Abstract

We present a method for 3D sub-nanometer displacement measurement using a set of differential optical shadow sensors. It is based on using pairs of collimated beams on opposite sides of an object that are partially blocked by it. Applied to a sphere, our 3-axis sensor module consists of 8 parallel beam-detector sets for redundancy. The sphere blocks half of each beam’s power in the nominal centered position, and any displacement can be measured by the differential optical power changes amongst the pairs of detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated a displacement sensitivity of 0.87nm/Hz at 1 Hz and 0.39nm/Hz at 10 Hz. We describe the application of the module to the inertial sensor of a drag-free satellite, which can potentially be used for navigation, geodesy and fundamental science experiments as well as ground based applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

LIGO collaboration, “Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LISA collaboration, “Sub-femto-g free fall for space-based gravitational wave observatories: Lisa pathfinder results,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 231101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. N. Nguyen and J. W. Conklin, “Three-Axis Drag-Free Control and Drag Force Recovery of a Single-Thruster Small Satellite,” J. Spacecraft Rockets 25, 1640–1650 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. A. D. Gerardi, “Invited article: Advanced drag-free concepts for future space-based interferometers: acceleration noise performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 011301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. Tokmakov, “A ’violin-mode’ shadow sensor for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 125110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. Canuto, “Drag-free and attitude control for the GOCE satellite,” Automatica 44, 1766–1780 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, and C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 9 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

B. L. Schumaker, “Disturbance reduction requirements for LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 20, S239 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. B. DeBra, “Drag-free control for fundamental physics missions,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1221–1226 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. B. DeBra, “Design considerations for drag free satellites,” AIP Conference Proceedings 456, 199–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

Staff of the Space Department, Staff of the Guidance, and Control Laboratory, “A satellite freed of all but gravitational forces: "triad i,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 11, 637–644 (1974).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

B. Lange, “The drag-free satellite,” AIAA J. 2, 1590–1606 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abdulrahman, A.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Acernese, F.

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Al, Z.

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

Alamri, F.

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

Alfauwaz, A.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Alfauwaz, A. S.

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

Al-Fauwaz, A.

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

Alhussain, A.

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

Aljadaan, A.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Al-Jadaan, A.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

Aljibreen, H.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Al-Jibreen, H.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, G.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

Allen, G.S.

G.S. Allen, “Optical sensor design for advanced drag-free satellites,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2009).

Almajed, M.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Al-Meshari, M.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Saud, T.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Alsuwaidan, B.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Al-Suwaidan, B.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Althubiti, S.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Al-Thubiti, S.

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

Altwaijry, H.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Badr, B. S.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Bandar, B. Q.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bell, A

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bencze, W.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettadpur, S.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, and C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Braxmaier, C.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Buchman, S.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Byer, R.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Byer, R. L.

K. X. Sun, M. Trittler, J. W. Conklin, and R. L. Byer, “Differential Optical Shadow Sensing (DOSS) for LISA and MGRS Applications,” 7th LISA Symposium (J. Phys. C. This issue.) (2008).

Caldwell, M.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Calloni, E.

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Canuto, E.

E. Canuto, “Drag-free and attitude control for the GOCE satellite,” Automatica 44, 1766–1780 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carbone, L.

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciani, G.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, B.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conklin, J.

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Conklin, J. W.

A. N. Nguyen and J. W. Conklin, “Three-Axis Drag-Free Control and Drag Force Recovery of a Single-Thruster Small Satellite,” J. Spacecraft Rockets 25, 1640–1650 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, M. Trittler, J. W. Conklin, and R. L. Byer, “Differential Optical Shadow Sensing (DOSS) for LISA and MGRS Applications,” 7th LISA Symposium (J. Phys. C. This issue.) (2008).

Cutler, G.

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Cutler, G. D.

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

Daniel, D.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Danzmann, K.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

DeBra, D.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

DeBra, D. B.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. DeBra, “Drag-free control for fundamental physics missions,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1221–1226 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. B. DeBra, “Design considerations for drag free satellites,” AIP Conference Proceedings 456, 199–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dolesi, R.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draaisma, F.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Everitt, C. W. F.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faied, D.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fall, B.

