Abstract

We demonstrate circular-core 1550 nm single-mode polymer waveguides with a graded-index profile fabricated by commercially available UV-curable epoxies using so-called mosquito method. The relative index difference ∆n of the waveguides was designed to be 0.46% in order to guarantee both single-mode operation and good compatibility with standard single-mode fiber. Accurate refractive index tuning of monomer for core construction was realized by mixing the core and cladding epoxies properly. The core pitch of the waveguides was chosen to be 50 μm to satisfy the requirements for high-density on-board optical interconnects. Both the optical characteristics and high-speed performances of the waveguides were comprehensively studied at 1550 nm. The measured transmission and coupling loss are 0.79 dB/cm and 0.78 dB, respectively. The waveguides exhibit an inter-channel crosstalk as low as −45 dB, and a 3 dB misalignment tolerance larger than ± 4 μm on the input and output facet in both horizontal and vertical directions. NRZ signal at a data rate of 25 Gb/s was transmitted over a 10 cm-long waveguide. There is no obvious degradation on the eye diagram due to the insertion of the waveguide and error free transmission was successfully obtained. Our results imply that the fabricated single-mode polymer waveguides have good potential in high-density and high-speed optical interconnects application.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2015 (4)

2014 (5)

R. Kinoshita, D. Suganuma, and T. Ishigure, “Accurate interchannel pitch control in graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using the Mosquito method,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8426–8437 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. L. Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(17), 3036–3042 (2014).

C. Li, M. Browning, P. V. Gratz, and S. Palermo, “LumiNOC: A power-efficient, high-performance, photonic network-on-chip,” IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 33(6), 826–838 (2014).

S. B. Yoo, “The role of photonics in future computing and data centers,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 97(7), 1272–1280 (2014).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2004–2007 (2014).

2013 (4)

2009 (2)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009).

2008 (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G Ethernet at the enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 10–17 (2007).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).

Amb, C. M.

Amirsolaimani, B.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

Arakawa, Y.

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Bamiedakis, N.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “40 Gb/s data transmission over a 1-m-long multimode polymer spiral waveguide for board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 882–888 (2015).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2004–2007 (2014).

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G Ethernet at the enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 10–17 (2007).

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Betschon, F.

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Boersma, A.

Bona, G. L.

Broennimann, R.

Browning, M.

C. Li, M. Browning, P. V. Gratz, and S. Palermo, “LumiNOC: A power-efficient, high-performance, photonic network-on-chip,” IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 33(6), 826–838 (2014).

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Chen, J.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “40 Gb/s data transmission over a 1-m-long multimode polymer spiral waveguide for board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 882–888 (2015).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2004–2007 (2014).

Chung, Y. C.

Corbett, B.

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, D. Jubin, A. La Porta, N. Meier, I. M. Soganci, J. Weiss, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4736–4750 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. L. Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(17), 3036–3042 (2014).

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Flens, F.

Georgakilas, A.

Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Gratz, P. V.

C. Li, M. Browning, P. V. Gratz, and S. Palermo, “LumiNOC: A power-efficient, high-performance, photonic network-on-chip,” IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 33(6), 826–838 (2014).

Gustavsson, J. S.

Halkias, G.

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Haralabidis, N.

Herrera, O. D.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

Himmelhuber, R.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

Hofrichter, J.

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, D. Jubin, A. La Porta, N. Meier, I. M. Soganci, J. Weiss, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4736–4750 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. L. Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(17), 3036–3042 (2014).

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Ishigure, T.

Jubin, D.

Justice, J.

Karppinen, M.

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Kawaguchi, K.

Khan, M. U.

Kieu, K.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

Kinoshita, R.

Korhonen, T.

Krahenbuhl, R.

Kuchta, D. M.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Kyriakis-Bitzaros, E. D.

La Porta, A.

Lagadas, M.

Lamprecht, T.

K. Schmidtke, F. Flens, A. Worrall, R. Pitwon, F. Betschon, T. Lamprecht, and R. Krahenbuhl, “960 Gb/s optical backplane ecosystem using embedded polymer waveguides and demonstration in a 12G SAS storage array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 3970–3975 (2013).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Larsson, A.

Li, C.

C. Li, M. Browning, P. V. Gratz, and S. Palermo, “LumiNOC: A power-efficient, high-performance, photonic network-on-chip,” IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 33(6), 826–838 (2014).

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Meier, N.

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).

Moisiadis, Y.

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Muranaka, H.

Nishizawa, M.

Norwood, R. A.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

Offrein, B. J.

R. Dangel, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, D. Jubin, A. La Porta, N. Meier, I. M. Soganci, J. Weiss, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4736–4750 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. L. Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(17), 3036–3042 (2014).

I. M. Soganci, A. La Porta, and B. J. Offrein, “Flip-chip optical couplers with scalable I/O count for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16075–16085 (2013).
[PubMed]

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Palermo, S.

C. Li, M. Browning, P. V. Gratz, and S. Palermo, “LumiNOC: A power-efficient, high-performance, photonic network-on-chip,” IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 33(6), 826–838 (2014).

