Abstract

We propose a new panossramic optical system that provides an additional field of view (FOV) channel without expanding the physical size of a conventional panoramic annular lens (PAL). The two channels are contained within one PAL, their optical paths do not interfere with each other, and the two images are realized on a single image plane. A prototype panoramic lens was developed that provides a 360° × (38–80°) front FOV channel and a 360° × (102–140°) back FOV channel.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  7. D. Cheng, C. Gong, C. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Design of an ultrawide angle catadioptric lens with an annularly stitched aspherical surface,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2664–2677 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  8. Y. Luo, J. Bai, X. Zhou, X. Huang, Q. Liu, and Y. Yao, “Non-blind area PAL system design based on dichroic filter,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4913–4923 (2016).
  9. M. Saska, “Autonomous deployment of swarms of micro-aerial vehicles in cooperative surveillance,” in International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems IEEE (2014), 584–595.
  10. C. B. Martin, “Design issues of a hyper-field fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 84–92 (2004).
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    [PubMed]
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  17. Zemax Optical Design Program User's Guide, Zemax Development Corporation.

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2008 (1)

S. Thibault, “Panoramic lens applications revisited,” Proc. SPIE 7000, 70000L1 (2008).

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

C. B. Martin, “Design issues of a hyper-field fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 84–92 (2004).

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Bai, J.

Cheng, D.

Duan, J.

Fang, Q.

Geng, Z.

Gong, C.

Hou, X. Y.

Huang, X.

Huang, Z.

Hui, D.

Hui, L.

Liang, Y.

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

Lu, T. X.

Luo, Y.

Martin, C. B.

C. B. Martin, “Design issues of a hyper-field fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 84–92 (2004).

Niu, S.

Powell, I.

Saska, M.

M. Saska, “Autonomous deployment of swarms of micro-aerial vehicles in cooperative surveillance,” in International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems IEEE (2014), 584–595.

Shi, A.

Solomatin, V. A.

Thibault, S.

S. Thibault, “Panoramic lens applications revisited,” Proc. SPIE 7000, 70000L1 (2008).

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Xu, C.

Xu, M.

Yang, G. G.

Yao, Y.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, X.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. B. Martin, “Design issues of a hyper-field fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 84–92 (2004).

S. Thibault, “Panoramic lens applications revisited,” Proc. SPIE 7000, 70000L1 (2008).

Other (5)

T. Doi, “Panoramic imaging lens,” United States patent US 6646818 B2 (2003).

M. Saska, “Autonomous deployment of swarms of micro-aerial vehicles in cooperative surveillance,” in International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems IEEE (2014), 584–595.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

V. N. Mahajan, “Optical imaging and aberrations.” Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases, (2013).

Zemax Optical Design Program User's Guide, Zemax Development Corporation.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of the proposed panoramic lenses: (a) the proposed lenses have two FOV channels, namely, the front FOV and back FOV channels, respectively, α and β are the minimal and maximal angles of the front FOV, respectively, γ and δ are the minimal and maximal angles of the back FOV, respectively, and θ1 and θ2 are the values of the front and back FOVs, respectively; (b) the imaging plane of the panoramic lenses: the outer red ring area represents the back FOV image, the blue ring area represent the front FOV image, and the white ring area between the red and blue rings represents the blind field area between angles β and γ. To achieve a more efficient implementation, the central and ring blind spots should be as small as possible.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ray path of a conventional quasi-symmetrical PAL system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the compound PAL system. The purple surfaces represent those used by the front FOV channel, the blue surfaces represent those used by the back FOV channel, and the green surfaces represent those used by both channels.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of optical paths in PAL. (a) Unfolded ray path of front FOV channel. (b) Unfolded ray path of back FOV channel. The dash line represents the optical axis of the system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of the front FOV channel in the proposed PAL system: the purple surfaces represent those that react only to the rays from the front FOV channel, while the green surfaces react to the rays from the combined front and back FOV channels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The solid lines represent the value of |By| versus the value of Ay for different Cx values, and the dashed lines represent the value of |Bx - Ax| versus the value of Ay for different Cx values. (b) The values of |By| and |Bx-Ax| versus the value of (θ2 - θ1). Given the value of Ax is 16 mm, the value of Cy is −3 mm,the value of n is 1.6.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of the back FOV channel in the PAL system. The blue surfaces are those that only react to the back FOV channel.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic of the ray path from point A to point O in the back FOV channel
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Edge thickness of the PAL system versus the value of (θ2 - θ1) for different values of Cx.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Schematic showing the space occupied by the two channels within the PAL system
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Design process for the PAL lenses.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Final layout and ray trace of the panoramic lens
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Spot diagram of the optical system. The blue spots represent the 486-nm image spots, the grey spots represent the 587-nm image spots, and the red spots represent the 656-nm image spots.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 PAL MTF values: (a) MTF of the front channel, (b) MTF of the back channel. The solid lines represent the tangential MTF, the dashed lines represent the sagittal MTF. and the black lines represent diffraction limit.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Ray fan plot of PAL front channel: (a) 38°, (b) 50°, (c) 65°, (d) 80° . The maximum vertical scale for the plots is 50µm.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Ray fan plot of PAL back channel: (a) 104°, (b) 115°, (c) 130°, (d) 140° . The maximum vertical scale for the plots is 50µm.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 (a) Imaging relationship between the FOV and Image Height. (b) Distortion.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Design parameters of optical system

Equations (14)

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θ 4 =arctan( C y A y C x A x )+arcsin(( θ 2 θ 1 )/n).
L+dis(B,O)=dis(C,O)+dis(C,A)= L total .
L+ (Lcos( θ 4 )+ A x ) 2 + (Lsin( θ 4 ) A y ) 2 = C x 2 + C y 2 + ( C x A x ) 2 + ( C y A y ) 2 = L total .
L= L total 2 ( A x 2 + A y 2 ) 2(cos( θ 4 ) A x sin( θ 4 ) A y + L total ) .
θ 4 ' = θ 3 ' +arcsin(( θ 2 ' θ 1 ' )/n).
R 1 =Lcos θ 3 ' +L,
R 2 = B x + B x 2 + B y 2 .
R 1 2 L ' cos θ 4 ' = ( L ' sin θ 4 ' ) 2 2 R 1 .
L ' = (cos θ 4 ' +1) (sin θ 4 ' ) 2 R 1 .
Δ z 1 = 1 2 R 1 ( (Lsin θ 3 ' ) 2 ( L ' sin θ 4 ' ) 2 ),
Δ z 2 = 1 2 R 2 ( (Lsin θ 3 ' ) 2 ( L ' sin θ 4 ' ) 2 ),
z= c r g 2 1+ 1(1+k) c 2 r g 2 + i=1 4 α i r g 2i ,
r g = r o + x 2 + y 2 ,
z= c r 2 1+ 1(1+k) c 2 r 2 + i=1 4 α i r 2i ,r= x 2 + y 2 .

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