Abstract

This paper presents a DFT/IDFT-free receiving scheme for spread-OFDM signals. Leveraging sub-Nyquist sampling and proper sampling delay, the proposed scheme enables each user to receive the requested data without the need for DFT and IDFT; thus, the complexity at receiver can be greatly reduced. Nonetheless, DC component is altered in an AC coupling system, such that severe waveform distortion is caused when the process of DFT/IDFT is omitted. Thus, a DC-zeroing algorithm is proposed to guarantee constant DC after sub-Nyquist sampling, thereby eliminating such distortion. To experimentally verify the concept of proposed scheme, a 27.15-Gbit/s optical spread-OFDM signal was transmitted over fiber and received by the DFT/IDFT-free scheme with sub-Nyquist sampling. More users will reduce the required sampling rate at receiver; for the case of 16 users, the required sampling rate for the 27.15-Gbit/s signal is as low as 1 GSample/s. The experimental results show that error-free transmission was achievable, and the penalty due to lowering sampling rate (i.e., increasing the number of users) is insignificant.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Prasad and T. Ojanpera, “A survey on CDMA: evolution towards wideband CDMA,” in International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications – Proceedings (IEEE, 1998), pp.323–331.
  2. R. Costa, P. Portugal, F. Vasques, and R. Moraes, “A TDMA-based mechanism for real-time communication in IEEE 802.11e networks,” in Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.
  3. C. Ciochina and H. Sari, “A review of OFDMA and single-carrier FDMA,” in European Wireless Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 706–710.
  4. E. Yaacoub and Z. Dawy, “A Survey on Uplink Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials 14(2), 322–337 (2012).
  5. Y. m. Lin and P. l. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
  6. T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals,” Transactions on Broadcasting 54(2), 257–268 (2008).
  7. H. G. Myung, “Introduction to single carrier FDMA,” in European Signal Processing Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2144–2148.
  8. X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.
  9. A. Hekimyan, D. Bulakh, and A. Sahakyan, “High accuracy pipelined ADC design for wireless LANs,” in Internet Technologies and Applications (IEEE, 2015), pp. 312–314.
  10. C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

2016 (1)

C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

2012 (1)

E. Yaacoub and Z. Dawy, “A Survey on Uplink Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials 14(2), 322–337 (2012).

2010 (1)

Y. m. Lin and P. l. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).

2008 (1)

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals,” Transactions on Broadcasting 54(2), 257–268 (2008).

Chi, S.

C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

Ciochina, C.

C. Ciochina and H. Sari, “A review of OFDMA and single-carrier FDMA,” in European Wireless Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 706–710.

Costa, R.

R. Costa, P. Portugal, F. Vasques, and R. Moraes, “A TDMA-based mechanism for real-time communication in IEEE 802.11e networks,” in Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

Dawy, Z.

E. Yaacoub and Z. Dawy, “A Survey on Uplink Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials 14(2), 322–337 (2012).

Han, X.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals,” Transactions on Broadcasting 54(2), 257–268 (2008).

Lin, C. T.

C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

Lin, Y. m.

Y. m. Lin and P. l. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).

Liu, H. C.

C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

Moraes, R.

R. Costa, P. Portugal, F. Vasques, and R. Moraes, “A TDMA-based mechanism for real-time communication in IEEE 802.11e networks,” in Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

Myung, H. G.

H. G. Myung, “Introduction to single carrier FDMA,” in European Signal Processing Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2144–2148.

Ojanpera, T.

R. Prasad and T. Ojanpera, “A survey on CDMA: evolution towards wideband CDMA,” in International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications – Proceedings (IEEE, 1998), pp.323–331.

Portugal, P.

R. Costa, P. Portugal, F. Vasques, and R. Moraes, “A TDMA-based mechanism for real-time communication in IEEE 802.11e networks,” in Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

Prasad, R.

R. Prasad and T. Ojanpera, “A survey on CDMA: evolution towards wideband CDMA,” in International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications – Proceedings (IEEE, 1998), pp.323–331.

Qiao, F.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

Sari, H.

C. Ciochina and H. Sari, “A review of OFDMA and single-carrier FDMA,” in European Wireless Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 706–710.

Tien, P. l.

Y. m. Lin and P. l. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).

Vasques, F.

R. Costa, P. Portugal, F. Vasques, and R. Moraes, “A TDMA-based mechanism for real-time communication in IEEE 802.11e networks,” in Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

Wang, H.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

Wei, C. C.

C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

Wei, Q.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

Wu, Y.

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals,” Transactions on Broadcasting 54(2), 257–268 (2008).

Yaacoub, E.

E. Yaacoub and Z. Dawy, “A Survey on Uplink Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials 14(2), 322–337 (2012).

Yang, H.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

Zhao, N.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

Communications Surveys & Tutorials (1)

E. Yaacoub and Z. Dawy, “A Survey on Uplink Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials 14(2), 322–337 (2012).

in J. of Lightwave Techno. (1)

C. C. Wei, H. C. Liu, C. T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” in J. of Lightwave Techno. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).

J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

Y. m. Lin and P. l. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).

Transactions on Broadcasting (1)

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals,” Transactions on Broadcasting 54(2), 257–268 (2008).

Other (6)

H. G. Myung, “Introduction to single carrier FDMA,” in European Signal Processing Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2144–2148.

X. Han, N. Zhao, Q. Wei, F. Qiao, H. Yang, and H. Wang, “A single channel, 6-bit 410-ms/s asynchronous SAR ADC based on 3bits/stage,” in International New Circuits and Systems Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 57–60.

A. Hekimyan, D. Bulakh, and A. Sahakyan, “High accuracy pipelined ADC design for wireless LANs,” in Internet Technologies and Applications (IEEE, 2015), pp. 312–314.

R. Prasad and T. Ojanpera, “A survey on CDMA: evolution towards wideband CDMA,” in International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications – Proceedings (IEEE, 1998), pp.323–331.

R. Costa, P. Portugal, F. Vasques, and R. Moraes, “A TDMA-based mechanism for real-time communication in IEEE 802.11e networks,” in Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

C. Ciochina and H. Sari, “A review of OFDMA and single-carrier FDMA,” in European Wireless Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 706–710.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of different receiving architectures.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Architectures of (a) 4-user traditional spread-OFDM system and (b) 4-user proposed spread-OFDM system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of DC-zeroing algorithm and corresponding constellations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PAPRs of 1~16 users with 4/32 overhead.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PAPRs of L = 16 with 4/32–10/32 overhead.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SNRs of L = 1–16 with different clipping level in case of electrical BTB.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experiment setup of PON.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) BER curves of 1–16 users with/without clipping in optical BTB and (b) sensitivity improvement at FEC limit of 10−3.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) BER curves of 1–16 users in optical BTB, (b) respective BER curves of 16-user in optical BTB, and (c) BER curves with 10-km fiber transmission.

Equations (3)

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s ( l1 )N+i =  1 K n=K+1 N s ( l1 )N+n ,    i=1, 2, , K
 H{ x ^ l }= [ x ( l1 )N+1    x ( l1 )N+2   x lN    0  0   0]

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