Abstract

We demonstrate aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire as a novel platform for integrated optics. High-confinement AlN microring resonators are realized by adopting a partially etched (pedestal) waveguide to relax the required etching selectivity for exact pattern transfer. A wide taper is employed at the chip end facets to ensure a low fiber-to-chip coupling loss of ~2.8 dB/facet for both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes. Furthermore, the intrinsic quality factors (Qint) recorded with a high-resolution linewidth measurement are up to ~2.5 and 1.9 million at telecom band for fundamental TE00 and TM00 modes, corresponding to a low intracavity propagation loss of ~0.14 and 0.2 dB/cm as well as high resonant buildup of 473 and 327, respectively. Such high-Q AlN-on-sapphire microresonators are believed to be very promising for on-chip nonlinear optics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (2)

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 107,141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated waveguide coupled Si3N4 resonators in the ultrahigh-Q regime,”Optica 1(3),153–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, R. Stoll, X. Guo, D. Fischer, and H. X. Tang, “Green, red, and IR frequency comb line generation from single IR pump in AlN microring resonator,”Optica 1(6),396–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

L.-W. Luo, G. S. Wiederhecker, J. Cardenas, C. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “High quality factor etchless silicon photonic ring resonators,”Opt. Express 19(7),6284–6289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Ren, S. W. Chen, Y. P. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, “Study on inverse taper based mode transformer for low loss coupling between silicon wire waveguide and lensed fiber,”Opt. Commun. 284,4782–4788 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. John, D. X. Dai, M.-C. Tien, J. S. Barton, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 waveguides,”Opt. Express 19(4),3163–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. T.-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,”Nat. Photonics 4,37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,”Opt. Express 15(25),16604–16644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6),2658–2661 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,”J. Appl. Phys. 79(5),2439–2445 (1996).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Agrawal, G. P.

Alden, D.

Atabaki, A. H.

Barkad, H. A.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barton, J. S.

Barwicz, T.

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6),2658–2661 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

BenMoussa, A.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bourzgui, N.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brasch, V.

Bruch, A. W.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 107,141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

Bulu, I. B.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

Charrier, J.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. W.

G. H. Ren, S. W. Chen, Y. P. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, “Study on inverse taper based mode transformer for low loss coupling between silicon wire waveguide and lensed fiber,”Opt. Commun. 284,4782–4788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. P.

G. H. Ren, S. W. Chen, Y. P. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, “Study on inverse taper based mode transformer for low loss coupling between silicon wire waveguide and lensed fiber,”Opt. Commun. 284,4782–4788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

Cong, P. P.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, D. X.

De Jaeger, J.-C.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P. B.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dovidenko, K.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,”J. Appl. Phys. 79(5),2439–2445 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Einfeldt, S.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, R.

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

Fischer, D.

Fong, K. Y.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. T.-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,”Nat. Photonics 4,37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. T.-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,”Nat. Photonics 4,37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geiselmann, M.

Gerbedoen, J.-C.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerhold, M. D.

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. T.-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,”Nat. Photonics 4,37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

Guo, X.

Han, J.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 107,141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. J.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Hao, Z. B.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

Hausmann, B. J. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Hoffmann, V.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, C. W.

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6),2658–2661 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hu, J. N.

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

John, D.

Jost, J. D.

Jung, H.

Kippenberg, T. J.

Kirste, R.

Knauer, A.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kordts, A.

Krüger, O.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leinse, A.

Leung, B.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 107,141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. T.-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,”Nat. Photonics 4,37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H. T.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Li, J. M.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, N. X.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. W.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Liu, Z.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Look, J.-R. V.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luke, K.

Luo, L.-W.

Luo, Y.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

Markham, M. L.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattalah, M.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCutcheon, M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mita, S.

Mortet, V.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Narayan, J.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,”J. Appl. Phys. 79(5),2439–2445 (1996).
[Crossref]

Niu, L.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oktyabrsky, S.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,”J. Appl. Phys. 79(5),2439–2445 (1996).
[Crossref]

Painter, O. J.

Pernice, W. H. P.

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

Poitras, C.

Poitras, C. B.

Poot, M.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 107,141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,”J. Appl. Phys. 79(5),2439–2445 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ren, G. H.

