Abstract

This paper presents on-chip free beam optics on polymer-based photonic components. Due to the circumstance that waveguide-based optics allows no direct beam access we use Gradient index (GRIN) lenses assembled into the chip to collimate the beam from the waveguides. This enables low loss power transmission over a length of 1432 µm. Even though the beam propagates through air it is possible to create a resonator with a wavelength shift of 0.002 nm/°C, hence the allowed deviations from the ITU-T grid (100 GHz) are met for ± 20 °C. In order to guarantee reliable laser stability, it is necessary to implement optical isolators at the output of the laser. This requires the insertion of bulk material into the chip and is realized by a 1050 µm thick coated glass. Due to the large gap of the free-space section, it is possible to combine different resonators together. This demonstrates the feasibility of an integrated wavelength-meter.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 343–345 (2006).
  2. M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).
  3. G. Ren, T. G. Nguyen, and A. Mitchell, “Gaussian beams on a silicon-on-insulator chip using integrated optical lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1438–1441 (2014).
  4. D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.
  5. D. Jestel, “Integrated optical Michelson-interferometer in glass,” Proc. SPIE 1014, 19–23 (1989).
  6. M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).
  7. J. De Merlier, K. Mizutani, S. Sudo, K. Sato, and K. Kudo, “Wavelength channel accuracy of an external cavity wavelength tunable laser with intracavity wavelength reference etalon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3202–3209 (2006).

2017 (1)

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

2015 (1)

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

2014 (1)

G. Ren, T. G. Nguyen, and A. Mitchell, “Gaussian beams on a silicon-on-insulator chip using integrated optical lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1438–1441 (2014).

2006 (2)

J. De Merlier, K. Mizutani, S. Sudo, K. Sato, and K. Kudo, “Wavelength channel accuracy of an external cavity wavelength tunable laser with intracavity wavelength reference etalon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3202–3209 (2006).

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 343–345 (2006).

1989 (1)

D. Jestel, “Integrated optical Michelson-interferometer in glass,” Proc. SPIE 1014, 19–23 (1989).

Bach, H.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

Brinker, W.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 343–345 (2006).

Choi, J. H.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

de Felipe, D.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

De Merlier, J.

Happach, M.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Hofmann, W.

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 343–345 (2006).

Jestel, D.

D. Jestel, “Integrated optical Michelson-interferometer in glass,” Proc. SPIE 1014, 19–23 (1989).

Keil, N.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Kleinert, M.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Kudo, K.

Mitchell, A.

G. Ren, T. G. Nguyen, and A. Mitchell, “Gaussian beams on a silicon-on-insulator chip using integrated optical lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1438–1441 (2014).

Mizutani, K.

Moehrle, M.

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Möhrle, M.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

Nellen, S.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

Nguyen, T. G.

G. Ren, T. G. Nguyen, and A. Mitchell, “Gaussian beams on a silicon-on-insulator chip using integrated optical lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1438–1441 (2014).

Novo, A. M.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

Rehbein, W.

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Reinke, P.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

Ren, G.

G. Ren, T. G. Nguyen, and A. Mitchell, “Gaussian beams on a silicon-on-insulator chip using integrated optical lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1438–1441 (2014).

Sato, K.

Schell, M.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Sudo, S.

Xu, D.-X.

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 343–345 (2006).

Zawadzki, C.

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Zhang, Z.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 343–345 (2006).

G. Ren, T. G. Nguyen, and A. Mitchell, “Gaussian beams on a silicon-on-insulator chip using integrated optical lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1438–1441 (2014).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

D. Jestel, “Integrated optical Michelson-interferometer in glass,” Proc. SPIE 1014, 19–23 (1989).

M. Kleinert, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, J. H. Choi, P. Reinke, M. Happach, S. Nellen, M. Möhrle, H. Bach, N. Keil, and M. Schell, “Photonic integrated devices and functions on hybrid polymer platform,” Proc. SPIE 10098, 100981A (2017).

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. M. Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650R (2015).

Other (1)

D. de Felipe, M. Happach, M. Kleinert, C. Zawadzki, W. Brinker, W. Rehbein, M. Moehrle, N. Keil, W. Hofmann, and M. Schell, “Polymer-based Integrated Tuneable Laser with On-Chip Wavelength Locker,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (VDE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of the Polymer-platform with inserted GRIN lenses to achieve gap for free-space optics.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Coupling loss for a vertical and horizontal offset between the waveguide and the GRIN lens, simulated in FIMMWAVE.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured spectrum of the on-chip free beam transmission between the two GRIN lenses with a propagation length of 1432 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured spectra of the on-chip free-space-etalon at 25 and 50 °C. (b) The region of interest (ROI) will make it possible to identify the temperature shift.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Inserted Grin lenses into the polymer platform with a bulk material in the free space gap. (b) Measured spectra of the on-chip free beam transmission and a coated glass, 1150 µm thick, in the optical path with a propagation length of 1350 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured spectra of the superposition of the bulk-etalon and the free-space-etalon. (b) Separated spectra with (1.) rough wavelength and (2.) accurate wavelength determination.

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