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ozer, N.

N. Ozer and C. M. Lampert, “Structural and optical properties of sol-gel deposited proton conducting Ta2O5 films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1), 703–709 (1997).

Paetzold, R.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

Park, J.

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

Park, W. Y.

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, and Z. H. Lu, “Band alignment at metal/organic and metal/oxide/organic interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193310 (2008).

Reineke, S.

M. C. Gather and S. Reineke, “Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Ener. 5, 057607 (2015).

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Sasabe, H.

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Shizu, K.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shoustikov, A.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Sibley, S.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Smith, S. D.

So, F.

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

Son, J. H.

Song, Y. W.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).

Suzuki, F.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Suzuki, H.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Thomschke, M.

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).

Wakamiya, A.

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wang, S.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, and Z. H. Lu, “Band alignment at metal/organic and metal/oxide/organic interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193310 (2008).

Wellmann, P.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

Whang, K. W.

Xiang, C.

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

Yoo, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[PubMed]

You, Y.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Yun, C.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. Meerholz and D. C. Müller, “Outsmarting waveguide losses in thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 251–253 (2001).

Adv. Mater. (2)

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, and Z. H. Lu, “Band alignment at metal/organic and metal/oxide/organic interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193310 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).

J. Inform. Displ. (1)

D. Kim, J. Ha, J. Park, J. Hwang, H. Jeon, C. Lee, and Y. Hong, “Enhanced light outcoupling of polymer light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed, -flattening photonic-crystal underlayer,” J. Inform. Displ. 17(4), 143–150 (2016).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Photon. Ener. (1)

M. C. Gather and S. Reineke, “Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Ener. 5, 057607 (2015).

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Ozer and C. M. Lampert, “Structural and optical properties of sol-gel deposited proton conducting Ta2O5 films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1), 703–709 (1997).

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C. Xiang, W. Koo, F. So, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e74 (2013).

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Kaji, H. Suzuki, T. Fukushima, K. Shizu, K. Suzuki, S. Kubo, T. Komino, H. Oiwa, F. Suzuki, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and C. Adachi, “Purely organic electroluminescent material realizing 100% conversion from electricity to light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8476 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Nature (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).

Org. Electron. (1)

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Device structure and (b) energy level diagram of green phosphorescent OLEDs with a Ta2O5/Au/MoO3 multilayer-stacked electrode as the anode (DMD-device)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Refractive index change of Ta2O5 thin film with respect to the annealing temperature, (b) simulated normalized photon flux of DMD-device with respect to annealing temperature compared with that of the ITO-device (Ref)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized photon flux with respect to the thickness of the Ta2O5 and Au layers. (b) Calculated (solid line) and measured (open marker) EQEs of the DMD-device with an Au layer thickness of 15 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The simulated (a) transmittance and (b) reflectance of ITO, Au and DMD electrode stacks with different Ta2O5 layer thickness. (c) Normalized spectral radiant intensity of ITO-device, Au-device and DMD-devices with different Ta2O5 layer thickness. (d) Normalized photon flux with respect to the thickness of Ta2O5 layer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) JV characteristics, inset: JV characteristics of hole-only devices, (b) LV characteristics, (c) normalized EL intensity and (d) EQE of the ITO-device and DMD-device.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured CIE-x and CIE-y coordinates as functions of viewing angle. (b) Angular emission characteristics of OLED device with multilayer electrode stack compared with that of ITO. (c) Normalized EL spectra of OLED device with ITO at different viewing angles. (d) Normalized EL spectra of OLED device with multilayer electrode stack at different viewing angles.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Operation lifetime and (b) operating voltage of the ITO-device and DMD-device as a function of operation time at an initial luminance of 1000 cd/m2.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I e (λ,θ)= T b [1+ R t +2 R t cos( 4πnzcosθ λ + ϕ t ) (1 R t R b ) 2 +4 R t R b sin 2 ( Δϕ 2 ) I 0 (λ)
Δϕ= ϕ t ϕ b + i 4π n i d i cos( θ i ) λ
PF 2π hc λ I e (λ,θ)sinθdλdθ,
λ r = 4πndcosθ ϕ t + ϕ b 2πm

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