G. H. Ren, S. W. Chen, Y. P. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, “Study on inverse taper based mode transformer for low loss coupling between silicon wire waveguide and lensed fiber,”Opt. Commun. 284,4782–4788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rigler, M.

Rousseau, M.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

Smith, H. I.

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6),2658–2661 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soltani, A.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soltani, M.

Spencer, D. T.

Stoll, R.

Stolz, A.

A. Soltani, A. Stolz, J. Charrier, M. Mattalah, J.-C. Gerbedoen, H. A. Barkad, V. Mortet, M. Rousseau, N. Bourzgui, A. BenMoussa, and J.-C. De Jaeger, “Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range,”J. Appl. Phys. 115,163515 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. Z.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Sun, L. L.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. T.-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,”Nat. Photonics 4,37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

Tang, Y. B.

Tien, M.-C.

Troha, T.

Twitchen, D. J.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, V.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond,”Nano Lett. 13,1898–1902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, P.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Wang, J. X.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Wang, L.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

Wei, T. B.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Weyers, M.

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Xiong, B.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Niu, Z. B. Hao, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “Smooth etching of epitaxially grown AlN film by Cl2/BCl3/Ar-based inductively coupled plasma,”Vacuum 116,158–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

Xiong, C.

Yan, J. C.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Zervas, M.

Zgonik, M.

Zhai, Y.

G. H. Ren, S. W. Chen, Y. P. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, “Study on inverse taper based mode transformer for low loss coupling between silicon wire waveguide and lensed fiber,”Opt. Commun. 284,4782–4788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. F.

Zhang, Y.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,”Opt. Lett. 41(15),3599–3602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband frequency comb generation in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of ECOC (2016), pp.746–748.

X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Low-threshold chip-scale aluminum nitride Raman laser,” in Proceedings of ISLC (2016), paperThD1.

Zhao, C.

J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, N. X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Zhao, and J. M. Li, “Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition,”Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2),461–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 107,141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Fan, Z. B. Hao, C. Zhang, J. N. Hu, and Y. Luo, “High quality A1N with a thin interlayer grown on a sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,”Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(6),068101 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J.-R. V. Look, S. Einfeldt, O. Krüger, V. Hoffmann, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, P. Vogt, and M. Kneissl, “Laser scribing for facet fabrication of InGaN MQW diode lasers on sapphire substrates,”IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6),416–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,”J. Appl. Phys. 79(5),2439–2445 (1996).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Log-scale QC values of fundamental and higher-order modes in pedestal microring (0.7 μm gap size) versus bus waveguide width. (b) QC of TM00 and TE00 modes versus gap size for unetched AlN thickness (Hped) of 0 and 0.4 μm, respectively. Here, the bus waveguide width is optimized to 1.47 μm. Insets: simulated TE mode profiles in the microring and bus waveguide by FEM, considering 80° sidewall angle induced by dry etching [15]. (c) On-resonance ER of the microring versus QC/Qint based on the insert formula [17]. (d) Fiber-to-chip coupling loss per facet versus taper width for TM00 and TE00 modes, respectively. Inserts: TE mode fields at taper width of 0.5 and 4 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM micrograph of etched sidewall in the AlN microring (outer radius: 100 μm; cross section: 3.5 × 1.2 μm2). (b) SEM image of the cleaved waveguide facet with 418 nm unetched AlN layer at the bottom and 80° sidewall slope angle. The waveguide has a width of 4 μm, and is fabricated perpendicular to a-plane of sapphire, which is naturally aligned to m-plane of AlN.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematically illustrating the experimental setup for transmission spectrum and resonance linewidth measurements.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b) Transmission spectra of TE and TM modes within the microring at the gap sizes of 0.7 and 0.6 μm, along with the recorded FSR of 229.4 and 222 GHz for TE00 and TM00 modes, respectively. (c) and (d) Resonance linewidth measurements and extracted Q factors for TE00 and TM00 modes, respectively. Inserts: simulated TE00 and TM00 modal profiles, revealing a high optical confinement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) SEM images of the cross section at waveguide coupling regime with the gap size of ~0.56 and 1.1 μm, respectively.

Equations (2)

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Q C = 2 π n eff L λ κ .
P cir P in | f = f 0 = FSR π f FWHM 2 Q L Q C

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