Abstract

The coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) is typically used to generate high frequency spectrally pure microwave signal with serious sidemodes noise. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for supermode suppression with mutual injection locking between the COEO (master oscillator with multi-modes oscillation) and the embedded free-running oscillator (slave oscillator with single-mode oscillation). The master and slave oscillators share the same electrical feedback path, which means that the mutually injection-locked COEO brings no additional hardware complexity. Owing to the mode matching and mutually injection locking effect, 9.999 GHz signal has been successfully obtained by the mutually injection-locked COEO with the phase noise about −117 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency. Besides, the supermode noise can be significantly suppressed more than 50 dB to below −120 dBc.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Sidemode suppression for coupled optoelectronic oscillator by optical pulse power feedforward

Yitang Dai, Ruixin Wang, Feifei Yin, Jian Dai, Lan Yu, Jianqiang Li, and Kun Xu
Opt. Express 23(21) 27589-27596 (2015)

Spurious mode reduction in dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators

O. Okusaga, E. J. Adles, E. C. Levy, W. Zhou, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, and M. Horowitz
Opt. Express 19(7) 5839-5854 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. P. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
  2. A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4628–4641 (2006).
  3. P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  4. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
  5. L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
  6. A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, P. Koonath, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator I: expectation values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1023–1031 (2009).
  7. A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
  8. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
  9. D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 56(2), 449–456 (2008).
  10. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
  11. A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Voltage-controlled photonic oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1572–1574 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  12. I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. J. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry-Perot etalon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(21), 3100–3106 (2010).
  13. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Dual microwave and optical oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1867–1869 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  14. X. S. Yao, L. Davis, and L. Maleki, “Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(1), 73–78 (2000).
  15. N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  16. E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
  17. J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).
  18. N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).
  19. C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19(1), 31–33 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  20. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
  21. Y. Dai, R. Wang, F. Yin, J. Dai, L. Yu, J. Li, and K. Xu, “Sidemode suppression for coupled optoelectronic oscillator by optical pulse power feedforward,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27589–27596 (2015).
    [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 56(2), 449–456 (2008).

2007 (1)

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2000 (2)

X. S. Yao, L. Davis, and L. Maleki, “Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(1), 73–78 (2000).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).

1997 (3)

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).

N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Dual microwave and optical oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1867–1869 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (3)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).

1994 (1)

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Burdge, G. L.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dai, J.

Dai, Y.

Davis, L.

Delfyett, P. J.

Doerr, C. R.

Eliyahu, D.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Goldhar, J.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).

Haus, H. A.

Hoghooghi, N.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ippen, E. P.

Koonath, P.

Laghezza, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lazzeri, E.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

Liang, W.

Malacarne, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Voltage-controlled photonic oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1572–1574 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, P. Koonath, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator I: expectation values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1023–1031 (2009).

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 56(2), 449–456 (2008).

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[PubMed]

X. S. Yao, L. Davis, and L. Maleki, “Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(1), 73–78 (2000).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Dual microwave and optical oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1867–1869 (1997).
[PubMed]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).

Mandridis, D.

Matsko, A. B.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).

Onodera, N.

N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).

Onori, D.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ozdur, I.

Pinna, S.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Porzi, C.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Salik, E.

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Scaffardi, M.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Scotti, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Seeds, A. J.

Seidel, D.

Serafino, G.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Shirasaki, M.

Tamura, K.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).

C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19(1), 31–33 (1994).
[PubMed]

Vercesi, V.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wang, R.

Wey, J. S.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).

Williams, K. J.

Xu, K.

Yao, J. P.

Yao, X. S.

Yin, F.

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).

Yu, L.

Yu, N.

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 56(2), 449–456 (2008).

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).

Nature (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed mutually injection-locked COEO. EDF: erbium doped fiber; WDM: wavelength division multiplexing; O-BPF: optical bandpass filter; OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller; MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator; DSF: dispersion-shifted fiber; ISO: isolator; PD: photo-detector; LNA: low noise amplifier; E-PD: electrical power divider; EC: electrical coupler; PS: phase shifter; E-BPF: electrical bandpass filter; ATT: attenuator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Amplitude modulation response of the open loop for the COEO; (a) around 11 MHz span with 1 MHz FSR; (b) Zoom view around 200 kHz span.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Oscillation spectrum (20 MHz span and 2 kHz resolution bandwidth) of the free-running microwave oscillator with different amount of phase shift and the amplitude response of the RF bandpass filter in the oscillator. More than 10 MHz tuning range can be obtained which corresponds to the filter characteristics.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 RF spectrum of the coupled optoelectronic oscillator. (a) Spectrum of the conventional COEO with 100MHz span and a resolution bandwidth of 2 kHz; (b) Spectrum of the mutually injection-locked COEO with 100MHz span and a resolution bandwidth of 2 kHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra shape of the 9.999 GHz oscillation signal measured with 5-kHz span and 100-Hz resolution bandwidth. Green line: free-running microwave oscillator based on the shared electrical feedback loop. Blue line: conventional optoelectronic oscillator. Red line: mutually injection-locked coupled optoelectronic oscillator. MIL: mutually injection-locked.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The measured SSB phase noise of the 9.999 GHz oscillation signal. Green line: the phase noise of the embedded free-running oscillator; Red line: the phase noise of the conventional COEO; Blue line: the phase noise of the mutually injection-locked COEO.

Metrics