Abstract

This paper is devoted to the improvement of ground-based telescopes based on diffractive primary lenses, which provide larger aperture and relaxed surface tolerance compared to non-diffractive telescopes. We performed two different studies devised to thoroughly characterize and improve the performance of ground-based diffractive telescopes. On the one hand, we experimentally validated the suitability of the stitching error theory, useful to characterize the error performance of subaperture diffractive telescopes. On the other hand, we proposed a novel ground-based telescope incorporated in a Cassegrain architecture, leading to a telescope with enhanced performance. To test the stitching error theory, a 300 mm diameter, 2000 mm focal length transmissive stitching diffractive telescope, based on a three-belt subaperture primary lens, was designed and implemented. The telescope achieves a 78 cy/mm resolution within 0.15 degree field of view while the working wavelength ranges from 582.8 nm to 682.8 nm without any stitching error. However, the long optical track (35.49 m) introduces air turbulence that reduces the final images contrast in the ground-based test. To enhance this result, a same diameter compacted Cassegrain ground-based diffractive (CGD) telescope with the total track distance of 1.267 m, was implemented within the same wavelength. The ground-based CGD telescope provides higher resolution and better contrast than the transmissive configuration. Star and resolution tests were experimentally performed to compare the CGD and the transmissive configurations, providing the suitability of the proposed ground-based CGD telescope.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

G. Jin, J. Yan, H. Liu, X. Zhong, and Y. Yan, “Flat-Stitching error analysis of large-aperture photon sieves,” Appl. Opt. 53(1), 90–95 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Koechlin, M. Yadallee, T. Raksasataya, and A. Berdeu, “New progress on the Fresnel imager for UV space astronomy,” Exp. Astron. 354(1), 147–153 (2014).

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

G. Anderson, O. Asmolova, and T. Dickinson, “FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9085, 908504 (2014).

2012 (1)

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

2011 (3)

E. Hinglais, “A space Fresnel imager concept assessment study led by CNES for astrophysics applications,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 85–110 (2011).

P. Deba, P. Etcheto, and P. Duchon, “Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 123–136 (2011).

G. Olczak, D. Fischer, M. Connelly, and C. Wells, “James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8146, 814608 (2011).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Hawarden, C. Johnstone, and G. Johnstone, “GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 95–104 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. Hyde, S. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. Rushford, “Eyeglass, A very large aperture diffractive space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

Andersen, G.

Anderson, G.

G. Anderson, O. Asmolova, and T. Dickinson, “FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9085, 908504 (2014).

Asmolova, O.

G. Anderson, O. Asmolova, and T. Dickinson, “FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9085, 908504 (2014).

Atcheson, P.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Berdeu, A.

L. Koechlin, M. Yadallee, T. Raksasataya, and A. Berdeu, “New progress on the Fresnel imager for UV space astronomy,” Exp. Astron. 354(1), 147–153 (2014).

Bluth, J.

Bluth, M.

Buralli, D. A.

Chaney, D.

Clampin, M.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Cole, J.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Connelly, M.

G. Olczak, D. Fischer, M. Connelly, and C. Wells, “James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8146, 814608 (2011).

David, J.

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

Deba, P.

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

P. Deba, P. Etcheto, and P. Duchon, “Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 123–136 (2011).

Dickinson, T.

G. Anderson, O. Asmolova, and T. Dickinson, “FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9085, 908504 (2014).

Dixit, S.

R. Hyde, S. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. Rushford, “Eyeglass, A very large aperture diffractive space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).

Domber, J.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Doyon, R.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Duchon, P.

P. Deba, P. Etcheto, and P. Duchon, “Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 123–136 (2011).

Etcheto, P.

P. Deba, P. Etcheto, and P. Duchon, “Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 123–136 (2011).

Feinberg, L.

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

Feinburg, L.

Fischer, D.

G. Olczak, D. Fischer, M. Connelly, and C. Wells, “James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8146, 814608 (2011).

Gardner, J.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Gili, R.

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

Greenfield, P.

Greenhouse, M.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Hack, W.

