Abstract

We propose and design uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers with the stress along <100> direction. The micro-bridge structure is adapted for introducing uniaxial stress in Ge/SiGe quantum well. To enhance the fabrication tolerance, full-etched circular gratings with high reflectivity bandwidths of ~500 nm are deployed in laser cavities. We compare and analyze the density of state, the number of states between Γ- and L-points, the carrier injection efficiency, and the threshold current density for the uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers. Simulation results show that the threshold current density of the Ge/SiGe quantum well laser is much higher than that of the bulk Ge laser, even combined with high uniaxial tensile stress owing to the larger number of states between Γ- and L- points and extremely low carrier injection efficiency. Electrical transport simulation reveals that the reduced effective mass of the hole and the small conduction band offset cause the low carrier injection efficiency of the Ge/SiGe quantum well laser. Our theoretical results imply that unlike III-V material, uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge outperforms a Ge/SiGe quantum well with the same strain level and is a promising approach for Si-compatible light sources.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

27 October 2017: A typographical correction was made to the author affiliations.


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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (8)

S. Dominici, H. Wen, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(21), 211103 (2016).

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Jiang and J. Sun, “Theoretical analysis of optical gain in uniaxial tensile strained and n+-doped Ge/GeSi quantum well,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14525–14537 (2016).
[PubMed]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

2015 (3)

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22424–22430 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of Threshold Current Behavior for Bulk and Quantum-Well Germanium Laser Structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1901009 (2013).

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

W. J. Fan, “Tensile-strain and doping enhanced direct bandgap optical transition of n+ doped Ge/GeSi quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(18), 183106 (2013).

2012 (2)

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

2011 (2)

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Känel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031106 (2011).

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

2010 (2)

G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, and G. Grosso, “Tight-binding calculation of optical gain in tensile strained [001]-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(5), 055202 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z-SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle,“Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. Yariv, “Scaling laws and minimum threshold currents for quantum-confined semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(12), 1033–1035 (1988).

1987 (1)

W. T. Tsang, “Quantum Confinement Heterostructure Semiconductor Lasers,” Semicond. Semimet. 24, 397–458 (1987).

1986 (1)

C.G. Van de Walle and R. M. Martin, “Theoretical calculations of heterojunction discontinuities in the Si/Ge system,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 34(8), 5621–5634 (1986).
[PubMed]

1964 (1)

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, and R. J. Paff, “Lattice Parameter and Density in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” J. Phys. Chem. 68(10), 3021–3027 (1964).

1958 (1)

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” Phys. Rev. 109(3), 695–710 (1958).

Almécija, D.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Bellet Amalric, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Bellotti, E.

S. Dominici, H. Wen, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(21), 211103 (2016).

Bertazzi, F.

S. Dominici, H. Wen, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(21), 211103 (2016).

Bessette, J. T.

Boland, J. J.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Boucaud, P.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Bowers, J. E.

Braunstein, R.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” Phys. Rev. 109(3), 695–710 (1958).

Brongersma, M. L.

Buca, D.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of Threshold Current Behavior for Bulk and Quantum-Well Germanium Laser Structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1901009 (2013).

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[PubMed]

Calvo, V.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of Threshold Current Behavior for Bulk and Quantum-Well Germanium Laser Structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1901009 (2013).

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[PubMed]

Carnera, A.

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Chang, G. E.

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z-SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).

Chang, S. W.

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z-SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).

Checoury, X.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Chelnokov, A.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Chen, N.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, R.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

Chen, S.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22424–22430 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cheng, B.

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Känel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031106 (2011).

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Chuang, S. L.

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z-SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).

Chung, H.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

Coffa, S.

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).

Coudevylle, J.-R.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[PubMed]

Daly, B.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Dias, G. O.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

Dismukes, J. P.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, and R. J. Paff, “Lattice Parameter and Density in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” J. Phys. Chem. 68(10), 3021–3027 (1964).

Dominici, S.

S. Dominici, H. Wen, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(21), 211103 (2016).

Duchemin, I.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Dutt, R.

Edmond, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Ekstrom, L.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, and R. J. Paff, “Lattice Parameter and Density in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” J. Phys. Chem. 68(10), 3021–3027 (1964).