Penty, R. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “40 Gb/s data transmission over a 1-m-long multimode polymer spiral waveguide for board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 882–888 (2015).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2004–2007 (2014).

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G Ethernet at the enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 10–17 (2007).

Petäjä, J.

Peyghambarian, N.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

Pitwon, R.

Porta, A. L.

Recio, R. J.

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G Ethernet at the enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 10–17 (2007).

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Schmidtke, K.

Scholder, O.

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

Sennhauser, U.

Sim, D. H.

Snow, S. A.

Soganci, I. M.

Soma, K.

K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600310 (2013).

Spreafico, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

Sugama, A.

Suganuma, D.

Swatowski, B. W.

Takushima, Y.

Weiss, J.

Westbergh, P.

White, I. H.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “40 Gb/s data transmission over a 1-m-long multimode polymer spiral waveguide for board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 882–888 (2015).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2004–2007 (2014).

Wiegersma, S.

Worrall, A.

Yasuhara, K.

Yoo, S. B.

S. B. Yoo, “The role of photonics in future computing and data centers,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 97(7), 1272–1280 (2014).

Young, J. K.

Yu, F.

Zgraggen, E.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G Ethernet at the enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 10–17 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600310 (2013).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2004–2007 (2014).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (2)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. (1)

C. Li, M. Browning, P. V. Gratz, and S. Palermo, “LumiNOC: A power-efficient, high-performance, photonic network-on-chip,” IEEE Trans. Comput-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 33(6), 826–838 (2014).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. B. Yoo, “The role of photonics in future computing and data centers,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 97(7), 1272–1280 (2014).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (7)

A. Sugama, K. Kawaguchi, M. Nishizawa, H. Muranaka, and Y. Arakawa, “Development of high-density single-mode polymer waveguides with low crosstalk for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24231–24239 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. U. Khan, J. Justice, J. Petäjä, T. Korhonen, A. Boersma, S. Wiegersma, M. Karppinen, and B. Corbett, “Multi-level single mode 2D polymer waveguide optical interconnects using nano-imprint lithography,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14630–14639 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. Kinoshita, D. Suganuma, and T. Ishigure, “Accurate interchannel pitch control in graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using the Mosquito method,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8426–8437 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Suganuma and T. Ishigure, “Fan-in/out polymer optical waveguide for a multicore fiber fabricated using the Mosquito method,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1585–1593 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Yasuhara, F. Yu, and T. Ishigure, “Circular core single-mode polymer optical waveguide fabricated using the Mosquito method with low loss at 1310/1550 nm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8524–8533 (2017).
[PubMed]

R. Dangel, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, D. Jubin, A. La Porta, N. Meier, I. M. Soganci, J. Weiss, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4736–4750 (2015).
[PubMed]

I. M. Soganci, A. La Porta, and B. J. Offrein, “Flip-chip optical couplers with scalable I/O count for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16075–16085 (2013).
[PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).

Other (5)

Micro resist technology GmbH datasheet, “OrmoCore and OrmoClad,” (micro resist technology GmbH, 2015), http://microresist.de/sites/default/files/download/PI_OrmoCore_OrmoClad_2015.pdf .

M. P. Immonen, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, J. V. DeGroot, B. W. Swatowski, D. Proffit, K. Su, A. Tomasik, and W. K. Weidner, “Single-mode polymer waveguide PCBs for on-board chip-to-chip interconnects,” presented at SPIE OPTO (2017).

A. L. Porta, R. Dangel, D. Jubin, F. Horst, N. Meier, D. Chelladurai, B. W. Swatowski, A. C. Tomasik, K. Su, W. K. Weidner, and B. J. Offrein, “Optical coupling between polymer waveguides and a silicon Photonics chip in the O-band,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper M2I.2.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, S. Takenobu, N. Boyer, A. Janta-Polczynski, Y. Thibodeau, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, H. Numata, R. L. Bruce, S. Laflamme, P. Fortier, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical demonstration of a compliant polymer interface between standard fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th3F.5.

B. Amirsolaimani, O. D. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electro-optic polymer channel waveguide fabrication using multiphoton direct laser writing,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of fabrication process using mosquito method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized propagation constant as a function of core diameter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Cross-sectional micrograph of the fabricated polymer waveguides and (b) magnified image of one channel.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for propagation loss measurement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured propagation loss and coupling loss using a cut-back method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized received power at the output side as a function of the horizontal offset of output fiber. The gray stripes represent the positions of the waveguide cores.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized received power as functions of misalignment on (a) input and (b) output facet in both horizontal and vertical directions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 NFPs of (a) single-mode waveguide and (b) few-mode waveguide observed under different launching conditions.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental setup of (a) back-to-back link and (b) waveguide link for high-speed data transmission.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 BER curves of back-to-back and waveguide link at 25 Gb/s.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Eye diagrams of (a) back-to-back link and (b) waveguide link at 25 Gb/s.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters for Misalignment Tolerance Calculation

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