Abstract

For photon-counting applications at ultraviolet wavelengths, there are currently no detectors that combine high efficiency (> 50%), sub-nanosecond timing resolution, and sub-Hz dark count rates. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have seen success over the past decade for photon-counting applications in the near-infrared, but little work has been done to optimize SNSPDs for wavelengths below 400 nm. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of UV SNSPDs operating at wavelengths between 250 and 370 nm. The detectors have active areas up to 56 μm in diameter, 70 – 80% efficiency at temperatures up to 4.2 K, timing resolution down to 60 ps FWHM, blindness to visible and infrared photons, and dark count rates of ∼ 0.25 counts/hr for a 56 μm diameter pixel. These performance metrics make UV SNSPDs ideal for applications in trapped-ion quantum information processing, lidar studies of the upper atmosphere, UV fluorescent-lifetime imaging microscopy, and photon-starved UV astronomy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Calandri, Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, A. Dane, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire detector jitter limited by detector geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 152601 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Li, L. Zhang, L. You, X. Yang, W. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 23, 17301–17308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22, 21167 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22, 28783–28789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21, 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Pearlman, A. Cross, W. Słysz, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, M. Currie, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, and K. Smirnov, “Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 579–582 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. Gol’tsman, “New photon detector for device analysis: Superconducting single-photon detector based on a hot electron effect,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allman, M. S.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bell, L. D.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

N. Calandri, Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, A. Dane, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire detector jitter limited by detector geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 152601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bienfang, J. C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bierhorst, P.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boroson, D. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
[Crossref]

Bradshaw, T. W.

T. W. Bradshaw and A. H. Orlowska, “Technology developments on the 4K cooling system for Planck and FIRST,” in “Sixth European Symposium on Space Environmental Control Systems,” (1997), pp. 465–470.

Buller, G. S.

Bulmer, J.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burianek, D. A.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
[Crossref]

Bussières, F.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calandri, N.

N. Calandri, Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, A. Dane, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire detector jitter limited by detector geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 152601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Calkins, B.

Carver, A. G.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Charbon, E.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Christensen, B. G.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Coakley, K. J.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cornwell, D. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
[Crossref]

Cross, A.

A. Pearlman, A. Cross, W. Słysz, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, M. Currie, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, and K. Smirnov, “Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 579–582 (2005).
[Crossref]

Currie, M.

A. Pearlman, A. Cross, W. Słysz, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, M. Currie, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, and K. Smirnov, “Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 579–582 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dane, A.

N. Calandri, Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, A. Dane, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire detector jitter limited by detector geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 152601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dauler, E. A.

Devizenko, A. Y.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Divochiy, A. V.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dobrovolskiy, S. M.

I. E. Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining near unity efficiency, ultra-high detection-rates, and ultra-high time resolution,” arXiv 1611.02726 (2016).

Dorenbos, S. N.

I. E. Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining near unity efficiency, ultra-high detection-rates, and ultra-high time resolution,” arXiv 1611.02726 (2016).

Dyer, S. D.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Farr, W. H.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

France, K.

K. France and D. Schiminovich, “LUVOIR Tech Note Series: Ultraviolet Detectors for Cosmic Origins and Exoplanet Science with LUVOIR,” (2016).

Gerrits, T.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Glancy, S.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. Gol’tsman, “New photon detector for device analysis: Superconducting single-photon detector based on a hot electron effect,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Goltsman, G. N.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Goodsall, T. M.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gourgues, R. B. M.

I. E. Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining near unity efficiency, ultra-high detection-rates, and ultra-high time resolution,” arXiv 1611.02726 (2016).

Gruber, S. M.

Hadfield, R. H.

Hamden, E. T.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hamel, D. R.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hancock, B.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haraguchi, T.

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hennessy, J. J.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Marin, S.

Hiraoka, Y.

Hodge, C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoenk, M.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horansky, R. D.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jennewein, T.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jewell, A. D.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, T. J.

S. Nikzad, M. Hoenk, A. D. Jewell, J. J. Hennessy, A. G. Carver, T. J. Jones, T. M. Goodsall, E. T. Hamden, P. Suvarna, J. Bulmer, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, E. Charbon, P. Padmanabhan, B. Hancock, and L. D. Bell, “Single photon counting UV solar-blind detectors using silicon and III-nitride materials,” Sensors 16, 927 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kasapi, S.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. Gol’tsman, “New photon detector for device analysis: Superconducting single-photon detector based on a hot electron effect,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kerman, A. J.

Khatri, F.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
[Crossref]

Kinjo, M.

Knill, E.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Korneev, A.

A. Pearlman, A. Cross, W. Słysz, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, M. Currie, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, and K. Smirnov, “Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 579–582 (2005).
[Crossref]

Korneev, A. A.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Korneeva, Y. P.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Korzh, B.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kouminov, P.