Hammel, H.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Hawarden, T.

T. Hawarden, C. Johnstone, and G. Johnstone, “GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 95–104 (2003).

Hinglais, E.

E. Hinglais, “A space Fresnel imager concept assessment study led by CNES for astrophysics applications,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 85–110 (2011).

Hutchings, J.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Hyde, R.

R. Hyde, S. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. Rushford, “Eyeglass, A very large aperture diffractive space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).

Hyde, R. A.

Jakobsen, P.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Jin, G.

Johnstone, C.

T. Hawarden, C. Johnstone, and G. Johnstone, “GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 95–104 (2003).

Johnstone, G.

T. Hawarden, C. Johnstone, and G. Johnstone, “GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 95–104 (2003).

Keski-Kuba, R.

Koechlin, L.

L. Koechlin, M. Yadallee, T. Raksasataya, and A. Berdeu, “New progress on the Fresnel imager for UV space astronomy,” Exp. Astron. 354(1), 147–153 (2014).

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

Lander, J.

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

Lilly, S.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Liu, H.

Lizana, A.

Long, K.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Lu, Z.

Lunine, J.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Mather, J.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Matthews, G.

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

McCaughrean, M.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Millerd, J.

Morris, G. M.

Mountain, M.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Nella, J.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

North-Morris, M.

Olczak, G.

G. Olczak, D. Fischer, M. Connelly, and C. Wells, “James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8146, 814608 (2011).

Raksasataya, T.

L. Koechlin, M. Yadallee, T. Raksasataya, and A. Berdeu, “New progress on the Fresnel imager for UV space astronomy,” Exp. Astron. 354(1), 147–153 (2014).

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

Rieke, G.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Rieke, M.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Rivet, J.

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

Rix, H.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Rushford, M.

R. Hyde, S. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. Rushford, “Eyeglass, A very large aperture diffractive space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).

Saif, B.

Sanders, J.

Seltzer, A.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Serre, D.

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

Skinner, G. K.

Smith, E.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Smith, W.

Sonneborn, G.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Spuhler, P.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Stewart, C.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Stiavelli, M.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Stockman, H.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Tullson, D.

Van Otten, A.

Voyton, M.

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

Wang, X.

Weisberg, A.

R. Hyde, S. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. Rushford, “Eyeglass, A very large aperture diffractive space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).

Wells, C.

G. Olczak, D. Fischer, M. Connelly, and C. Wells, “James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8146, 814608 (2011).

Whiteaker, K.

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

Whitman, T.

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

Windhorst, R.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Wright, G.

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Xu, W.

Yadallee, M.

L. Koechlin, M. Yadallee, T. Raksasataya, and A. Berdeu, “New progress on the Fresnel imager for UV space astronomy,” Exp. Astron. 354(1), 147–153 (2014).

Yan, J.

Yan, Y.

Yue, J.

Zhang, H.

Zhong, X.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Exp. Astron. (4)

E. Hinglais, “A space Fresnel imager concept assessment study led by CNES for astrophysics applications,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 85–110 (2011).

P. Deba, P. Etcheto, and P. Duchon, “Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel,” Exp. Astron. 30(2–3), 123–136 (2011).

L. Koechlin, J. Rivet, P. Deba, D. Serre, T. Raksasataya, R. Gili, and J. David, “First high dynamic range and high resolution images of the sky obtained with a diffractive Fresnel array telescope,” Exp. Astron. 33(1), 129–140 (2012).

L. Koechlin, M. Yadallee, T. Raksasataya, and A. Berdeu, “New progress on the Fresnel imager for UV space astronomy,” Exp. Astron. 354(1), 147–153 (2014).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

G. Olczak, D. Fischer, M. Connelly, and C. Wells, “James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8146, 814608 (2011).

G. Matthews, T. Whitman, L. Feinberg, M. Voyton, J. Lander, and R. Keski-Kuba, “JWST telescope integration and test progress,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 990404 (2016).

P. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE- Initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2014).