El Kurdi, M.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Erts, D.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Escalante, J.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Escalante, J. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Faist, J.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

Fan, W. J.

W. J. Fan, “Tensile-strain and doping enhanced direct bandgap optical transition of n+ doped Ge/GeSi quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(18), 183106 (2013).

Fang, A. W.

Fei, E. T.

Fenrich, C. S.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

Fowler, D.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Franzò, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[PubMed]

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

Gao, J.

Gao, S.

Gassenq, A.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Gatti, E.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Känel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031106 (2011).

Geiger, R.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

Ghrib, A.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Goano, M.

S. Dominici, H. Wen, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(21), 211103 (2016).

Gomez, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Grilli, E.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Känel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031106 (2011).

Grosso, G.

G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, and G. Grosso, “Tight-binding calculation of optical gain in tensile strained [001]-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(5), 055202 (2010).
[PubMed]

Grützmacher, D.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Guilloy, K.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Guzzi, M.

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Känel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031106 (2011).

Han, Z.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of Threshold Current Behavior for Bulk and Quantum-Well Germanium Laser Structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1901009 (2013).

Harris, J. S.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22424–22430 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Hartmann, J.-M.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Herman, F.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” Phys. Rev. 109(3), 695–710 (1958).

Holmes, J. D.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Hu, W.

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

Huang, W.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

Huang, Y.-C.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

Huang, Z.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

Huo, Y.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22424–22430 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ikonic, Z.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

E. Gatti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and H. von Känel, “Room temperature photoluminescence of Ge multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031106 (2011).

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Izard, N.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Jiang, J.

Kamins, T. I.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22424–22430 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kang, J.-H.

Kao, M.-Y.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained Pseudomorphic Ge1–xSnx Multiple Quantum Well Microdisk Using SiNy Stressor Layer,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2231–2236 (2016).

Kimerling, L. C.

Koch, T. L.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Le Roux, X.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Li, C.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

Li, H.

Li, Y.

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

Liang, D.

Lin, G.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
[PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, W. Hu, C. Li, Y. Li, C. Xue, C. Li, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from n-type strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231108 (2012).

Lively, E.

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Mantl, S.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Marin, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).

Martin, R. M.

C.G. Van de Walle and R. M. Martin, “Theoretical calculations of heterojunction discontinuities in the Si/Ge system,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 34(8), 5621–5634 (1986).
[PubMed]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[PubMed]

Michel, J.

Miller, G.

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

Moore, A. R.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” Phys. Rev. 109(3), 695–710 (1958).

Mussler, G.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

Nam, D.

Ngo, L. T.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Niquet, Y. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Niquet, Y.-M.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Ossikovski, R.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Osvaldo Dias, G.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Paff, R. J.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, and R. J. Paff, “Lattice Parameter and Density in Germanium-Silicon Alloys,” J. Phys. Chem. 68(10), 3021–3027 (1964).

Pan, D.

Patel, N.

Pauc, N.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[PubMed]

Petkov, N.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
[PubMed]

Picardi, G.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Pizzi, G.

G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, and G. Grosso, “Tight-binding calculation of optical gain in tensile strained [001]-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(5), 055202 (2010).
[PubMed]

Polman, A.

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[PubMed]

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).

Prost, M.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

Rainko, D.

Reboud, V.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Rieutord, F.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Romagnoli, M.

Rouchon, D.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

Sader, J. E.

L. T. Ngo, D. Almécija, J. E. Sader, B. Daly, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, D. Erts, and J. J. Boland, “Ultimate-Strength Germanium Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2964–2968 (2006).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

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Sauvage, S.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

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Shambat, G.

Sigg, H.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

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Stoica, T.

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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).

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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

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D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1358–1367 (2016).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

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G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, G. Osvaldo Dias, K. Guilloy, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

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Zhang, L.

G. Lin, N. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, W. Huang, J. Wang, J. Xu, S. Chen, and C. Li, “Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate,” Materials (Basel) 9(10), 803 (2016).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).

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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).