A. Pearlman, A. Cross, W. Słysz, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, M. Currie, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, and K. Smirnov, “Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 579–582 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kovalik, J. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumor, D. R.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwiat, P. G.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lambrocco, C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leibfried, D.

Li, H.

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lita, A. E.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Miller, A. E. Lita, B. Calkins, I. Vayshenker, S. M. Gruber, and S. W. Nam, “Compact cryogenic self-aligning fiber-to-detector coupling with losses below one percent,” Opt. Express 19, 9102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Liu, X.

Lo, W.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. Gol’tsman, “New photon detector for device analysis: Superconducting single-photon detector based on a hot electron effect,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Los, J. W. N.

I. E. Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining near unity efficiency, ultra-high detection-rates, and ultra-high time resolution,” arXiv 1611.02726 (2016).

Manova, N. N.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marsili, F.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, A.

Meyer-Scott, E.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Migdall, A. L.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, M. Y.

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27, 95012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miki, S.

Miller, A. J.

Mirin, R. P.

D. H. Slichter, V. B. Verma, D. Leibfried, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, and D. J. Wineland, “UV-sensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detectors for integration in an ion trap,” Opt. Express 25, 8705–8720 (2017).
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L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
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D. H. Slichter, V. B. Verma, D. Leibfried, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, and D. J. Wineland, “UV-sensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detectors for integration in an ion trap,” Opt. Express 25, 8705–8720 (2017).
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V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
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Wilsher, K.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. Gol’tsman, “New photon detector for device analysis: Superconducting single-photon detector based on a hot electron effect,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
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Zbinden, H.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 122601 (2014).
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A. Pearlman, A. Cross, W. Słysz, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, M. Currie, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, and K. Smirnov, “Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 579–582 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) False-color SEM images of nanowire patterns for large and small (inset) active area SNSPDs. Both images are to scale. b) Optical stack cross-section for broadband (left) and narrowband (right) devices. c) RCWA simulation of absorption by the nanowire layer for TE-polarized (blue), TM-polarized (red), and unpolarized (purple) light. For TE-polarized light, the electric field is oriented parallel to the wires. The left panel shows the predicted absorption for the broadband stack from (b), while the center and right panels show the predicted absorption for the narrowband stack. In the narrowband design, near the target wavelength of 370 nm, absorption for both polarizations is equal. Black data points indicate measured device detection efficiency.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Left axis, gray and blue data: system detection efficiency vs. bias current at different temperatures for D1. Error bars of ±5.3% of the SDE are not shown. For all temperatures, the SDE reached 76%. Taking into account losses in the fiber, this corresponds to an efficiency of 84% at the device. Right axis, red data: system (fiber-coupled) dark count rate vs. bias current at 800 mK and at 4.0 K (corresponding SDE shown in blue). Triangles indicate no detected counts in the measurement window. At 800 mK, dark count rates were ∼ 10−3 counts/s (cps) at the onset of the plateau. At 4.0 K, dark count rates were less than 10−2 counts/s at the onset of the plateau.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Red squares: measured dark count rate for a large active area, broadband device (D2) disconnected from the optical fiber. The device detection efficiency (black circles) is shown for reference. At the onset of the efficiency plateau (∼ 5 μA), the dark count rate is approximately 10−4 counts/s. Also shown is the same data scaled for the hypothetical area of a 10 × 10 μm pixel (blue squares).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Normalized count rate vs. bias for a large active area, broadband device (D2) measured at 800 mK. Data were taken with LEDs at 250 nm, 285 nm, and 315 nm, with a laser diode at 373 nm, and with a laser at 635 nm. b) System detection efficiency vs. bias for a large active area, narrowband device (D1) measured at 800 mK. Black points were taken at 373 nm, and colored points were taken with a 1550 nm laser at different powers. Below ∼ 24 μA, the count rate at 1550 nm is dominated by noise.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measurement of detector dead time (black) at 800 mK for large active area (top) and small active area (bottom) devices. At an inter-arrival time of 90 ns for the large device and 11 ns for the small device, there were half as many detection events than for longer inter-arrival times. Typical pulses for the large and small devices, with electrical decay times of 250 and 25 ns, respectively, are shown for comparison in red.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) Instrument response function near the switching current at 800 mK, 3.6 K, and 4.0 K for the small active area device (D3). The histograms have been fitted with Gaussian distributions. At lower bias currents, the histograms appear slightly skewed. The jitter — i.e., the full-width at half-maximum of the distribution — at these temperatures was 62 ps, 182 ps, and 494 ps, respectively. b) Jitter vs. bias current at 800 mK, 3.2 K, and 4.0 K for both small (D3; circles) and large (D1; squares) active area devices.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Definition of device parameters for detectors presented in this article.

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