J. Leitner, S. Starin, M. Fleck, B. Naasz, and B. Fall “Investigation of drag-free control technology for Earth science constellation missions,” Final study report (2003).

Fiore, L. D.

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fleck, M.

J. Leitner, S. Starin, M. Fleck, B. Naasz, and B. Fall “Investigation of drag-free control technology for Earth science constellation missions,” Final study report (2003).

Garcia, A.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gerardi, D.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Gerardi, G. A. D.

G. A. D. Gerardi, “Invited article: Advanced drag-free concepts for future space-based interferometers: acceleration noise performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 011301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goebel, J.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Hanson, J.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heifetz, M. I.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinzel, G.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heptonstall, A.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higuchi, S.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Holmes, T.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hueller, M.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hultgren, E.

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. X. Sun, “Integrated differential optical shadow sensor for Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.1623 (2013).

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. Ingold, “Caging system for drag-free satellites - final report,” Tech. Rep.63-P, Stanford University (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Ingold, K.

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. Ingold, “Caging system for drag-free satellites - final report,” Tech. Rep.63-P, Stanford University (2013).

Jaroux, B.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jennrich, O.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Johann, U.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keiser, G. M.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Killow, C.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejczak, J.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lange, B.

B. Lange, “The drag-free satellite,” AIAA J. 2, 1590–1606 (1964).
[Crossref]

Leindecker, N.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Leitner, J.

J. Leitner, S. Starin, M. Fleck, B. Naasz, and B. Fall “Investigation of drag-free control technology for Earth science constellation missions,” Final study report (2003).

Li, J.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, K.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lipa, J.

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Lipa, J. A.

S. Tan, S. Wang, S. Saraf, and J. A. Lipa, “Pico-kelvin thermometry and temperature stabilization using a resonant optical cavity,” Opt. Express 25, 3578–3593 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lockerbie, N. A.

N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. Tokmakov, “A ’violin-mode’ shadow sensor for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 125110 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lockhart, J. M.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Lui, C. Y.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mester, J. C.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Middleton, K.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Milano, L.

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, A.-M.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, B. O.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Muhlfelder, B.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naasz, B.

J. Leitner, S. Starin, M. Fleck, B. Naasz, and B. Fall “Investigation of drag-free control technology for Earth science constellation missions,” Final study report (2003).

Nguyen, A. N.

A. N. Nguyen and J. W. Conklin, “Three-Axis Drag-Free Control and Drag Force Recovery of a Single-Thruster Small Satellite,” J. Spacecraft Rockets 25, 1640–1650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nicolodi, D.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parkinson, B. W.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plate, M. t.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reigber, C.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, and C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Robert, B.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rosa, R. D.

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rowan, S.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudiger, A.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saraf, S.

S. Tan, S. Wang, S. Saraf, and J. A. Lipa, “Pico-kelvin thermometry and temperature stabilization using a resonant optical cavity,” Opt. Express 25, 3578–3593 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Schilling, R.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schumaker, B. L.

B. L. Schumaker, “Disturbance reduction requirements for LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 20, S239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, B.

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, S.

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Silbergleit, A. S.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solomonik, V.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soulage, M.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stahl, K.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starin, S.

J. Leitner, S. Starin, M. Fleck, B. Naasz, and B. Fall “Investigation of drag-free control technology for Earth science constellation missions,” Final study report (2003).

Steier, F.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Strain, K. A.

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, K. X.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. X. Sun, “Integrated differential optical shadow sensor for Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.1623 (2013).

K. X. Sun, M. Trittler, J. W. Conklin, and R. L. Byer, “Differential Optical Shadow Sensing (DOSS) for LISA and MGRS Applications,” 7th LISA Symposium (J. Phys. C. This issue.) (2008).

Suwaidan, A.

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Swank, A.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Taber, M.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, S.

S. Tan, S. Wang, S. Saraf, and J. A. Lipa, “Pico-kelvin thermometry and temperature stabilization using a resonant optical cavity,” Opt. Express 25, 3578–3593 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

Tapley, B. D.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, and C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tokmakov, K. V.

N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. Tokmakov, “A ’violin-mode’ shadow sensor for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 125110 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tombolato, D.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, E.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

Trittler, M.

