Abstract

We report the dynamics of dissipative solitons in a ring cavity passively mode-locked fiber laser with a strict control of the polarization state. We study the relation between the polarization state of the pulses propagating in the cavity and the regimes of generation. We have found that at pulse ellipticities between 5° and 15°, the laser generates one bunch of pulses in the cavity, while at higher ellipticities the laser generates multiple bunches. At constant ellipticity we rotated the polarization azimuth and observed a regime transition from the generation of noise-like pulses (NLP) to that of soliton crystal. The NLP regime was found when the azimuth was rotated towards smaller low-power transmission through the polarizer. The number of solitons in the soliton crystal also depended on the azimuth in a straightforward way: the higher the initial transmission, the bigger the number of solitons.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

X. Zou, J. Qiu, X. Wang, Z. Ye, J. Shi, and J. Wu, “Versatile mode-locked fiber laser with switchable operation states of bound solitons,” Appl. Opt. 55(16), 4323–4327 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(11), 273 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2289–2294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and M. V. Andrés, “Resonant and thermal changes of refractive index in a heavily doped erbium fiber pumped at wavelength 980nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2466–2468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ph. Grelu and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton states and pulse fragmentation in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(5), S271–S278 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

Akhmediev, N.

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, and N. Akhmediev, “Spiny solitons and noise-like pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(7), 1377–1383 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alvarez-Tamayo, R. I.

Amrani, F.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(11), 273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and M. V. Andrés, “Resonant and thermal changes of refractive index in a heavily doped erbium fiber pumped at wavelength 980nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2466–2468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barad, Y.

Barmenkov, Yu. O.

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and M. V. Andrés, “Resonant and thermal changes of refractive index in a heavily doped erbium fiber pumped at wavelength 980nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2466–2468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belhache, F.

Brabec, T.

Chang, W.

Chouli, S.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cruz, J. L.

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(11), 273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cuadrado-Laborde, C.

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(11), 273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Díez, A.

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(11), 273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drummond, P. D.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Duling, I. N.

Duran-Sanchez, M.

Grajales-Coutiño, R.

Grelu, P.

Grelu, Ph.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ph. Grelu and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton states and pulse fragmentation in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(5), S271–S278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gutty, F.

Haboucha, A.

Han, M.

Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

Hernández-García, J. C.

Horowitz, M.

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

Jeong, Y.

Kim, H.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and M. V. Andrés, “Resonant and thermal changes of refractive index in a heavily doped erbium fiber pumped at wavelength 980nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2466–2468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Komarov, A.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komarov, K.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

Kuzin, E. A.

Kwon, Y.

Lauterio-Cruz, J. P.

Leblond, H.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lecaplain, C.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Li, X.

Liu, A. Q.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matsas, V. J.

Mikhailov, V.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mou, C.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newson, T. P.

Niang, A.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

Pottiez, O.

Qiu, J.

Rabin, B.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Rozhin, A.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salhi, M.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, F.

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santiago-Hernandez, H.

Sergeyev, S. V.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

Silberberg, Y.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, and N. Akhmediev, “Spiny solitons and noise-like pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(7), 1377–1383 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ph. Grelu and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton states and pulse fragmentation in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(5), S271–S278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soto-Crespo, J.-M.

Spielmann, C.

Tam, H. Y.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsatourian, V.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turitsyn, S. K.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vazquez-Zuniga, L. A.

Vouzas, P.

Wang, X.

Westbrook, P. S.

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Yang, H.

Ye, Z.

Yuan, T.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2289–2294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(11), 273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and M. V. Andrés, “Resonant and thermal changes of refractive index in a heavily doped erbium fiber pumped at wavelength 980nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2466–2468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

Ph. Grelu and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton states and pulse fragmentation in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(5), S271–S278 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Sanchez, Ph. Grelu, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, K. Komarov, M. Salhi, A. Niang, F. Amrani, C. Lecaplain, and S. Chouli, “Manipulating dissipative soliton ensembles in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 562–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

V. Tsatourian, S. V. Sergeyev, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, V. Mikhailov, B. Rabin, P. S. Westbrook, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 3154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the passively mode-locked EDFL.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Area where the mode-locking starts. To start mode-locking the azimuth is rotated: (a) from minimum to maximum of the polarizer transmission, and (b) from maximum to minimum of the polarizer transmission. Black circles show the initial state; red circles – final state.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission through the polarizer before (black circles) and after (red circles) mode locking is started (a) and power required to switch the transmission (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Summary of the generation modes obtained in the laser. Red circles – the single noise like pulse in the cavity; black circles – the single soliton crystal in the cavity; blue circles – multiple pulses in the cavity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The nonlinear polarization rotation angles: (a) small ellipticities and (b) higher ellipticities. “m” is the slope of the linear fit.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Estimated pulse power.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Bunches of solitons for ellipticity value of 15°.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measurements for the ellipticity of 15°: (a) normalized spectra, and (b) autocorrelation trace for the azimuth of 70° (the inset shows close up of the central peak).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Waveforms of NLPs for different polarization states. The black lines show single-shot oscilloscope traces; the red lines show average oscilloscope traces. The ellipticities and initial azimuth are shown in the figures.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Autocorrelation traces (a) and spectra (b) of NLPs at different ellipticities. Inset shows close-up on central peak of autocorrelation traces. Initial ellipticities and azimuths are shown in the figures.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Transmission through the polarizer at the point of transition from NLP (red line) to soliton crystal (black line). (b) Transmission corresponding to the generation of NLP at different ellipticities of the pulse. The ellipticity values are shown in the figure.

Equations (1)

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Δ φ = 2 3 P γ z tan ( e ) 1 + tan 2 ( e ) ,

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