T. Hawarden, C. Johnstone, and G. Johnstone, “GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 95–104 (2003).

G. Anderson, O. Asmolova, and T. Dickinson, “FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 9085, 908504 (2014).

R. Hyde, S. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. Rushford, “Eyeglass, A very large aperture diffractive space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, K. Long, J. Lunine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, H. Rix, E. Smith, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, H. Stockman, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123(4), 485–606 (2006).

Other (3)

J. Gardner, J. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, K. Flanagan, M. Franx, M. Greenhouse, H. Hammel, J. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. Lilly, J. Luinine, M. McCaughrean, M. Mountian, G. Rieke, M. Rieke, G. Sonneborn, M. Stiavelli, R. Windhorst, and G. Wright, “The James Webb Space Telescope,” in Astrophysics in the Next Decade, H. Thronson, M. Stiavelli, and A. Tielens (Springer, 2009).

L. Schupmann, Die Medial-Fernrohre - Eine neue Konstruktion für große astronomische Instrumente, (Tuebner-Verlag, 1899).

J. Domber, P. Atcheson, and J. Kommers, “MOIRE: ground test bed results for a large membrane telescope,” in AIAA SciTech Space Structures Conference (2014), pp. 1510.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layout of a diffractive telescope.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Modulation Transfer Function for different fields of view (different colours curves).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 MTF modulus values as a function of the spatial frequency, for the C-belt case. For simulation, an axial offset error of 5 mm was selected.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 MTF differences as a function of the spatial frequency. Dif 1: MTF differences between the ideal stitched telescope and the 5 mm axial offset error contained telescope; Dif 2: MTF differences between the ideal stitched telescope and the 7 mm axial offset error contained telescope.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 MTF modulus values as a function of the spatial frequency, for the C-belt case. For simulations, an axial offset error of 7 mm was selected.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 MTF difference as a function of the spatial frequency. Dif 3: MTF differences between the ideal stitched telescope and the comprehensive error (C-belt within the error tolerance) contained telescope; Dif 4: MTF differences between the ideal stitched telescope and the comprehensive error (C-belt exceed the error tolerance) contained telescope.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A, B, and C belt contain comprehensive errors.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 MTF differences between the ideally stitched telescope and the comprehensive errors contained telescopes as a function of the spatial frequency. Dif 3: ideally stitched telescope and the telescope with C-belt within the error tolerance; Dif 5: ideally stitched telescope and the telescope with A, B and C belts within their error tolerances; Dif 6: ideally stitched telescope and the telescope with A-belt within the error tolerance; Dif 7: ideally stitched telescope and the telescope with B-belt within the error tolerance.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Cassegrain diffractive telescope scheme.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 MTF of the Cassegrain diffractive telescope.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Experimental sketches: (a) the transmissive diffractive telescope, (b) the Cassegrain configuraion diffractive telescope.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Star point tests: (a) the ideal subaperture telescope, (b) the Cassegrian telescope.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 PSF images for a point source by considering: (a) 5 mm stitching error in C-belt; (b) 7 mm stitching error in C-belt; (c) comprehensive error in C-belt; and (d) comprehensive error in A, B and C belts.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Resolution boards: (a) the subaperture telescope, (b) the Cassegrian telescope.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Resolution boards: (a) 5 mm stitching error in C-belt; (b) 7 mm stitching error in C-belt; (c) overall error in C-belt; and (d) exhaustive error in A, B and C belts.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Single stitching error tolerances

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Table 2 Simulation results of single stitching errors in each one of the three belts by considering three types of error

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Table 3 Comprehensive error tolerance

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Table 4 Comprehensive error values used for the analysis including errors in all the belts

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f 1 = n 2 f 3 ,
Δr= λ f # 5 ,
Δz= 4λ ( f # ) 2 5 ,
Δθ=arctan( rsin(Δ) rcos(Δ)+d ),
Δ= 6.4λ (f # )+r r 4 f # r .
ΔL= W 1 2 Δ l 1 2 + W 2 2 Δ l 2 2 + W 3 2 Δ l 3 2 + W 4 2 Δ l 4 2 + W 5 2 Δ l 5 2 ,

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