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

K. X. Sun, M. Trittler, J. W. Conklin, and R. L. Byer, “Differential Optical Shadow Sensing (DOSS) for LISA and MGRS Applications,” 7th LISA Symposium (J. Phys. C. This issue.) (2008).

Turneaure, J. P.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitale, S.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wand, V.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Tan, S. Wang, S. Saraf, and J. A. Lipa, “Pico-kelvin thermometry and temperature stabilization using a resonant optical cavity,” Opt. Express 25, 3578–3593 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

Ward, H.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wass, P. J.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watkins, M.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, and C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weber, W. J.

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Worden, P.

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zoellner, A.

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. Ingold, “Caging system for drag-free satellites - final report,” Tech. Rep.63-P, Stanford University (2013).

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. X. Sun, “Integrated differential optical shadow sensor for Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.1623 (2013).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

D. B. DeBra, “Drag-free control for fundamental physics missions,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1221–1226 (2003).
[Crossref]

AIAA J. (1)

B. Lange, “The drag-free satellite,” AIAA J. 2, 1590–1606 (1964).
[Crossref]

AIP Conference Proceedings (1)

D. B. DeBra, “Design considerations for drag free satellites,” AIP Conference Proceedings 456, 199–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

Automatica (1)

E. Canuto, “Drag-free and attitude control for the GOCE satellite,” Automatica 44, 1766–1780 (2008).
[Crossref]

Class. Quantum. Grav. (6)

K. X. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. Byer, “Advanced gravitational reference sensor for high precision space interferometers,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S287–S296 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. Garcia, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. t. Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, “Successful testing of the lisa technology package (ltp) interferometer engineering model,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 22, S149 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Acernese, E. Calloni, R. D. Rosa, L. D. Fiore, and L. Milano, “An optical readout system for the drag-free control of LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav.,  22, S279 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A Bell, and K. A. Strain, “First results from the ’Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 28, 245001 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Saraf, S. Buchman, K. Balakrishnan, C. Y. Lui, M. Soulage, D. Faied, J. Hanson, K. Ling, B. Jaroux, A. Suwaidan, B. S. Badr, B. O. Mohammed, B. Q. Bandar, A. Abdulrahman, A.-M. Mohammed, D. Daniel, and B. Robert, “Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using uv-led electron photoemission,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 33, 245004 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. L. Schumaker, “Disturbance reduction requirements for LISA,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 20, S239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, and C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 9 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. of Phys.: Conference Series (1)

K. X. Sun, S. Buchman, R. Byer, D. DeBra, J. Goebel, G. Allen, J. W. Conklin, D. Gerardi, S. Higuchi, N. Leindecker, P. Lu, A. Swank, E. Torres, and M. Trittler, “Modular gravitational reference sensor development,” J. of Phys.: Conference Series 154, 012026 (2009).

J. Spacecr. Rockets (1)

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[Crossref]

J. Spacecraft Rockets (1)

A. N. Nguyen and J. W. Conklin, “Three-Axis Drag-Free Control and Drag Force Recovery of a Single-Thruster Small Satellite,” J. Spacecraft Rockets 25, 1640–1650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. Tokmakov, “A ’violin-mode’ shadow sensor for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 125110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

LIGO collaboration, “Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. F. Everitt, D. B. DeBra, B. W. Parkinson, J. P. Turneaure, J. W. Conklin, M. I. Heifetz, G. M. Keiser, A. S. Silbergleit, T. Holmes, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Al-Meshari, J. C. Mester, B. Muhlfelder, V. Solomonik, K. Stahl, P. Worden, W. Bencze, S. Buchman, B. Clarke, A. Al-Jadaan, H. Al-Jibreen, J. Li, J. A. Lipa, J. M. Lockhart, B. Al-Suwaidan, M. Taber, and S. Wang, “Gravity probe b: Final results of a space experiment to test general relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 221101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, G. Ciani, R. Dolesi, A. Heptonstall, M. Hueller, D. Nicolodi, S. Rowan, D. Tombolato, S. Vitale, P. J. Wass, and W. J. Weber, “Increased Brownian Force Noise from Molecular Impacts in a Constrained Volume,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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“Transit - US Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS)” https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/t/transit

“Transit” http://www.astronautix.com/t/transit.html

J. Leitner, S. Starin, M. Fleck, B. Naasz, and B. Fall “Investigation of drag-free control technology for Earth science constellation missions,” Final study report (2003).