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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the mirco-bridge structure for introducing uniaxial stress in Ge/SiGe quantum well (not to scale). (b) Distribution of the strain component ε x x b r i calculated by 3-D FEM, when H b u f f e r = 300 n m , H r = 450 n m , W r = 600 n m , θ = 30 ° , L 1 = 10 μ m , L 2 = 740 μ m and the width of narrow bridge is 2μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optimal Ge composition of the barrier as a function of the strain component ε x x w e l l . (b) Band alignment of the Ge/Si0.09Ge0.91 quantum well with ε x x w e l l = 4 % .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagrams of the uniaxially tensile stressed (a) bulk Ge laser and (b) Ge/SiGe quantum well laser. (c) Cross section view of the straight waveguide. For bulk Ge laser, W r = 600 n m , H 1 = 100 n m and H 2 = 200 n m . For Ge/SiGe quanum well laser, W r = 600 n m , H 1 = 450 n m and H 2 = 300 n m . (d) Top view of the circular grating. Reflection coefficient spectra of the fundamental TE-mode for the gratings of (e) bulk Ge laser and (f) Ge/SiGe quantum well laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Net gain coefficient spectrum of the TE-polarized light for bulk Ge with a strain of 4%, a doping concentration of 7 × 10 18 c m 3 and an injected carrier density of 2.3 × 10 18 c m 3 . (b) Net gain coefficient spectra of the undoped Ge/Si0.09Ge0.91 quantum well with a strain of 4% and an injected carrier density of 2.1 × 10 19 c m 3 .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross section of (a) the p+-n-n+ junction of bulk Ge laser and (b) the p+-i-n+ junction of Ge/Si0.09Ge0.91 quantum well laser. Electron concentration profiles of the (c) p+-n-n+ junction and (d) p+-i-n+ junction at a bias voltage of 0.6V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Number of states between the Γ- and L- points for bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well as a function of the strain component ε x x w e l l .
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Injected carrier density as a function of current density for the p+-i-n+ junction of Ge/Si0.09Ge0.91 quantum well laser. (b) Carrier injection efficiency as a function of injected carrier density for the p+-i-n+ junction of Ge/Si0.09Ge0.91 quantum well laser. The red curve and blue curve represent simulation results using strained effective mass and unstrained effective mass, respectively. The purple curve represents simulation results using unstrained effective mass as well as a larger conduction band offset of 0.15 eV.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material and band structure parameters at 300 K for Ge and Si a

Equations (20)

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ε x x = a b u f a ( 1 + ε x x b r i ) 1
ε y y = a b u f a ( 1 + ε b i ) 1 C 12 C 11 + C 12 ( ε x x b r i ε b i )
ε z z = 2 C 12 C 11 ( a b u f a ( 1 + ε b i ) 1 ) C 12 C 11 + C 12 ( ε x x b r i ε b i )
a | | M Q W = ( a b G b h b + a w G w h w ) / ( G b h b + G w h w )
G = 2 ( C 11 + 2 C 12 ) ( 1 C 12 / C 11 )
a S i G e = 0.0282 x 2 + 0.1981 x + 5.4315
Δ E c i = [ Ξ d 1 + Ξ u { a ^ i a ^ i } ] : ε
Δ E c Γ = a c ( ε x x + ε y y + ε z z )
Δ E c L = a L ( ε x x + ε y y + ε z z )
Δ E c Δ 2 = Ξ d Δ ( ε x x + ε y y + ε zz ) + Ξ u Δ ε x x
Δ E c Δ 4 = Ξ d Δ ( ε x x + ε y y + ε zz ) + Ξ u Δ ε y y
E v = E v . a v + Δ s o / 3
E c i = E v + E g i
E g Γ = 0.7985 x + 4.185 ( 1 x ) 0.14 x ( 1 x )
E g L = 1.86 1.2 x
E g Δ = 1.087 0.487 x + 0.264 x 2
I t h ( η γ τ e ) = N 2 D t r ( W L ) + W d g 2 D ln R 1 + W L d g 2 D α s c a t
g 3 D Q W = 2 π 2 L z Δ E n L H e a v i s i d e ( E c + Δ E E n L L ( k t ) ) d k x d k y
( Γ a c t g b u l k Γ p α p Γ n α n ) L g = ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 )
( Γ Q W g Q W Γ b u f f e r α b u f f e r Γ b a r r i e r α b a r r i e r Γ n α n ) L g = ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 )

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