S. Buchman, J. Lipa, R. Byer, D. DeBra, K. Balakrishnan, G. D. Cutler, A. Al-Fauwaz, E. Hultgren, A. Al-Jadaan, S. Saraf, S. Tan, S. Al-Thubiti, and Z. Al, “Lisa-2020: An intermediate scale space gravitational wave observatory for this decade,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.2368 (2013).

LISA collaboration, “Laser Interferometer Space Antenna,” arXiv:1702.00786 (2017).

A. S. Alfauwaz, F. Alamri, A. Zoellner, A. Alhussain, S. Wang, S. Saraf, S. Buchman, J. Lipa, and D. DeBra, “Thermal control of a gravitational reference sensor,” in “46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference,” p. 3702 (2016).

A. Zoellner, S. Buchman, J. Conklin, D. DeBra, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, and H. Aljibreen, “Differential optical shadow sensor cubesat mission,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

J. Conklin, K. Balakrishnan, S. Buchman, R. Byer, G. Cutler, D. DeBra, E. Hultgren, J. Lipa, S. Saraf, S. Shimizu, A. Zoellner, A. Alfauwaz, A. Aljadaan, H. Aljibreen, M. Almajed, T. Al-Saud, B. Alsuwaidan, S. Althubiti, and H. Altwaijry, “The drag-free cubesat,” AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2012).

“Stanford Internal Report: Residual gas and thermal disturbances for 2.54 cm MGRS,” https://spacegrav.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/presentations/Residual%20gas%20and%20thermal%20disturbances%20to%202.5%20cm%20MGRS.pdf

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. Ingold, “Caging system for drag-free satellites - final report,” Tech. Rep.63-P, Stanford University (2013).

A. Zoellner, E. Hultgren, and K. X. Sun, “Integrated differential optical shadow sensor for Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1302.1623 (2013).

G.S. Allen, “Optical sensor design for advanced drag-free satellites,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2009).

K. X. Sun, M. Trittler, J. W. Conklin, and R. L. Byer, “Differential Optical Shadow Sensing (DOSS) for LISA and MGRS Applications,” 7th LISA Symposium (J. Phys. C. This issue.) (2008).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       2D simulation of test mass capture

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Left: principle of the DOSS for 2D measurements, detectors (indicated by subscript D) are shown in light orange, light sources (indicated by subscript S) are in grey, the letters indicate position left, right, back and front. Right: Normalized signals from a pair of detectors vs normalized TM displacement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a). Rendering of DOSS setup with cut through the housing (grey);kinematic TM support (yellow); 3-axis piezo actuated stage (blue); (b). Photo of the device top view. Input beams are carried by the yellow SM fibers, output beams are collected by orange MM fibers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Top (left figure) and bottom (right figure) section of apparatus at the light source and detector planes, x and y are the transverse direction, and z is the vertical direction. Detectors (in orange) are labeled with subscript D, light source with subscript S (in grey), with L, R, F and B indicating the locations. Note that the beams intersect the sphere at the ±45° latitudes. The equator is marked as a dashed circle
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 DOSS system diagram. Blue: electric signal. Orange: optical signal. DAQ: Data acquisition system
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured room temperature and displacement profile in time domain.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Single axis piezo actuator noise spectrum. Spike at 0.65 Hz is a calibration signal.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 ASD of 1D DOSS displacement noise measured in the Y-direction.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 3D DOSS measurement results. (a). Measurement trajectory. (b). Displacement ASD

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Left: Definition of differential measurement signals L, R, F and B used in our setup. 2nd row shows their relations to physical sensor units shown in Fig. 3. For example, differential signal L is generated by subtracting LD from L D . 3rd row shows the corresponding displacement in Δx, Δy and Δz. Right: Expression of displacements Δx, Δy and Δz calculated from differential output signals L, R, F and B. Note that Δz can also be obtained by (R+L)/2 in this example.

Equations (2)

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S p = 2 e I = 2 r 2 h ν P / η
S L , s = 2 r 2 h ν P η d [ m Hz ]

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